Strategic bombing during World War I
Strategic bombing during World War I was principally carried out by the United Kingdom and France for the Entente Powers and Germany for the Central Powers. All the nations at war eventually engaged in bombing, excepting Rome and Washington. A multi-national air force to strike at Germany was planned but never materialized, the aerial bombing of cities, intended to destroy the enemys morale, was introduced by the Germans in the opening days of the war. Early strategic bombing led to the development of specialized bomber aircraft. Initially bombs were dropped by hand and aimed by the naked eye, the introduction of air raid warnings and shelters can be dated to World War I, as can the design of anti-aircraft artillery and the development of methods for coordinated aerial defence. Many of the advocates of strategic bombing during the period, such as Italys Giulio Douhet, Americas Billy Mitchell. The improvements in technology during and after the war convinced many that the bomber will always get through.
The first strategic bombing in history was the first instance of bombs being dropped on a city from the air, on 6 August 1914 a German Zeppelin bombed the Belgian city of Liège. Within the first month of the war, Germany had formed the Ostend Carrier Pigeon Detachment, during the First Battle of the Marne, a German pilot flying aerial reconnaissance missions over Paris in a Taube regularly dropped bombs on the city. The first raid dropped five bombs and a note demanding the immediate surrender of Paris. Before the stabilisation of the Western Front, the German aircraft dropped fifty bombs on Paris and this campaign was approved on 7 January 1915 by Kaiser Wilhelm II, who forbade attacks on London, fearing that his relatives in the British royal family might be injured. These restrictions were lifted in May, after British attacks on German cities, the first attacks on England were on 9 January, and struck the Yarmouth area and Kings Lynn. In Britain, fear of the Zeppelin as a weapon of war preceded its actual use, the Imperial German Navy, whose airships were primarily used for reconnaissance over the North Sea, continued to bomb the United Kingdom until 1918.
In all, fifty-one raids on Great Britain were carried out, the most intense year of the airship bombing of England was 1916. Germany employed 125 airships during the war, losing more than half and sustaining a 40% attrition rate of their crews, in May 1917 the Germans began using heavy bombers against England using Gotha G. IV and supplementing these with Riesenflugzeuge, mostly from the Zeppelin-Staaken firm. The targets of these raids were industrial and port facilities and government buildings, although the German strategic bombing campaign against Britain was the most extensive of the war, it was largely ineffective, in terms of actual damage done. Only 300 tons of bombs were dropped, resulting in damage of £2,962,111 damage,1,414 dead and 3,416 injured. In the autumn of 1917, over 300,000 Londoners had taken shelter from the bombing, the Royal Naval Air Service undertook the first Entente strategic bombing missions on 22 September 1914 and 8 October, when it bombed the Zeppelin bases in Cologne and Düsseldorf
Hauptmann Oskar Gustav Rudolf Berthold, commonly known as Rudolf Berthold, was a German flying ace of World War I. Between 1916 and 1918, he shot down 44 enemy planes—16 of them while flying one-handed, Berthold had a reputation as a ruthless, fearless and—above all—very patriotic fighter. His perseverance and willingness to return to combat while still wounded made him one of the most famous German pilots of World War I, Berthold joined the German Imperial Army in 1909, and paid for his own piloting lessons, qualifying in September 1913. He was one of the aviators of World War I. During 1915, he one of the first aerial warriors. Decamping from hospital, he returned to duty while still unwell to successively command two of Germanys original fighter squadrons, by 24 April 1917, when he was wounded again, he had brought his tally to 12 and won Germanys greatest honor, the Pour le Merite. On 18 August, he once again bolted from medical care to return to battle, over the next few weeks, he would score 16 more victories before being crippled by a British bullet on 10 October 1917.
