William Tell (opera)
William Tell is a French-language opera in four acts by Italian composer Gioachino Rossini to a libretto by Victor-Joseph Étienne de Jouy and L. F. Bis, based on Friedrich Schiller's play William Tell, which, in turn, drew on the William Tell legend; the opera was Rossini's last. Fabio Luisi said that Rossini planned for William Tell to be his last opera as he composed it; the often-performed overture in four sections features a depiction of a storm and a vivacious finale, the "March of the Swiss Soldiers." Paris Opéra archivist Charles Malherbe discovered the original orchestral score of the opera at a secondhand book seller's shop, resulting in its being acquired by the Paris Conservatoire. It was first performed by the Paris Opéra at the Salle Le Peletier on 3 August 1829, but within three performances cuts were being made and after a year only three acts were performed; the opera's length four hours of music, casting requirements, such as the high range required for the tenor part, have contributed to the difficulty of producing the work.
When performed, the opera is cut. Performances have been given in both Italian. Political concerns have contributed to the varying fortunes of the work. In Italy, because the work glorified a revolutionary figure against authority, the opera encountered difficulties with the Italian censors, the number of productions in Italy was limited; the Teatro San Carlo produced the opera in 1833, but did not give another production for around 50 years. The first Venice production, at the Teatro La Fenice, was not until 1856. By contrast, in Vienna, in spite of censorship problems there, the Vienna Court Opera gave 422 performances over the years 1830–1907; as Hofer, or the Tell of the Tyrol, the opera was first performed at Drury Lane in London on 1 May 1830, with a production in Italian following in 1839 at Her Majesty's, in French at Covent Garden in 1845. In New York, William Tell was first presented on 19 September 1831, it was revived at the Metropolitan Opera in 1923 with Ponselle and Martinelli, there were revivals during the 1930s in Milan, Paris and Florence.
When the opera was performed at Gran Teatre del Liceu in 1893, an anarchist threw two Orsini bombs in the theatre. In the 20th century there were major productions in Florence, Geneva, La Scala, Théâtre des Champs-Élysées, Covent Garden, Opéra Bastille as well as at the Sportspalace in Pesaro. In 2010 there was an important revival of the opera, when it opened the Accademia Nazionale di Santa Cecilia's season, under Antonio Pappano; this performance was of the French version, with some cuts to the fourth act. A live recording of this concert performance was released in 2011, the production was transferred to The Proms in July of that year, with Michele Pertusi taking on the title role, Patricia Bardon as Hedwige, Nicolas Courjal as Gessler, Mark Stone as Leuthold; the performance was well reviewed, marked the first full performance of the work in the history of the Proms. A co-production by the Dutch National Opera and the Metropolitan Opera New York of the opera in the original French opened at the Met in October 2016 with Gerald Finley in the title role.
According to an anecdote, when an admirer told the composer that he had heard his opera the previous night, Rossini replied "What? The whole of it?". Another version of the story refers only to Act II. In 1864 Offenbach quoted the patriotic trio from Act 2, "Lorsque la Grèce est un champ de carnage" in La Belle Hélène; the famous overture to the opera is heard independently of the complete work. Its high-energy finale, "March Of The Swiss Soldiers," is familiar through its use in the American radio and television shows of The Lone Ranger. Several portions of the overture were used prominently in the films A Clockwork Orange and The Eagle Shooting Heroes; the overture has four parts, each linked to the next: The Prelude is written only for the cello section, the double basses, the timpani, in a slow tempo and in E major. The Storm is a dynamic section played by the full orchestra, with backup from the trombones, in E minor; the Ranz des Vaches, or call to the dairy cows, features the flute. It is in G major.
