A hamlet is a small human settlement. In different jurisdictions and geographies, hamlets may be the size of a town, village or parish, be considered a smaller settlement or subdivision or satellite entity to a larger settlement; the word and concept of a hamlet have roots in the Anglo-Norman settlement of England, where the old French hamlet came to apply to small human settlements. In British geography, a hamlet is considered smaller than a village and distinctly without a church; the word comes from Anglo-Norman hamelet, corresponding to Old French hamelet, the diminutive of Old French hamel. This, in turn, is a diminutive of Old French ham borrowed from Franconian languages. Compare with modern French hameau, Dutch heem, German Heim, Old English hām and Modern English home. In Afghanistan the counterpart of the hamlet is the qala meaning "fort" or "hamlet"; the Afghan qala is a fortified group of houses with its own community building such as a mosque, but without its own marketplace. The qala is the smallest type of settlement in Afghan society, trumped by the village, larger and includes a commercial area.
In Australia a hamlet is a small village. A hamlet differs from a village in having no commercial premises, but has residences and may have community buildings such as churches and public halls. In Canada's three territories, hamlets are designated municipalities; as of January 1, 2010: Northwest Territories had 11 hamlets, each of which had a population of less than 900 people as of the 2016 census. In Canada's provinces, hamlets are small unincorporated communities within a larger municipality, such as many communities within the single-tier municipalities of Ontario or within Alberta's specialized and rural municipalities. Canada's two largest hamlets—Fort McMurray and Sherwood Park—are located in Alberta, they each have populations, within their main urban area, in excess of 60,000—well in excess of the 10,000-person threshold that can choose to incorporate as a city in Alberta. As such, these two hamlets have been further designated by the Province of Alberta as urban service areas. An urban service area is recognized as equivalent to a city for the purposes of provincial and federal program delivery and grant eligibility.
During the 18th century, for rich or noble people, it was up-to-date to create their own hameau in their gardens. They were a group of some houses or farms with rustic appearance, but in fact were comfortable; the best known is the Hameau de la Reine built by the queen Marie-Antoinette in the park of the Château de Versailles. Or the Hameau de Chantilly built by Prince of Condé in Chantilly, Oise. Lieu-dit is another name for hamlet; the difference is that a hamlet is permanently inhabited. The German word for hamlet is Weiler. A Weiler has, compared to no infrastructure; the houses and farms of a Weiler can be scattered. In North West Germany, a group of scattered farms is called Bauernschaft. In a Weiler there are no street names, the houses are just numbered. In different states of India, there are different words for hamlet. In Haryana and Rajasthan it is called "dhani" or "Thok". In Gujarat a hamlet is called a "nesada". In Maharashtra it's called a "pada". In southern Bihar in the Magadh division, a hamlet is called a "bigha".
All over Indonesia, hamlets are translated as kampung. They are known as dusun in Central Java and East Java, banjar in Bali, jorong or kampuang in West Sumatra. In Pakistan a hamlet is called a gron. In Poland a hamlet is called osada, is a small rural settlement differing by type of buildings or inhabited by population connected with some place or workplace, it can be a part of other settlement, like village. In Romania hamlets are called cătunuri, they represent villages that contain several houses at most, they are considered villages, statistically, they are placed in the same category. Like villages, they do not have a separate administration, thus are not an administrative division, but are part of a parent commune. In the Russian language there are several words which mean "a hamlet", but all of them are equal; the most common word is деревня. A hamlet in Russia has a church, some little shops, a school and a local culture center, in which different culture events and national holidays take place.
A hamlet in Russia consists of several tens of wooden houses. In the past hamlets were the most common kind of settlement in Russia, but nowadays many hamlets in Russia are settled only during the summer as places for vacation because people go to towns and cities in order to find better
Russikon is a municipality in the district of Pfäffikon in the canton of Zürich in Switzerland. Russikon is first mentioned in 775 as Ruadgisinchova. In 1247 it was mentioned as Rusinchon. Russikon has an area of 14.3 km2. Of this area, 51.4% is used for agricultural purposes, while 36.9% is forested. Of the rest of the land, 11.1% is settled and the remainder is non-productive. In 1996 housing and buildings made up 7.8% of the total area, while transportation infrastructure made up the rest. Of the total unproductive area, water made up 0.1% of the area. As of 2007 9.2% of the total municipal area was undergoing some type of construction. Russikon has a population of 4,367; as of 2007, 10.0% of the population was made up of foreign nationals. As of 2008 the gender distribution of the population was 49.5% male and 50.5% female. Over the last 10 years the population has grown at a rate of 4.2%. Most of the population speaks German, with Albanian being second most common and Italian being third. In the 2007 election the most popular party was the SVP which received 45.1% of the vote.