With an arm at hazard of amputation, Berthold was rescued by his sister Franziska, Berthold was bedridden until February 1918, only to return to duty to command one of the worlds first fighter wings. On 28 May, he once again to fly combat, though flying one-handed and under the influence of narcotics. On 10 August, he shot down his two victims on his final flight before being downed. After two days in the hospital, he would once flee treatment and return to combat, only a direct order from Kaiser Wilhelm II returned him to medical care for the rest of the war. In Postwar Germany, Rudolf Berthold organized a Freikorps and fought the Bolsheviks in Latvia and he was killed in political street fighting in Hamburg on 15 March 1920. Oskar Gustav Rudolf Berthold entered the world at about 18,00 hours on 24 March 1891 and he was born in Ditterswind, Kingdom of Bavaria in the German Empire, the sixth child of Oberförster Oskar Berthold. The young child, who became known as simply Rudolf, was the first born to Helene Stief Berthold.
Oskars first wife, Ida Anne Hoffmann Berthold, died in childbirth, leaving as survivors a daughter, Rudolf was followed by three younger brothers, two of whom survived to adulthood. Rudolfs father was employed by a nobleman, Oskar Freiherr von Deuster. Early in September 1897, Rudolf enrolled in the elementary school. Upon his completion of studies there at age ten, he enrolled in the Humanistische Neue Gymnasium in nearby Bamberg
Leutnant Kurt Wintgens was a German World War I fighter ace. He was the first military pilot to score a victory over an opposing aircraft. Wintgens was the recipient of the Iron Cross and the Pour le Mérite, Wintgens was born into a military family in Neustadt in Oberschlesien. His military service commenced when he joined the Telegraphen-Bataillon Nr.2 in Frankfurt/Oder as a Fahnenjunker in 1913, though still in military school when the war began in 1914, Wintgens was sent to the Eastern Front as a leutnant and won the Iron Cross, 2nd Class. Wintgens specifically requested the chance to fly in the field the smallest and fastest Fokker type with the Garros-installation, in the early summer of 1915, the initial deployments of Fokker Eindecker fighter planes began. A similar style of corrective eyewear was worn in air combat by the 20-victory German ace Otto Kissenberth in World War I. Wintgens holds a unique pioneering role in the history of aerial combat, the French aircraft was most likely from Escadrille M.
S.48, and flown by one Capitaine Paul du Peuty, with Sous-Lieutenant de Boutiny as the observer. The French aviators reported that they were engaged by a Fokker Monoplane at 1,300 meters over the Fôret de Parroy, the French aircraft was armed with only a carbine, while the Fokker had a forward-firing, synchronized Parabellum MG14 machine gun. After a few minutes of combat with the Fokker, de Peuty was wounded in the right leg. The Eindecker seemed to have been hit by de Boutinys carbine fire, up to now nothing of real interest happened. In Mannheim I had tested the machine and from Strasbourg by air to the Front, I had flown to the Front a couple of times without seeing an opponent, until yesterday evening when the big moment came. Altitude, between 2,000 and 2,500 m, suddenly I notice a monoplane in front of me, about 300 m higher. And at the moment he had already dived in front of me. But as I, at once, dived in an opposite direction under him, after four attacks I reached his altitude in a large turn, and now my machine gun did some talking. I attacked at such a distance that we looked each other into the face.
After my third attack he did the most stupid thing that he could do — he fled, I turned the crate on the spot and had him at once, beautifully, in my sight. Rapid fire for four seconds, and down went his nose. I could follow him until 500 meters, unfortunately, I was fired upon from the ground too hotly, Ill soon meet a biplane
The tactical and training differences between the two sides ensured the British suffered a casualty rate nearly four times as great as their opponents. The losses were so disastrous that it threatened to undermine the morale of entire squadrons, the RFC contributed to the success, limited as it finally proved, of the British Army during the five-week campaign. The Royal Flying Corps supported British operations by offering close air support, aerial reconnaissance, the RFCs commanding officer, Hugh Trenchard believed in the offensive use of air power and pushed for operations over German-controlled territory. It was expected the numbers of aircraft assembled over the frontlines in the spring of 1917 would fulfil this purpose. However, the aircraft were, for the most part, inferior to German fighter aircraft, British pilot training was not only poorly organised and inconsistent, it had to be drastically abbreviated in order to keep squadrons suffering heavy casualties up to strength. German pilot training was, at time, more thorough.