The Finale is an ultra-dynamic "cavalry charge" galop heralded by horns and trumpets, is played by the full orchestra in E major. The instrumentation is: Woodwinds: a flute, 2 oboes, 2 clarinets in A and 2 bassoons. Brass: 4 horns, 2 trumpets in E, 3 trombones. Percussion: 2 timpani, bass drum and cymbals. Strings: first violins, second violins, viola and double basses; the action opens on an idyllic scene, with the local peasants busily preparing chalets for three newly wedded couples, singing as they work. The fisherman, sings a gentle love song from his boat. William Tell stands apart from the general merriment, however: he is consumed with ennui at Switzerland's continued oppression (Il chante, et l'Helvétie pleure sa l
Romagna is an Italian historical region that corresponds to the south-eastern portion of present-day Emilia-Romagna, North Italy. Traditionally, it is limited by the Apennines to the south-west, the Adriatic to the east, the rivers Reno and Sillaro to the north and west; the region's major cities include Cesena, Forlì, Ravenna and City of San Marino. The region has been formally expanded with the transfer of seven comuni from the Marche region, which are a small number of comuni where Romagnolo dialect is spoken; the name Romagna originates from the Latin name Romania, the generic name for "land inhabited by Romans", first appeared on Latin documents in the 5th century. It took on the more detailed meaning of "territory subjected to Eastern Roman rule", whose citizens called themselves Romans, thus the term Romania came to be used to refer to the territory administered by the Exarchate of Ravenna in contrast to other parts of Northern Italy under Lombard rule, named Langobardia or Lombardy. A number of archaeological sites in the region, such as Monte Poggiolo, show that Romagna has been inhabited since the Paleolithic age.
The Umbri, speaking an extinct Italic language called Umbrian, are the first traceable inhabitants of the region. The Etruscans dwelt in some portions of Romagna. In the 5th Century BC, various Gaulish tribes, most notably the Lingones and Boii, moved south into Italy, sacked Rome in 390 BC; the Senoni utterly settled in Romagna. The Senoni extended further south with their capital Sena Gallica; the lands inhabited by the Senoni were known as ager Gallicus to the Romans. According to the Italian linguist Giacomo Devoto, there are still a number of Celtic substrata in the Romagnolo dialect. Gallic predominance in the region was challenged by the Romans. In the battle of Telamon, the Romans defeated the joint forces of the Celtic tribes, thus achieving a hegemony over the new Roman Province of Cisalpine Gaul centred at Mutina. After the Second Punic War, the pro-Carthaginian Lingones and Senoni were expelled. To consolidate the Roman rule in the region, the Via Aemilia was built from Ariminium to Piacentia, a series of Roman colonies were founded.
The most significant ones are Forum Cornelii and Forum Popili. After the Social War, the Lex Julia was introduced in 90 BC, Roman citizenship was granted to all municipia south of the River Po. In the first Roman civil war, between Gaius Marius and Lucius Cornelius Sulla, most cities in the regions supported Marius; as a result, Forum Livii and Caesena were razed to ground, the region was looted by Sulla's army. During the first triumvirate, the Roman Republic was divided along the infamous Rubicon. Most of modern Romagna was ruled by Julius Caesar, the notable exception of Ariminium, south of the river. In 49 BC, residing in Ravenna led the Legio XIII across the Rubicon and ignited Caesar's civil war. After the decisive battle of Actium, Augustus started a century-long era of Pax Romana. All of Cisalpine Gaul had been incorporated into the Roman province of Italia. Around 7 BC, Augustus divided all of Italy into eleven regiones, most of Romagna was in the eighth, Aemilia. By the beginning of the 3rd Century, Diocletian re-divided the Empire into four prefectures, each divided into dioceses, into provinces.
Under the new system, Italy was demoted to a mere Imperial province. Modern Romagna was organized into the Roman province of Flaminia et Picenum in the diocese of Italia Annonaria. Ravenna, surrounded by swamps and marshes and rose in importance, a Roman fleet was based at the city, it had developed into a major port on the Adriatic. However, in 330, the capital of the Empire was transferred to Constantinople, so with the fleet that stationed at Ravenna, thus weakened the coastal defence in the Adriatic. Stepping into the 5th Century, the Germanic migrations into the Empire further intensified. In 402, Emperor Honorius moved the Western Roman Empire's capital from Mediolanum to Ravenna because of the region's defensive terrain. 8 years Alaric I of the Visigoths looted Rome. In 476, Odoacer deposed Romulus in Ravenna. Encouraged by Emperor Zeno, Theodoric the Great led the Ostrogoths into Italy, he entered Ravenna and murdered Odoacer in 493, establishing a twofold kingdom of the Romans and Goths.
