Theatre or theater is a collaborative form of fine art that uses live performers actors or actresses, to present the experience of a real or imagined event before a live audience in a specific place a stage. The performers may communicate this experience to the audience through combinations of gesture, song and dance. Elements of art, such as painted scenery and stagecraft such as lighting are used to enhance the physicality and immediacy of the experience; the specific place of the performance is named by the word "theatre" as derived from the Ancient Greek θέατρον, itself from θεάομαι. Modern Western theatre comes, in large measure, from the theatre of ancient Greece, from which it borrows technical terminology, classification into genres, many of its themes, stock characters, plot elements. Theatre artist Patrice Pavis defines theatricality, theatrical language, stage writing and the specificity of theatre as synonymous expressions that differentiate theatre from the other performing arts and the arts in general.
Modern theatre includes performances of musical theatre. The art forms of ballet and opera are theatre and use many conventions such as acting and staging, they were influential to the development of musical theatre. The city-state of Athens is, it was part of a broader culture of theatricality and performance in classical Greece that included festivals, religious rituals, law and gymnastics, poetry, weddings and symposia. Participation in the city-state's many festivals—and mandatory attendance at the City Dionysia as an audience member in particular—was an important part of citizenship. Civic participation involved the evaluation of the rhetoric of orators evidenced in performances in the law-court or political assembly, both of which were understood as analogous to the theatre and came to absorb its dramatic vocabulary; the Greeks developed the concepts of dramatic criticism and theatre architecture. Actors were either amateur or at best semi-professional; the theatre of ancient Greece consisted of three types of drama: tragedy and the satyr play.
The origins of theatre in ancient Greece, according to Aristotle, the first theoretician of theatre, are to be found in the festivals that honoured Dionysus. The performances were given in semi-circular auditoria cut into hillsides, capable of seating 10,000–20,000 people; the stage consisted of a dancing floor, dressing scene-building area. Since the words were the most important part, good acoustics and clear delivery were paramount; the actors wore masks appropriate to the characters they represented, each might play several parts. Athenian tragedy—the oldest surviving form of tragedy—is a type of dance-drama that formed an important part of the theatrical culture of the city-state. Having emerged sometime during the 6th century BCE, it flowered during the 5th century BCE, continued to be popular until the beginning of the Hellenistic period. No tragedies from the 6th century BCE and only 32 of the more than a thousand that were performed in during the 5th century BCE have survived. We have complete texts extant by Aeschylus and Euripides.
The origins of tragedy remain obscure, though by the 5th century BCE it was institutionalised in competitions held as part of festivities celebrating Dionysus. As contestants in the City Dionysia's competition playwrights were required to present a tetralogy of plays, which consisted of three tragedies and one satyr play; the performance of tragedies at the City Dionysia may have begun as early as 534 BCE. Most Athenian tragedies dramatise events from Greek mythology, though The Persians—which stages the Persian response to news of their military defeat at the Battle of Salamis in 480 BCE—is the notable exception in the surviving drama; when Aeschylus won first prize for it at the City Dionysia in 472 BCE, he had been writing tragedies for more than 25 years, yet its tragic treatment of recent history is the earliest example of drama to survive. More than 130 years the philosopher Aristotle analysed 5th-century Athenian tragedy in the oldest surviving work of dramatic theory—his Poetics. Athenian comedy is conventionally divided into three periods, "Old Comedy", "Middle Comedy", "New Comedy".