These units were led by experienced pilots, some of them survivors of the Fokker Scourge period. And had been working up with the first mass-produced twin-gunned German fighters, the one sided nature of the casualty lists during Bloody April was partly a result of German numerical inferiority. Moreover, they could choose when and how to engage in combat, the Battle of Arras began on 9 April 1917. The Allies launched a joint ground offensive, with the British attacking near Arras in Artois, northern France, in support of the British army, the RFC deployed 25 squadrons, totalling 365 aircraft, about one-third of which were fighters. There were initially only five German Jastas in the region, the Allies fighter squadrons were equipped with obsolete pushers such as the Airco DH.2 and F. E.8 – and other outclassed types such as the Nieuport 17 and Sopwith Pup. Only the SPAD S. VII and Sopwith Triplane could compete on more or less equal terms with the Albatros, the new generation of Allied fighters were not yet ready for service, although No.56 Squadron RFC with the S. E.
The new R. E.8 two-seaters, which were eventually to prove less vulnerable than the B. E. 2e, during April 1917, the British lost 245 aircraft,211 aircrew killed or missing and 108 as prisoners of war. The German Air Services recorded the loss of 66 aircraft during the same period, as a comparison, in the five months of the Battle of the Somme of 1916 the RFC had suffered 576 casualties. Under Richthofens leadership, Jasta 11 scored 89 victories during April, in casualties suffered, the month marked the nadir of the RFCs fortunes. However, despite the losses inflicted, the German Air Service failed to stop the RFC carrying out its prime objectives, in particular the artillery spotting aircraft rendered valuable reconnaissance to the British artillery, who were able to maintain their superiority throughout the battle. In spite of their ascendancy in air combat, the German fighter squadrons continued to be used defensively, thus the Jastas established air superiority, but certainly not the air supremacy sometimes claimed.
Within a couple of months the new technologically advanced generation of fighter had entered service in numbers, as the British fighter squadrons became once more able to adequately protect the slower reconnaissance and artillery observation machines, RFC losses fell and German losses rose
World War I
World War I, known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. More than 70 million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, were mobilised in one of the largest wars in history and it was one of the deadliest conflicts in history, and paved the way for major political changes, including revolutions in many of the nations involved. The war drew in all the worlds great powers, assembled in two opposing alliances, the Allies versus the Central Powers of Germany and Austria-Hungary. These alliances were reorganised and expanded as more nations entered the war, Japan, the trigger for the war was the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary, by Yugoslav nationalist Gavrilo Princip in Sarajevo on 28 June 1914. This set off a crisis when Austria-Hungary delivered an ultimatum to the Kingdom of Serbia. Within weeks, the powers were at war and the conflict soon spread around the world.
On 25 July Russia began mobilisation and on 28 July, the Austro-Hungarians declared war on Serbia, Germany presented an ultimatum to Russia to demobilise, and when this was refused, declared war on Russia on 1 August. Germany invaded neutral Belgium and Luxembourg before moving towards France, after the German march on Paris was halted, what became known as the Western Front settled into a battle of attrition, with a trench line that changed little until 1917. On the Eastern Front, the Russian army was successful against the Austro-Hungarians, in November 1914, the Ottoman Empire joined the Central Powers, opening fronts in the Caucasus and the Sinai. In 1915, Italy joined the Allies and Bulgaria joined the Central Powers, Romania joined the Allies in 1916, after a stunning German offensive along the Western Front in the spring of 1918, the Allies rallied and drove back the Germans in a series of successful offensives. By the end of the war or soon after, the German Empire, Russian Empire, Austro-Hungarian Empire, national borders were redrawn, with several independent nations restored or created, and Germanys colonies were parceled out among the victors.