Under the Ostrogoths Italy was restored to its former prosperity. In 535 Justinian I initiated the Gothic War, it was fought for 20 years, the Ostrogoths were subjugated. The peninsula and devastated, was ruled by an exarch from Ravenna. However, Imperial authority was maintained for more than a decade. In 568 new Germanic tribes, the Lombards, entered Italy, established their capital at Pavia; the Empire could defend the region around Ravenna and Rome, connected by a narrow strip of land passing through Perugia, as well as a series of coastal cities. The Imperial frontier retreated to Bologna. In 727 the Lombard King Liutprand renewed war against the Byzantines, taking most of Romagna and besieging Ravenna itself; these territories were returned to the Byzantines in 730. In 737 the king took Ravenna; the exarch, retook the region in 740, with Venetian assistance. Another Lombard king, Aistu
Battle of the Little Bighorn
The Battle of the Little Bighorn, known to the Lakota and other Plains Indians as the Battle of the Greasy Grass and commonly referred to as Custer's Last Stand, was an armed engagement between combined forces of the Lakota, Northern Cheyenne, Arapaho tribes and the 7th Cavalry Regiment of the United States Army. The battle, which resulted in the defeat of US forces, was the most significant action of the Great Sioux War of 1876, it took place on June 25–26, 1876, along the Little Bighorn River in the Crow Indian Reservation in southeastern Montana Territory. The fight was an overwhelming victory for the Lakota, Northern Cheyenne, Arapaho, who were led by several major war leaders, including Crazy Horse and Chief Gall, had been inspired by the visions of Sitting Bull; the US 7th Cavalry, a force of 700 men, suffered a major defeat while under the command of Lieutenant Colonel George Armstrong Custer. Five of the 7th Cavalry's twelve companies were annihilated and Custer was killed, as were two of his brothers, a nephew and a brother-in-law.
The total US casualty count included 268 dead and 55 wounded, including four Crow Indian scouts and at least two Arikara Indian scouts. Public response to the Great Sioux War varied in the immediate aftermath of the battle. Custer's widow soon worked to burnish her husband's memory, during the following decades Custer and his troops came to be considered iconic heroic, figures in American history; the battle, Custer's actions in particular, have been studied extensively by historians. Little Bighorn Battlefield National Monument honors those. In 1805, fur trader Francois Antoine Larocque reported joining a Crow camp in the Yellowstone area. On the way he noted that the Crow hunted buffalo on the "Small Horn River"; the US built Fort Raymond in 1807 for trade with the Crow. It was located near the confluence of the Yellowstone and the Bighorn River, about 40 miles north of the future battlefield; the area is first noted in the 1851 Treaty of Fort Laramie. In the latter half of the 19th century, tensions increased between the Native inhabitants of the Great Plains of the US and encroaching settlers.
This resulted in a series of conflicts known as the Sioux Wars, which took place from 1854-90. While some of the indigenous people agreed to relocate to ever-shrinking reservations, a number of them resisted, at times fiercely. On May 7, 1868, the valley of the Little Bighorn became a tract in the eastern part of the new Crow Indian Reservation in the center of the old Crow country. There were numerous skirmishes between the Sioux and Crow tribes so when the Sioux were in the valley in 1876 without the consent of the Crow tribe, the Crow supported the US Army to expel them; the battlefield is known as "Greasy Grass" to the Lakota, Dakota and most other Plains Indians. Among the Plains Tribes, the long-standing ceremonial tradition known as the Sun Dance was the most important religious event of the year, it is a time for prayer and personal sacrifice on behalf of the community, as well as making personal vows. Towards the end of spring in 1876, the Lakota and the Cheyenne held a Sun Dance, attended by a number of "Agency Indians" who had slipped away from their reservations.