Old Comedy survives today in the form of the eleven surviving plays of Aristophanes, while Middle Comedy is lost. New Comedy is known from the substantial papyrus fragments of Menander. Aristotle defined comedy as a representation of laughable people that involves some kind of blunder or ugliness that does not cause pain or disaster. In addition to the categories of comedy and tragedy at the City Dionysia, the festival included the Satyr Play. Finding its origins in rural, agricultural rituals dedicated to Dionysus, the satyr play found its way to Athens in its most well-known form. Satyr's themselves were tied to the god Dionysus as his loyal woodland companions engaging in drunken revelry and mischief at his side; the satyr play itself was classified as tragicomedy, erring
Nobody Will Speak of Us When We're Dead
Nadie hablará de nosotras cuando hayamos muerto is an awarded 1995 Spanish noir drama film written and directed by Agustín Díaz Yanes. Gloria Duque – Victoria Abril Doña Julia – Pilar Bardem Eduardo – Federico Luppi Doña Amelia – Ana Ofelia Murguía Oswaldo – Daniel Giménez Cacho Juan – Ángel Alcázar Ramiro – Saturnino García María Luisa – Marta Aura Evaristo – Guillermo Gil 8 Goya Awards: including Best Film, Best Actress, Best Supporting Actress, Best New Director and Best Editing. San Sebastian Film Festival: Best Actress and Special Prize of the Jury 2 Fotogramas de Plata 3 Premio Ondas Nadie hablará de nosotras cuando hayamos muerto on IMDb Nobody Will Speak of Us When We're Dead at Rotten Tomatoes
Guillermo del Toro
Guillermo del Toro Gómez is a Mexican filmmaker, author and former special effects makeup artist. He is best known for the Academy Award-winning fantasy films Pan's Labyrinth and The Shape of Water, winning the Academy Award for Best Director and the Academy Award for Best Picture for the latter. Throughout his career, del Toro has shifted between personal, lower-budget Spanish language films, such as Cronos and The Devil's Backbone, Hollywood tentpoles, including Mimic, Blade II, Hellboy II: The Golden Army, Pacific Rim, he directed the gothic romance film Crimson Peak. As a producer, he worked on the films The Orphanage, Don't Be Afraid of the Dark, The Hobbit film series, The Book of Life, Pacific Rim: Uprising. With Chuck Hogan, he co-authored The Strain trilogy of novels adapted into a comic-book series and a live-action television series. With DreamWorks Animation, he created the Netflix animated series Trollhunters, the first installment of the Tales of Arcadia trilogy, based on the 2015 novel he co-wrote with Daniel Kraus.
Working with DreamWorks he executive produced Kung Fu Panda 2, Puss in Boots, Rise of the Guardians, Kung Fu Panda 3. Del Toro's work has been characterized by a strong connection to fairy tales and horror, with an effort to infuse visual or poetic beauty in the grotesque, he has had a lifelong fascination with monsters. He is known for his use of insectile and religious imagery, the themes of Catholicism and celebrating imperfection and clockwork motifs, practical special effects, dominant amber lighting and his frequent collaborations with actors Ron Perlman and Doug Jones, he is good friends with fellow Mexican filmmakers Alfonso Cuarón and Alejandro G. Iñárritu, collectively known as "The Three Amigos of Cinema". Del Toro was born in Guadalajara, Mexico, the son of Guadalupe Gómez and Federico del Toro Torres, an automotive entrepreneur, he was raised in a strict Catholic household. Del Toro studied at the Centro de Investigación y Estudios Cinematográficos, at the University of Guadalajara.
When del Toro was about eight years old, he began experimenting with his father's Super 8 camera, making short films with Planet of the Apes toys and other objects. One short focused on a "serial killer potato" with ambitions of world domination. Del Toro made about 10 short films before his first feature, including one titled Matilde, but only the last two, Doña Lupe and Geometria, have been made available, he wrote four episodes and directed five episodes of the cult series La Hora Marcada, along with other Mexican filmmakers such as Emmanuel Lubezki and Alfonso Cuarón. Del Toro studied special make-up with special-effects artist Dick Smith, he formed his own company, Necropia. He co-founded the Guadalajara International Film Festival. In his directing career, he formed his own production company, the Tequila Gang. In 1997, at the age of 33, Guillermo was given a $30 million budget from Miramax Films to shoot another film, Mimic, he was unhappy with the way Miramax had treated him during production, which led to his friend James Cameron coming to blows with Miramax co-founder and owner Harvey Weinstein during the 70th Academy Awards.
Del Toro has directed a wide variety of films, from comic book adaptations to historical fantasy and horror films, two of which are set in Spain in the context of the Spanish Civil War under the authoritarian rule of Francisco Franco. These two films, The Devil's Backbone and Pan's Labyrinth, are among his most critically acclaimed works, they share similar settings and themes with the 1973 Spanish film The Spirit of the Beehive considered to be the finest Spanish film of the 1970s. Del Toro views the horror genre as inherently political, explaining, "Much like fairy tales, there are two facets of horror. One is pro-institution, the most reprehensible type of fairy tale: Don't wander into the woods, always obey your parents; the other type of fairy tale is anarchic and antiestablishment."He is close friends with two other prominent and critically praised Mexican filmmakers Alfonso Cuarón and Alejandro González Iñárritu. The three influence each other's directorial decisions, have been interviewed together by Charlie Rose.