During the Paris Peace Conference of 1919, the Big Four imposed their terms in a series of treaties, the League of Nations was formed with the aim of preventing any repetition of such a conflict. This effort failed, and economic depression, renewed nationalism, weakened successor states, and feelings of humiliation eventually contributed to World War II. From the time of its start until the approach of World War II, at the time, it was sometimes called the war to end war or the war to end all wars due to its then-unparalleled scale and devastation. In Canada, Macleans magazine in October 1914 wrote, Some wars name themselves, during the interwar period, the war was most often called the World War and the Great War in English-speaking countries. Will become the first world war in the sense of the word. These began in 1815, with the Holy Alliance between Prussia and Austria, when Germany was united in 1871, Prussia became part of the new German nation. Soon after, in October 1873, German Chancellor Otto von Bismarck negotiated the League of the Three Emperors between the monarchs of Austria-Hungary and Germany
Aviation in World War I
World War I was the first major conflict involving the large-use of aircraft. Tethered observation balloons had already employed in several wars. Germany employed Zeppelins for reconnaissance over the North Sea and Baltic and for strategic bombing raids over Britain, aeroplanes were just coming into military use at the outset of the war. Initially, they were used mostly for reconnaissance and engineers learned from experience, leading to the development of many specialized types, including fighters and ground-attack aeroplanes. Ace fighter pilots were portrayed as modern knights, and many became popular heroes, the war saw the appointment of high-ranking officers to direct the belligerent nations air war effort. This legislation was rooted in a fear that airplanes would be used to attack undefended cities, at the start of the war, there was some debate over the usefulness of aircraft in warfare. Many senior officers, in particular, remained sceptical, early scepticism and low expectations quickly turned to unrealistic demands beyond the capabilities of the primitive aircraft available.
Even so, air reconnaissance played a role in the war of movement of 1914. On 22 August 1914, British Captain L. E. O, wadham reported German General Alexander von Klucks army was preparing to surround the BEF, contradicting all other intelligence. The British High Command took note of the report and started to withdraw toward Mons, during the First Battle of the Marne, observation aircraft discovered weak points and exposed flanks in the German lines, allowing the allies to take advantage of them. In Germany the great successes of the early Zeppelin airships had largely overshadowed the importance of heavier-than-air aircraft, out of a paper strength of about 230 aircraft belonging to the army in August 1914 only 180 or so were of any use. The French military aviation exercises of 1911,1912, and 1913 had pioneered cooperation with the cavalry and artillery, Great Britain had started late and initially relied largely on the French aircraft industry, especially for aircraft engines. The initial British contribution to the total allied airwar effort in August 1914 was three squadrons with about 30 serviceable machines.
By the end of the war, Great Britain had formed the worlds first air force to be independent of either army or naval control, by the end of 1914 the line between the Germans and the Allies stretched from the North Sea to the Alps. The initial war of movement largely ceased, and the front became static, three main functions of short range reconnaissance squadrons had emerged by March 1915. The first was photographic reconnaissance, building up a complete map of the enemy trench system. The first air cameras used glass plates, artillery spotting enabled the ranging of artillery on targets invisible to the gunners. Radio telephony was not yet practical from an aircraft, so communication was a problem, by March 1915, a two-seater on artillery observation duties was typically equipped with a primitive radio transmitter transmitting using Morse code, but had no receiver
A Zeppelin was a type of rigid airship named after the German Count Ferdinand von Zeppelin who pioneered rigid airship development at the beginning of the 20th century. Zeppelins notions were first formulated in 1874 and developed in detail in 1893 and they were patented in Germany in 1895 and in the United States in 1899. After the outstanding success of the Zeppelin design, the word came to be commonly used to refer to all rigid airships. Zeppelins were first flown commercially in 1910 by Deutsche Luftschiffahrts-AG, the worlds first airline in revenue service, by mid-1914, DELAG had carried over 10,000 fare-paying passengers on over 1,500 flights. During World War I the German military made use of Zeppelins as bombers and scouts. The defeat of Germany in 1918 temporarily slowed down the airship business, an exception was made allowing the construction of one airship for the US Navy, which saved the company from extinction. In 1926 the restrictions on airship construction were lifted and with the aid of donations from the public and this revived the companys fortunes, and during the 1930s the airships Graf Zeppelin and the larger LZ129 Hindenburg operated regular transatlantic flights from Germany to North America and Brazil.