During a Sun Dance around June 5, 1876, on Rosebud Creek in Montana, Sitting Bull, the spiritual leader of the Hunkpapa Lakota had a vision of "soldiers falling into his camp like grasshoppers from the sky." At the same time US military officials were conducting a summer campaign to force the Lakota and the Cheyenne back to their reservations, using infantry and cavalry in a so-called "three-pronged approach". Col. John Gibbon's column of six companies of the 7th Infantry and four companies of the 2nd Cavalry marched east from Fort Ellis in western Montana on March 30 to patrol the Yellowstone River. Brig. Gen. George Crook's column of ten companies of the 3rd Cavalry, five companies of the 2nd Cavalry, two companies of the 4th Infantry, three companies of the 9th Infantry moved north from Fort Fetterman in the Wyoming Territory on May 29, marching toward the Powder River area. Brig. Gen. Alfred Terry's column, including twelve companies of the 7th Cavalry under Lt. Col. George Armstrong Custer's immediate command, Companies C and G of the 17th U.
S. Infantry, the Gatling gun detachment of the 20th Infantry departed westward from Fort Abraham Lincoln in the Dakota Territory on May 17, they were accompanied by teamsters and packers with 150 wagons and a large contingent of pack mules that reinforced Custer. Companies C, D, I of the 6th U. S. Infantry moved along the Yellowstone River from Fort Buford on the Missouri River to set up a supply depot and joined Terry on May 29 at the mouth of the Powder River, they were joined there by the steamboat Far West, loaded with 200 tons of supplies from Fort Lincoln. The 7th Cavalry had been created just after the American Civil War. Many men were veterans of the war, including most of the leading officers. A significant portion of the regiment had served 4-1/2 years at Fort Riley, during which time it fought one major engagement and numerous skirmishes, experiencing casualties of 36 killed and 27 wounded. Six other troopers had died of 51 in cholera epidemics. In November 1868, while
The Orsini affair comprised the diplomatic and legal consequences of the "Orsini attempt": the attempt made on 14 January 1858 by Felice Orsini, with other Italian nationalists and backed by English radicals, to assassinate Napoleon III in Paris. In the United Kingdom the Palmerston government fell within a month. After the assassination attempt, Cavour in Italy was able to make France his ally during the Risorgimento; the attack carried out by Orsini and his group was justified by its supporters in terms of the unification of Italy, a cause that Napoleon III was perceived as blocking. In the middle of the nineteenth century, this nationalist movement in favour of a united Italy, something that had not existed since Late Antiquity, drew widespread support from intellectuals, was championed by violent extremists; the expatriate Italian leader Giuseppe Mazzini worked a network of activists and fundraisers from London. British politics and diplomacy of this period assumed that political exiles and refugees should be given asylum.
In the period 1823 to the Aliens Act 1905, the United Kingdom did not attempt to control or register immigrants. The Orsini affair was a severe test of the consequences of this policy. Besides Mazzini, Alexandre Auguste Ledru-Rollin, Lajos Kossuth and Alexander Herzen had moved to London: and Napoleon III suspected Mazzini and Ledru-Rollin of being behind a series of attempts by Italians to kill him, of which Orsini's was only the most recent; the existing British law on conspiracy made it a misdemeanour, there was no extradition. In the year before the attack in Paris, Orsini had been a popular lecturer, touring in England and Scotland; the other main members of Orsini's group in the plot were both Italian and in England, where they were known as language teachers. Giovanni Andrea Pieri was living in Birmingham from 1853. Birmingham was to be a key location for the plot. Orsini had spent periods in England, had made numerous contacts; the immediate context of the "affair" was, his falling-out with the group known as the'Muswell Hill brigade', around William Henry Ashurst.