Cuarón was one of the producers of Pan's Labyrinth. The three filmmakers, referred to as the "Three Amigos" founded the production company Cha Cha Cha Films, whose first release was 2008's Rudo y Cursi. Del Toro has contributed to the web series Trailers from Hell. In April 2008, del Toro was hired by Peter Jackson to direct the live-action film adaptation of J. R. R. Tolkien's The Hobbit. On May 30, 2010, del Toro left the project due to extended delays brought on by MGM's financial troubles. Although he did not direct the films, he is credited as co-writer in An Unexpected Journey, The Desolation of Smaug and The Battle of the Five Armies. On December 1, 2008, del Toro expressed interest in a stop-motion remake to Roald Dahl's novel The Witches, collaborating with Alfonso Cuarón. On June 19, 2018 it was announced that Del Toro and Cuarón would instead be attached as Executive Producers on the remake with Robert Zemeckis helming the project as Director and Screenwriter. On June 2, 2009, del Toro's first novel, The Strain, was released.
It is the first par
Men with Guns
Men with Guns is a 1997 American drama film written and directed by John Sayles and starring Federico Luppi, Damián Delgado, Damián Alcázar and Mandy Patinkin. The executive producers were Jody Patton. Set in an unnamed Latin American country, it is the story of one man's discovery of what happened in the political history of his nation as well as his students, it was filmed in Mexico and most of the crew were Mexican. Dr. Fuentes is a medical professor/doctor near his retirement and his wife has died, he taught a group of seven -he views this as one of his greatest accomplishments- that trains young people to provide health care to impoverished citizens in the outlying hill country, where small agricultural communities struggle to survive. Fuentes has heard rumors that his former students are lost and dead, so he musters up the courage and travels into the outlands to investigate, it is not until he begins his journey that he discovers a world much different than the one he had imagined existing for his students as he finds himself encountering guerrillas and soldiers.
As Fuentes digs into the jungle in search of his students, he discovers that "men with guns have reached them first, his students being menaced by many men with guns. This indicates military forces who use execution to intimidate people, he discovers that the guerillas from opposition political groups are only marginally less aggressive. On his journey he accumulates a few travelling companions: Padre Portillo, a fallen priest who has lost his faith. Fuentes finds that his journey is revealing but perilous the deeper he ventures, he ends up travelling into the hill country, looking for his last student, rumored to be living in an Edenic village high in the mountains, safe from the violence which has engulfed the countryside. As the doctor and his companions get closer to this half-mythical place, the journey becomes a quest for both safety and an assurance for Fuentes that his life has had some meaning. Federico Luppi as Dr. Fuentes Damián Delgado as Domingo, the soldier Dan Rivera Gonzalez as Conejo, the boy Tania Cruz as Graciela, the mute girl Damián Alcázar as Padre Portillo, the priest Mandy Patinkin as Andrew Kathryn Grody as Harriet Roverto Sosa as Bravo Carmen Madrid as Angela, Dr. Fuentes's daughter Esteban Soberanes as Raúl, Angela's fiancé Alejandro Springall as Carlos, Dr. Fuentes's son Principal photography was done in thirty-seven shooting days in January and February 1997 and filmed in over forty locations.
John Sayles' films tend to be politically aware and social concerns are a theme running through most of his work. This film's idea came from his friends, he had an uncle, a doctor in Guatemala and was involved in an international health program. A few years he came to find out that most of his students, whom he had sent off to serve as rural doctors, had been murdered by the government that supported the program. Sayles does not name the country in the film, the music he uses is quite eclectic and not tied to any specific Latin American country; this is because Sayles did not want people to think that it can "only happen in El Salvador, that can only happen in Guatemala or Mexico". He felt the film has universal overtones and the events portrayed in the story could have happened anywhere on the planet; the movie was filmed in Mexico, in 40 locations, including: Mexico City. Roger Ebert, film critic writing for the Chicago Sun-Times, liked the film, wrote, "Men With Guns is immensely moving and sad, yet because it dares so much, it is an exhilarating film.
It frees itself from specific stories about this villain or that strategy, to stand back and look at the big picture: at societies in collapse because power has been concentrated in the hands of small men made big with guns."Critic Jack Mathews liked Sayles' straightforward unadorned style, he wrote, "Men With Guns is a slow-paced trip, with a lot of translated conversation, Sayles keeps it pure. The actors are said to be speaking in four dialects, there's nothing about the film, other than the ill-conceived couple used as comic relief, to give away its American origin. Sayles has never been a visual stylist, his latest film is as straightforward and plot-bound as any of the earlier ones." Andrew Johnston wrote in Time Out New York, "The title of John Sayles's latest film suggests a Tarentinoesque lark, but don't be fooled: There are no wise-cracking hit men to be found here. Men with Guns is a somber rumination on the nature of violence and the sometimes disastrous effects of good intentions.