The Hindenburg disaster in 1937, along political and economic issues. The principal feature of Zeppelins design was a rigid metal framework made up from transverse rings. The advantage of design was that the aircraft could be much larger than non-rigid airships. The framework of most Zeppelins was made of duralumin, early Zeppelins used rubberised cotton for the gasbags, but most craft used goldbeaters skin, made from the intestines of cattle. The first Zeppelins had long cylindrical hulls with tapered ends and complex multi-plane fins and they were propelled by several engines, mounted in gondolas or engine cars, which were attached to the outside of the structural framework. Some of these could provide reverse thrust for manoeuvring while mooring, early models had a comparatively small externally mounted gondola for passengers and crew which was attached to the bottom of the frame. This space was never heated so passengers during trips across the North Atlantic or Siberia were forced to bundle themselves in blankets, the flight ceiling was so low that no pressurization of the cabins was necessary, though the Hindenburg did maintain a pressurized air-locked smoking room.
Access to the Zeppelin was achieved in a number of ways, the Graf Zeppelins gondola was accessed while the vessel was on the ground, via gangways. This describes a large rigidly framed outer envelope containing several separate gasbags and he had previously encountered Union Army balloons in 1863 when he visited the United States as a military observer during the American Civil War. Count Zeppelin began to pursue his project after his early retirement from the military in 1890 at the age of 52. Convinced of the importance of aviation, he started working on various designs in 1891
The Fokker Scourge began in the summer of 1915, during the First World War, when German Fokker E. I fighters with synchronised machine-guns, came into service over the Western Front. The Imperial German Flying Corps obtained a measure of air superiority against Allied aircraft less suitable for air fighting, significant as the technical advantage of the new fighter was, the psychological effect of its unheralded introduction was a major factor. The term Fokker Scourge was coined in retrospect by the British press in mid-1916 and this was not unconnected with the political campaign launched by the pioneering aviation journalist C. G. Grey and Noel Pemberton Billing M. P. In early 1915, the Allies were leading the Germans in the fitting of guns to aircraft. The first aircraft used with success as fighters included the British Vickers F. B.5. On 18 April 1915, the Morane-Saulnier L of Roland Garros was captured, from 1 April, Garros had destroyed three German aircraft using this aircraft, which featured a machine-gun firing forward through the arc of the propeller.
Bullets that would have damaged the propeller, were deflected by small wedge-like blades attached to the points on each propeller blade. Although Garros attempted to burn his aircraft after force-landing behind German lines, the significance of the deflector blades was immediately appreciated by the German authorities, who quickly requested several aircraft manufacturers, including Anthony Fokker, to produce a copy. Fokkers answer was the Stangensteuerung, a genuine synchronisation gear, the Stangensteuerung used impulses from a cam on the aircraft engine, to control the firing of the machine-gun so that it did not hit the propeller. This was not the first such gear proposed but was the first to be fitted to an aircraft, in a postwar biography Fokker claimed that he designed and built the gear in 48 hours but this has been largely discounted. The device was fitted to the most suitable Fokker type, the M. 5K, Fokker demonstrated A. 16/15 to the first few German fighter pilots, including Kurt Wintgens, Oswald Boelcke and Max Immelmann in May and June 1915.