The next three most popular parties were the FDP, the SPS and the CSP. The age distribution of the population is children and teenagers make up 27.1% of the population, while adults make up 61.3% and seniors make up 11.6%. In Russikon about 83.7% of the population have completed either non-mandatory upper secondary education or additional higher education. There are 1483 households in Russikon. Russikon has an unemployment rate of 1.56%. As of 2005, there were 96 people employed in the primary economic sector and about 34 businesses involved in this sector. 307 people are employed in the secondary sector and there are 44 businesses in this sector. 537 people are employed in the tertiary sector, with 118 businesses in this sector. As of 2007 48.2% of the working population were employed full-time, 51.8% were employed part-time. As of 2008 there were 2108 Protestants in Russikon. In the 2000 census, religion was broken down into several smaller categories. From the census, 60.2% were some type of Protestant, with 55.1% belonging to the Swiss Reformed Church and 5.1% belonging to other Protestant churches.
21% of the population were Catholic. Of the rest of the population, 0% were Muslim, 4.5% belonged to another religion, 2.6% did not give a religion, 11.4% were atheist or agnostic. The historical population is given in the following table: Official website
The S3 is a regional railway service of the Zürich S-Bahn on the Zürcher Verkehrsverbund, Zürich transportation network, is one of the network's services connecting the cantons of Zürich and Aargau. S 3 Dietikon – Zürich HB – Effretikon – WetzikonThe core of the service links Wetzikon, in the east of the canton of Zürich, Dietikon, to the west of Zürich; this core service runs via the Hinwil–Effretikon line, joining the Winterthur–Zürich line at Effretikon. It runs via the Zürichberg Tunnel and stopping at Zürich Stadelhofen and Zurich Hauptbahnhof, before joining the Zürich–Baden railway as far as Dietikon. At the western end of the service, alternate trains are extended further along the Zürich to Olten line, from Dietikon to Aarau, in the canton of Aargau; the following stations are served: Wetzikon Kempten Pfäffikon ZH Fehraltorf Illnau Effretikon Dietlikon Stettbach Zürich Stadelhofen Zürich Hauptbahnhof Zürich Hardbrücke Zürich Altstetten Schlieren Glanzenberg Dietikon Killwangen-Spreitenbach Mellingen Heitersberg Mägenwil Othmarsingen Lenzburg Aarau All services are operated by Re 450 class locomotives pushing or pulling double-deck passenger carriages.
Over the core route south of Dietikon, the normal frequency is one train every 30 minutes, whilst north of Dietikon, this reduces to one train per hour. A journey over the full length of the service takes 84 minutes, of which some 30 minutes is west of Dietikon. Rail transport in Switzerland Trams in Zürich Media related to S-Bahn Zürich at Wikimedia Commons ZVV official website: Routes & zones
Canton of Zürich
The canton of Zürich is a Swiss canton in the northeastern part of the country. With a population of 1,504,346, it is the most populated canton in the country.. Its capital is the city of Zürich; the official language is German. The local Swiss German dialect, called Züritüütsch, is spoken. In English the name of the canton and its capital is written without an umlaut; the Prehistoric pile dwellings around Zürichsee comprises 11 of total 56 Prehistoric pile dwellings around the Alps in Switzerland, that are located around Zürichsee in the cantons of Schwyz, St. Gallen and Zürich. Located on Zürichsee lakeshore, there are Freienbach–Hurden Rosshorn, Freienbach–Hurden Seefeld, Rapperswil-Jona/Hombrechtikon–Feldbach, Rapperswil-Jona–Technikum, Erlenbach–Winkel, Meilen–Rorenhaab, Wädenswil–Vorder Au, Zürich–Enge Alpenquai, Grosser Hafner and Kleiner Hafner; because the lake has grown in size over time, the original piles are now around 4 metres to 7 metres under the water level of 406 metres. On the small area of about 40 square kilometres around Zürichsee, there the settlements Greifensee–Storen/Wildsberg on Greifensee and Wetzikon–Robenhausen on Pfäffikersee lakeshore.
As well as being part of the 56 Swiss sites of the UNESCO World Heritage Site, each of these 11 prehistoric pile dwellings is listed as a Class object in the Swiss inventory of cultural property of national and regional significance. Zurihgauuia was a subdivision of Turgowe in the Duchy of Alamannia, consisting of the territory between Reuss and Töss. From the 740s, substantial portions of Zürichgau were owned by the Abbey of St. Gall. In c. 760, an administrative re-organisation under counts Ruthard and Warin exempted the castle town of Zürich from comital rule. A county of Zürichgau was established under Louis the Pious, for a count Ruadker, in 820. Zürichgau remained a nominally separate territory in the 9th century but was ruled by the same count as Thurgau. In 915, Zürichgau together with Thurgau fell to the Bucharding dukes of Swabia. In the late 10th century, the county of Zürich was ruled by the Nellenburger, during 1077–1172 by the Lenzburger. By the 13th century, Zürichgau was divided between the Habsburgs and the Kyburger, who held the territory west and east of Lake Zürich, respectively.