While not as epic as his last film, the masterful Lone Star, it's still another bold triumph for one of America's most independent-minded filmmakers."The review aggregator Rotten Tomatoes reported that 89% of critics gave the film a positive review, based on twenty-seven reviews. Wins Donostia-San Sebastián International Film Festival: FIPRESCI Prize, for expressing with sensitivity and efficiency one of the essential problems of our time. Nominated Donostia-San Sebastián International Film Festival: Golden Seashell, John Sayles, 1997. British Independent Film Awards: Best Foreign Ind
Luna Caliente is a 2009 Spanish film written and directed by Vicente Aranda, starring Eduard Fernández and Thaïs Blume. The film is an adaptation of the novel of the same title by Argentine author Mempo Giardinelli. While the book was set during the last dictatorship in Argentina, Aranda set the story in Spain during the Burgos Trial of 1970, which caused some of the last death sentences in Spain during Francos' regime; the plot centers on a rape that changes the lives of his victim. The film premiered in October 2009 at the Valladolid International Film Festival and had wide release in 2010. In the autumn of 1970, Juan, a Spanish poet living in Paris working for UNESCO, returns on vacation to his hometown, Burgos; the city is under heavy police and military surveillance due to the so-called Burgos process, a summary military trial against a group of ETA members and other militants against Francisco Franco’s regime. During his first night in Burgos, Juan has dinner with Dr. Miniente, an old colleague and family friend who lives in the outskirts of the city with his wife Antonia and their only daughter Ramona.
Dr. Miniente is a sympathizer of the antifascist militants, Juan is more interested in Ramona, eighteen and shamelessly flirts with him. Once the dinner is over Juan is ready to leave but he is unable to start his rental car. Dr. Miniante invites him to spend the night at his house. Encouraged by Ramona’s signals, Juan accepts; however once at bed he heads for her bedroom. She is not surprised to see him and he takes her initial favorable response as an invitation to go further, he rapes her. Since Ramona's mother is sound sleep and her father is by drunk nobody hear her cries for help. Juan, who believes he has killed the girl, is frightened out of the house and tries to leave when he is surprised by his host, who knows nothing about what happened, drunk as he is wants to go with him to a nearby brothel. Juan is unable to resist Dr. Miniente's insistence once he is inside the car and reluctantly agrees to give him a ride to a brothel. At one point they are allowed to go their way. Dr. Miniente insists that he wants to party though the sun is risen.
A heavy argument between the two men ends with the desperate Juan brutally hitting his drunk friend. Juan leads the car to the side of a bridge, places his friend at the steering wheel and makes the car fall into the river. By early morning, Juan returns to his mother’s house hitchhiking, his sister Cristina, a secret member of the illicit Communist party, is following the news of the military trial against the members of ETA. Ramona looks for Juan, he apologizes. She says she feels she is in love with him. Meanwhile, Ramona's mother has been frantically looking for her husband. At the same time, a police inspector, who does not believe that the doctor's death was an accident begins to investigate. Juan is interrogated as the prime suspect and is forced to confess, but he is saved by Ramona who provides him with an alibi. At the same time, Juan's sister, involved in the struggle against Franco, has managed to obtain secret images of the Burgos process, seeks to hide and get out of Spain. Eduard Fernández as Juan Thaïs Blume as Ramona Emilio Gutiérrez Caba as Dr. Miniente José Coronado as Inspector Héctor Colomé as Militar Mary Carmen Ramírez as Juan's mother Carla Sánchez as Cristina Empar Ferrer as Antonia Luna caliente is available in Region 2 DVD.
It was released in Spain on September 15, 2010. There is no Region 1 DVD available. Majarín, Sara. Una vida de cine: Pasión, Utopía, Historia: Lecciones de Vicente Aranda. Editorial Zumaque S. L. 2013. ISBN 9788494011016 Luna Caliente on IMDb
The 33 (film)
The 33 is a 2015 English-language American-Chilean biographical disaster-survival drama film directed by Patricia Riggen and written by Mikko Alanne, Craig Borten and José Rivera. The film is based on the real events of the 2010 mining disaster, in which a group of thirty-three miners were trapped inside the San José Mine in Chile for more than two months; the film stars Antonio Banderas as trapped miner Mario Sepúlveda. Dozens of people from Copiapó, work in the San José mine; the owner ignores the warnings of the failing stability of the mine, which collapses a short time later. The only path inside the mine is blocked, the thirty-three miners manage to get to the rescue chamber, they discover that the radio is useless, the medical kit is empty, the ventilation shafts lack the required ladders, there is little stored food. Mario Sepúlveda becomes the leader of the miners, dividing the foods rations and stopping the outbursts of violence and despair; the mine company does not attempt any rescue, the relatives of the miners gather around the gates.