The early Eindeckers were supplied in ones and twos to the normal Feldflieger Abteilung, Fokker Eindecker E. 5/15, the last of the pre-production series, is believed to have been first flown in action by Kurt Wintgens of FFA6. On 1 and 4 July 1915, he reported combats with French Morane L Parasols, by the end of July 1915, about fifteen Eindeckers were operational with various units, including the five M. 5K/MGs and about ten early production E. I airframes. The pilots at first flew the new aircraft as a sideline, Oswald Boelcke in FFA62, scored his first victory in an Albatros C. I on 4 July. The Fokker Scourge is usually considered to have begun on 1 August, Boelcke was quickly into the air after the raiders, in Fokker M. 5K/MG Eindecker E. 3/15 and Immelmann followed in E. 13/15. Boelcke suffered a gun jam but Immelmann caught one of the raiders and his victory was over a B. E. 2c, flown without an observer or Lewis gun to carry bombs and the pilot fired at Immelmann with an automatic pistol.
After about ten minutes of manoeuvring, Immelmann had fired 450 rounds, RFC pilots reported that the new fighter could make long, steep dives and that the fixed, synchronised machine-gun was aimed by aiming the aircraft. The Fokker pilot was assisted by the machine-gun being belt-fed, although air fighting was new, the Fokker pilots took to flying high and diving on aircraft, preferably out of the sun, firing a long burst and continuing the dive until well out of range
Bulgarian Air Force
The Bulgarian Air Force is one of the three branches of the Military of Bulgaria, the other two being the Bulgarian Navy and Bulgarian land forces. Its mission is to guard and protect the sovereignty of Bulgarian airspace, to provide aerial support, the Bulgarian Air Force is one of the oldest air forces in Europe and the world. In recent times it has been taking part in numerous NATO missions. The current commanding officer of the Bulgarian Air Force is Major General Constantin Popov, the Bulgarian Air Force dates back to the end of the 19th century. In 1892 at the Plovdiv International Fair two lieutenants of the Bulgarian Army flew in the ‘La France’ balloon of the Frenchman Godard, inspired by the flight, they succeeded to convince the General Staff that the Bulgarian Army should build a balloon force. On 20 April 1906 Vazduhoplavatelno Otdelenie was created to operate observation balloons for the army, after graduation Lt. Zlatarov was appointed its first commander. After operating small balloons, in 1911 a bigger Godard balloon was bought, in 1910 a Russian aircraft engineer, Boris Maslennikov, was invited to Bulgaria, where he presented his airplane, a modification of the French Farman III.
Following his demonstration, assisted by Vasil Zlatarov over the hippodrome in Sofia, in early 1912 thirteen army officers were sent abroad for training as pilots and orders were placed for five French and German airplanes. The officers sent to France completed their training first and returned to Bulgaria in July 1912, the same year Bulgaria received its first airplane – Bleriot XXI with which on 13 August 1912 Simeon Petrov flew to become the first Bulgarian to pilot an airplane over Bulgaria. After the front lines had stabilized, an Aeroplane Platoon was established at a new airfield close to the fighting, that month the Bulgarian Aviation Corps was expanded to three Aeroplane Platoons. Foreign volunteers began flying operational sorties alongside Bulgarian pilots and carried out reconnaissance, during the war at least three aircraft were shot down. Considerable help was received from the Russians in terms of aircraft, due to low aircraft serviceability and frequent accidents, the number of missions flown was relatively low.
Despite that, the Bulgarian airmen and their helpers were able to gather enough intelligence for the Army General Staff to use in the capture of the city. During the First Balkan War Bulgarian aviation undertook 70 combat sorties, including 11 bombing raids, all in all, during both wars, there were over 230 aircraft sorties, including non-combat. The aircraft used were Blériot XI and XXI, Sommer, Albatros FIII, Farman VII, the Kingdom of Bulgaria entered World War I as an ally of the Central Powers on October 4,1915. The Aeroplane Section of the Bulgarian Army was deployed to Kumanovo Airfield in support of advancing Bulgarian forces, until they had completed 11 combat sorties from an airfield in Sofia. As the frontline advanced, the unit re-deployed to airfields near Belitsa and Xanthi, newly acquired German LVG aircraft were hastily pressed into action. Two more airfields were constructed near Udovo and Levunovo, the Allies began flying reconnaissance and bomber sorties against Bulgarian units on the Southern Balkan Front
Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany, is a federal parliamentary republic in central-western Europe. It includes 16 constituent states, covers an area of 357,021 square kilometres, with about 82 million inhabitants, Germany is the most populous member state of the European Union. After the United States, it is the second most popular destination in the world. Germanys capital and largest metropolis is Berlin, while its largest conurbation is the Ruhr, other major cities include Hamburg, Cologne, Stuttgart, Düsseldorf and Leipzig. Various Germanic tribes have inhabited the northern parts of modern Germany since classical antiquity, a region named Germania was documented before 100 AD. During the Migration Period the Germanic tribes expanded southward, beginning in the 10th century, German territories formed a central part of the Holy Roman Empire. During the 16th century, northern German regions became the centre of the Protestant Reformation, in 1871, Germany became a nation state when most of the German states unified into the Prussian-dominated German Empire.