The territory of the canton of Zürich corresponds to the lands acquired by the city of Zürich after it became reichsfrei in 1218. Zürich pursued a policy of aggressive territorial expansion during the century following the revolution of the guilds in 1336. Zürich joined the Swiss Confederacy in 1351. Zürich lost the Toggenburg in the Old Zürich War of the 1440s; the northern parts up to the river Rhine came to the canton after the city of Zürich purchased Winterthur from the Habsburgs in 1468. In 1651, Zürich purchased Rafzerfeld from the counts of Sulz. At this point all of the territory of the modern canton was owned by Zürich. In the 18th century, the "inner bailiwicks" were under direct administration of city officials, while the "outer bailiwicks" were ruled by the reeves of Kyburg, Grüningen, Eglisau, Andelfingen, Wädenswil, Knonau; the city of Winterthur retained far-reaching autonomy. Zürichgau, the name of the medieval pagus, was in use for the territories of the city of Zürich during the 15th and 16th century.
Under the short-lived Helvetic Republic, the canton of Zürich became a purely administrative division. In 1803, some former possessions of Zürich to the west gained independence as part of the Canton of Aargau. In 1804 the Kantonspolizei Zürich was established as Landjäger-Corps des Kantons Zürich. A cantonal constitution was replaced in 1831 by a radical-liberal constitution; the Züriputsch, an armed uprising of the conservative rural population against the radical-liberal order, led to the dissolution of the cantonal government, a provisional conservative government was installed by colonel Paul Carl Eduard Ziegler. Under the threat of intervention of the other radical-liberal cantons of the Confederacy, the provisional government declared that the 1831 constitution would remain in effect. In a tumultuous session on 9 September 1839, the cantonal parliament declared its dissolution In the so-called Septemberregime, the newly elected cantonal government replaced all cantonal officials with conservatives, but it was again ousted by a radical-liberal election victory in 1844.
Alfred Escher was a member of the new cantonal parliament of 1844. The radical-liberal era of 1844–1868 was dominated by the so-called System Escher, a network of liberal politicians and industrialists built by Alfred Escher. Escher governed the canton in monarchical fashion, was popularly dubbed Alfred I. or Tsar of All Zürich. Escher controlled all cantonal institutions, at first with little political opposition, expunging all trace of the conservative takeover of 1839. Under Escher, the city of Zürich rose to the status of economic and financial center it still retains. Opposition against the dominance of Sytstem Escher increased after 1863. Th
Fehraltorf railway station
Fehraltorf is a railway station in the Swiss canton of Zurich and municipality of Fehraltorf. The station is located on the Effretikon to Hinwil railway line and is an intermediate stop on Zurich S-Bahn service S3. During peak periods it is served by S-Bahn service S19. Media related to Fehraltorf railway station at Wikimedia Commons
The Reformation was a movement within Western Christianity in 16th-century Europe that posed a religious and political challenge to the Roman Catholic church – and papal authority in particular. Although the Reformation is considered to have started with the publication of the Ninety-five Theses by Martin Luther in 1517, there was no schism between the Catholics and the nascent Lutheran branch until the 1521 Edict of Worms; the edict condemned Luther and banned citizens of the Holy Roman Empire from defending or propagating his ideas. The end of the Reformation era is disputed: it could be considered to end with the enactment of the confessions of faith which began the Age of Orthodoxy. Other suggested ending years relate to the Counter-Reformation, the Peace of Westphalia, or that it never ended since there are still Protestants today. Movements had been made towards a Reformation prior to Luther, so some Protestants in the tradition of the Radical Reformation prefer to credit the start of the Reformation to reformers such as Arnold of Brescia, Peter Waldo, Jan Hus, Tomáš Štítný ze Štítného, John Wycliffe, Girolamo Savonarola.
Due to the reform efforts of Huss and others in the Lands of the Bohemian Crown, Utraquist Hussitism was acknowledged by both the Pope and the Holy Roman Emperor, although other movements were still subject to persecution, as were the including Lollards in England and Waldensians in Italy and France. Luther began by criticising the sale of indulgences, insisting that the Pope had no authority over purgatory and that the Treasury of Merit had no foundation in the Bible; the Reformation developed further to include a distinction between Law and Gospel, a complete reliance on Scripture as the only source of proper doctrine and the belief that faith in Jesus is the only way to receive God's pardon for sin rather than good works. Although this is considered a Protestant belief, a similar formulation was taught by Molinist and Jansenist Catholics; the priesthood of all believers downplayed the need for saints or priests to serve as mediators, mandatory clerical celibacy was ended. Simul justus et peccator implied that although people could improve, no one could become good enough to earn forgiveness from God.