The government of Chile decides on active intervention, orders the use of drills to reach the chamber. The first exploratory boreholes move off-target, but a one reaches the required destination; the miners attach a note to the drill bit to announce their survival. They receive new food and clothing, television communication with the surface. A second, drill system is prepared to retrieve the miners one by one. There is drama and tension during the weeks before the successful rescue of all 33 miners, over two months after they became trapped; the story is derived from subsequent rescues in Copiapó, Chile. The film is based on the events of the 2010 Copiapó mining accident known as the "Chilean mining accident", it is written by Mikko Alanne and José Rivera. Producer Mike Medavoy, who produced Apocalypse Now, worked with the miners, their families, those involved to put the film together. On 13 August 2014, it was announced that The 33 would be the first film to receive the Colombian Film Commission's incentive, which includes 40% for film services and 20% for film logistics services of the amount spent in the country.
Antonio Banderas, who portrays "Super" Mario Sepúlveda, is the public face for the miners who sent videos to the rescuers to update them on the miners' condition. The actual Sepúlveda expressed his approval towards having Banderas in the role. Brazilian actor Rodrigo Santoro plays Laurence Minister of Mining. On 17 June 2013, it was announced that Jennifer Lopez had joined to lead the cast of the film, but left due to scheduling conflicts with American Idol, she was replaced by Juliette Binoche. On 10 January 2014, Cote de Pablo joined the cast of the film. On 27 January 2014, Gabriel Byrne joined the cast of the film, to play the role of Andre Sougarret, the engineering genius who masterminded the miraculous rescue of the 33 trapped miners. Next day on 28 January, Bob Gunton joined the cast of the Chilean miner filming shooting in Colombia. Principal photography began in December 2013 in Colombia. Before shooting began, Riggen interviewed each of their families. After the shooting wrapped up in Nemocón, Colombia in January, crews started filming again in Copiapó, Chile on 5 February 2014, the actual place of the incident.
On 18 February 2014, news told that more than half of the filming was done in the salt mine of Nemocón, rescue scenes were being filmed in Tierra Amarilla, Chile. Filming wrapped up on 20 February 2014. In October 2014, James Horner was hired to compose the music for the film, it was the second of two scores he had completed before his death on June 22 of that year. The 33 was released across Latin America through 20th Century Fox starting from 6 August 2015 in Chile, it debuted in Colombia on 20 August 2015, along with the rest of Central America. Brazil was the last, where the film was released on 29 October 2015, its United States and Canada theatrical releases were handled by Warner Bros. on 13 November 2015. The premiere in Santiago was attended by most of the leading cast, in addition to several of the miners, former President Sebastián Piñera and former minister Laurence Golborne. On 28 April 2015, Alcon Entertainment acquired North American and the majority of international distribution rights to The 33, with Warner Bros. to distribute it.
On the same day, Warner Bros, where Alcon has its output deal, set the film's release date for 13 November 2015. The 33 grossed $12.2 million in North America and $12.7 million in other territories for a worldwide total of $24.9 million, against its production budget of $26 million. In North America, The 33 opened alongside Love the Coopers and My All American on 13 November 2015 with a poor performance. In its opening weekend, the film was projected to gross $7–8 million from 2,452 theaters; the film grossed $1.8 million on its opening day and $5.8 million in its opening weekend, finishing below studio projections. In Chile, the film grossed $1.6 million on its opening weekend, 6 August 2015, showing on 140 screens. This is the second biggest opening for a Chilean film, despite coinciding with a severe storm that caused flooding in Santiago and other parts of the country and marked the sixth-highest opening for Fox International Productions, it topped the box office there for five consecutive weekends and became the second highest-grossing Chilean film.
The film grossed a total of $4.9 million in Chile. In Mexico it opened at No. 3 with $1.3 million, but ended up grossing only a total of $3
The Year of The Rabbit
The Year of The Rabbit is a 1987 Argentine comedy drama film directed by Fernando Ayala and written by Oscar Viale. The film starred Gerardo Romano. Luisina Brando Federico Luppi Gerardo Romano Ulises Dumont Juan Carlos Dual Ludovica Squirru Katja Alemán Andrea Barbieri Raúl Rizzo Emilio Vidal Luis Alday Martín Andrade Olga Bruno Ana María Colombo Adrián Cuneo Manuel Cuneo Cristina Czetto Sandra Domínguez Héctor Ezcurra Daniel Galarza Maruja Pibernat Nilda Raggi Felisa Rocha Enrique Sabattini Carlos Santamaría Carlos Silva Alejandra Sirlin Jorge Varas Hebe Castro Zinny The film premiered on 13 August 1987; the Year of The Rabbit on IMDb