After World War I and the German Revolution of 1918–1919, the Empire was replaced by the parliamentary Weimar Republic, the establishment of the national socialist dictatorship in 1933 led to World War II and the Holocaust. After a period of Allied occupation, two German states were founded, the Federal Republic of Germany and the German Democratic Republic, in 1990, the country was reunified. In the 21st century, Germany is a power and has the worlds fourth-largest economy by nominal GDP. As a global leader in industrial and technological sectors, it is both the worlds third-largest exporter and importer of goods. Germany is a country with a very high standard of living sustained by a skilled. It upholds a social security and universal health system, environmental protection. Germany was a member of the European Economic Community in 1957. It is part of the Schengen Area, and became a co-founder of the Eurozone in 1999, Germany is a member of the United Nations, NATO, the G8, the G20, and the OECD.
The national military expenditure is the 9th highest in the world, the English word Germany derives from the Latin Germania, which came into use after Julius Caesar adopted it for the peoples east of the Rhine. This in turn descends from Proto-Germanic *þiudiskaz popular, derived from *þeudō, descended from Proto-Indo-European *tewtéh₂- people, the discovery of the Mauer 1 mandible shows that ancient humans were present in Germany at least 600,000 years ago. The oldest complete hunting weapons found anywhere in the world were discovered in a mine in Schöningen where three 380, 000-year-old wooden javelins were unearthed
Royal Flying Corps
The Royal Flying Corps was the air arm of the British Army before and during the First World War, until it merged with the Royal Naval Air Service on 1 April 1918 to form the Royal Air Force. During the early part of the war, the RFC supported the British Army by artillery co-operation, at the start of World War I the RFC, commanded by Brigadier-General Sir David Henderson, consisted of five squadrons – one observation balloon squadron and four aeroplane squadrons. These were first used for spotting on 13 September 1914. Aerial photography was attempted during 1914, but again only became effective the next year, by 1918, photographic images could be taken from 15,000 feet and were interpreted by over 3,000 personnel. By this time parachutes had been used by balloonists for three years, on 17 August 1917, South African General Jan Smuts presented a report to the War Council on the future of air power. On 1 April 1918, the RFC and the RNAS were amalgamated to form a new service, after starting in 1914 with some 2,073 personnel, by the start of 1919 the RAF had 4,000 combat aircraft and 114,000 personnel in some 150 squadrons.
The recommendations of the committee were accepted and on 13 April 1912 King George V signed a royal warrant establishing the Royal Flying Corps, the Air Battalion of the Royal Engineers became the Military Wing of the Royal Flying Corps a month on 13 May. The Flying Corps initial allowed strength was 133 officers, and by the end of year it had 12 manned balloons and 36 aeroplanes. The RFC originally came under the responsibility of Brigadier-General Henderson, the Director of Military Training, and had branches for the Army. Major Sykes commanded the Military Wing and Commander C R Samson commanded the Naval Wing, the RFCs motto was Per ardua ad astra. This remains the motto of the Royal Air Force and other Commonwealth air forces, the RFCs first fatal crash was on 5 July 1912 near Stonehenge on Salisbury Plain. Loraine and his observer, Staff Sergeant R. H. V, an order was issued after the crash stating Flying will continue this evening as usual, thus beginning a tradition. Four months on 11 December 1912 Parke was killed when the Handley Page monoplane in which he was flying from Hendon to Oxford crashed.