Sacramental theology was simplified and attempts at imposing Aristotelian epistemology were resisted. Luther and his followers did not see these theological developments as changes; the 1530 Augsburg Confession concluded that "in doctrine and ceremonies nothing has been received on our part against Scripture or the Church Catholic", after the Council of Trent, Martin Chemnitz published the 1565–73 Examination of the Council of Trent in order to prove that Trent innovated on doctrine while the Lutherans were following in the footsteps of the Church Fathers and Apostles. The initial movement in Germany diversified, other reformers arose independently of Luther such as Zwingli in Zürich and Calvin in Geneva. Depending on the country, the Reformation had varying causes and different backgrounds, unfolded differently than in Germany; the spread of Gutenberg's printing press provided the means for the rapid dissemination of religious materials in the vernacular. During Reformation-era confessionalization, Western Christianity adopted different confessions.
Radical Reformers, besides forming communities outside state sanction, sometimes employed more extreme doctrinal change, such as the rejection of the tenets of the councils of Nicaea and Chalcedon with the Unitarians of Transylvania. Anabaptist movements were persecuted following the German Peasants' War. Leaders within the Roman Catholic Church responded with the Counter-Reformation, initiated by the Confutatio Augustana in 1530, the Council of Trent in 1545, the Jesuits in 1540, the Defensio Tridentinæ fidei in 1578, a series of wars and expulsions of Protestants that continued until the 19th century. Northern Europe, with the exception of most of Ireland, came under the influence of Protestantism. Southern Europe remained predominantly Catholic apart from the much-persecuted Waldensians. Central Europe was the site of much of the Thirty Years' War and there were continued expulsions of Protestants in central Europe up to the 19th century. Following World War II, the removal of ethnic Germans to either East Germany or Siberia reduced Protestantism in the Warsaw Pact countries, although some remain today.
Absence of Protestants however, does not imply a failure of the Reformation. Although Protestants were excommunicated and ended up worshipping in communions separate from Catholics contrary to the original intention of the Reformers, they were suppressed and persecuted in most of Europe at one point; as a result, some of them lived as crypto-Protestants called Nicodemites, contrary to the urging of John Calvin who wanted them to live their faith openly. Some crypto-Protestants have been identified as late as the 19th century after immigrating to Latin America; as a result Reformation impulses continued to affect the Latin Church well past the end of what is considered the Reformation era. The oldest Protestant churches, such as the Unitas Fratrum and Moravian Church, date their origins to Jan Hus in the early 15th century; as it was led by a Bohemian noble majority, recognised, for a time, by the Basel Compacts, the Hussite Reformation was Europe's first "Magisterial Reformation" because the ruling magistrates supported it, unlike the "Radical Reformation", which the state did not support.
Common factors that played a role during the Reformation and the Counter-Reformation included the rise of nationalism, the
Wila is a municipality in the district of Pfäffikon in the canton of Zürich in Switzerland. Wila has an area of 9.2 km2. Of this area, 38.4% is used for agricultural purposes, while 51.5% is forested. Of the rest of the land, 9.1% is settled and the remainder is non-productive. In 1996 housing and buildings made up 6.4% of the total area, while transportation infrastructure made up the rest. Of the total unproductive area, water made up 0.9% of the area. As of 2007 8% of the total municipal area was undergoing some type of construction. Wila is situated in the upper Töss Valley. Wila has a population of 1,903; as of 2008 the gender distribution of the population was 51% male and 49% female. Over the last 10 years the population has grown at a rate of 7.4%. Most of the population speaks German, with Albanian being second most common and Italian being third. In the 2007 election the most popular party was the SVP which received 51.3% of the vote. The next three most popular parties were the CSP and the Green Party.
The age distribution of the population is children and teenagers make up 28.8% of the population, while adults make up 59% and seniors make up 12.3%. In Wila about 76.6% of the population have completed either non-mandatory upper secondary education or additional higher education. There are 726 households in Wila. Wila has an unemployment rate of 1.52%. As of 2005, there were 75 people employed in the primary economic sector and about 26 businesses involved in this sector. 243 people are employed in the secondary sector and there are 37 businesses in this sector. 226 people are employed in the tertiary sector, with 54 businesses in this sector. As of 2007 46.7% of the working population were employed full-time, 53.3% were employed part-time. As of 2008 there were 1074 Protestants in Wila. In the 2000 census, religion was broken down into several smaller categories. From the census, 63.3% were some type of Protestant, with 60.1% belonging to the Swiss Reformed Church and 3.2% belonging to other Protestant churches.
18.9% of the population were Catholic. Of the rest of the population, 0% were Muslim, 4.1% belonged to another religion, 3.2% did not give a religion, 10.2% were atheist or agnostic. Wila railway station is a stop of the S-Bahn Zürich on the line S26. Official website