The Naval Wing, with pilots and aircraft than the Military Wing. In November 1914 the Royal Flying Corps, even taking the loss of the Naval Wing into account, had expanded sufficiently to warrant the creation of wings consisting of two or more squadrons and these wings were commanded by lieutenant-colonels. In October 1915 the Royal Flying Corps had undergone further expansion which justified the creation of brigades, further expansion led to the creation of divisions, with the Training Division being established in August 1917 and RFC Middle East, being raised to divisional status in December 1917. Finally, the air raids on London and the south-east of England led to the creation of the London Air Defence Area in August 1917 under the command of Ashmore who was promoted to major-general. Two of the first three RFC squadrons were formed from the Air Battalion of the Royal Engineers, No.1 Company becoming No.1 Squadron, RFC, a second heavier-than-air squadron, No.2 Squadron, RFC, was formed on the same day
Ottoman Aviation Squadrons
The Aviation Squadrons of the Ottoman Empire were military aviation units of the Ottoman Army and Navy. The history of Ottoman military aviation dates back to June 1909 or July 1911, the organisation is sometimes referred to as the Ottoman Air Force. The fleet size reached its apex in December 1916, when the Ottoman aviation squadrons had 90 airplanes, the Aviation Squadrons were reorganized as the General Inspectorate of Air Forces on 29 July 1918. With the signing of the Armistice of Mudros on 30 October 1918, at the time of the armistice, the Ottoman military aviation had around 100 pilots,17 land-based airplane companies, and 3 seaplane companies, totalling 80 aircraft. On 2 December 1909, Louis Blériot and the Belgian pilot Baron Pierre de Caters performed the first flight demonstration in the Ottoman Empire, after witnessing the growing importance of an air combat support branch, the Ottoman government decided to organize its own military aviation program. For this purpose officers were sent to Europe by the end of 1910 for pilot training, due to financial difficulties, the student program was aborted and the trainees returned to the Ottoman Empire in the spring of 1911.
On 28 June 1911, an examination was held and on 4 July, Cavalry Captain Mehmet Fesa. Mehmet Fesa was sent to France and Yusuf Kenan was sent to Germany, but because the German school wanted an excessively high fee, both of them were enrolled in the Blériot School at Étampes near Paris in July 1911. In late 1911 Staff Lieutenant Colonel Süreyya was entrusted with founding the Aircraft Committee with members from the Inspectorate of Technical, in the same year, eight more Ottoman officers were sent to France for flight training. Fesa Bey and Yusuf Kenan Bey flew over Constantinople on 27 April 1912, the Ottoman Empire started preparing its first pilots and aircraft, and with the founding of the Aircraft School in San Stefano on 3 July 1912, the empire began to train its own flight officers. The same year a single-seat and a two-seater Deperdussin were purchased from France, two of the two-seater version of Bleriot XI-b were acquired, the first of which was presented by Supreme Commander Rıza Paşa.
Three of a different two-seat model named XI-2 and three of the single-seat ground trainer Pingouin were used by the Ottoman Army, the REP was one of the first planes to be deployed by the Ottoman Empire. This aircraft was designed by Robert Esnault-Pelterie and its first flight took place in 1912, they entered service during the same year in France. In accordance with an agreement reached between the producer and the Ottoman Ministry of War, seven REP planes were purchased and the first one was planned to join the Ottoman Army on 15 March 1912. In late April 1912, the aircraft was shown to the public for the first time when a large military parade was held for the honor of Sultan Mehmed V Reshad. Five of the seven purchased were single-seaters and the two were two-seaters. One of the single-seaters were planned only for ground practicing, the last plane was confiscated by the Serbians while being brought to Istanbul by train. These aircraft were out of service by 1914