This occurred at some time during the middle of 1856. Orsini was a paid agent of Mazzini, but there was a terminal quarrel over some remarks he had made about Emilie Hawkes, a daughter of Ashurst, which were read by James Stansfeld, married to another of the daughters. According to Felix Moscheles, Stansfeld was opening Mazzini's letters by arrangement while Mazzini was out of the country. By 1857 Orsini was well known to have broken away and no longer claimed to be a "Mazzinian". Orsini's plot involved other radicals, he learned about the chemistry of explosives from William Mattieu Williams, whom he met in 1857. More centrally involved were George Jacob Holyoake. J. D. P. Hodge, a disciple of Orsini to whom he entrusted the care of one of his children, was involved, as was Simon François Bernard, an expatriate French surgeon and socialist. Allsop arranged for the manufacture of "Orsini bombs" with a firm in Birmingham, others tested them out in the countryside. Furthermore, Allsop provided Orsini with an old British passport under.
Orsini was arrested shortly afterwards. He was condemned to die by the guillotine, he left a detailed testament, addressed two letters to Napoleon III. He was executed on 13 March 1858, with Pieri who had planned to take part in the attack but had been arrested, at La Roquette. De Rudio, another assassin, was convicted but had his death sentence commuted to hard labour. Antonio Gomez, Orsini's servant, was sentenced to hard labour. One of Orsini's letters to Napoleon was read out in court by his counsel. Before the trials, early in February, Charles-Marie-Esprit Espinasse became minister of the Interior, his brief period in that post coincided with a time of internal repression in France, with the passing of the Loi de sûreté générale, numerous deportations of political opponents of the Emperor to French Algeria. An immediate result was that Count Alexandre Joseph Colonna-Walewski sent on January 20 a despatch to George Villiers, 4th Earl of Clarendon, requiring the British government to restrict the right of asylum.
The diplomatic consequences for Anglo-French relations were serious, over the next two years British military planning against a French invasion was stepped up. Walter Laqueur's opinion is; this was. In July 1858 he met Cavour secretly at Plombières-les-Bains; this diplomatic move and resulting agreement presaged the Second War of Italian Independence of the following year, in which France was allied to the Kingdom of Sardinia against the Habsburg Empire, at that time in control of northern Italy. In August 1858 Queen Victoria and Prince Albert visited Cherbourg, being welcomed by the Emperor and Empress, in a public show of reconciliation; the affair was exploited by Benjamin Disraeli, briefed by Ralph Anstruther Earle in the Paris embassy, against the Whig government of Lord Palmerston. Palmerston introduced into Parliament a Conspiracy to Murder Bill. Thomas Milner Gibson introduced a motion of censure on t
United States Army
The United States Army is the land warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces. It is one of the seven uniformed services of the United States, is designated as the Army of the United States in the United States Constitution; as the oldest and most senior branch of the U. S. military in order of precedence, the modern U. S. Army has its roots in the Continental Army, formed to fight the American Revolutionary War —before the United States of America was established as a country. After the Revolutionary War, the Congress of the Confederation created the United States Army on 3 June 1784 to replace the disbanded Continental Army; the United States Army considers itself descended from the Continental Army, dates its institutional inception from the origin of that armed force in 1775. As a uniformed military service, the U. S. Army is part of the Department of the Army, one of the three military departments of the Department of Defense; the U. S. Army is headed by a civilian senior appointed civil servant, the Secretary of the Army and by a chief military officer, the Chief of Staff of the Army, a member of the Joint Chiefs of Staff.
It is the largest military branch, in the fiscal year 2017, the projected end strength for the Regular Army was 476,000 soldiers. S. Army was 1,018,000 soldiers; as a branch of the armed forces, the mission of the U. S. Army is "to fight and win our Nation's wars, by providing prompt, land dominance, across the full range of military operations and the spectrum of conflict, in support of combatant commanders"; the branch participates in conflicts worldwide and is the major ground-based offensive and defensive force of the United States. The United States Army serves as the land-based branch of the U. S. Armed Forces. Section 3062 of Title 10, U. S. Code defines the purpose of the army as: Preserving the peace and security and providing for the defense of the United States, the Commonwealths and possessions and any areas occupied by the United States Supporting the national policies Implementing the national objectives Overcoming any nations responsible for aggressive acts that imperil the peace and security of the United StatesIn 2018, the Army Strategy 2018 articulated an eight-point addendum to the Army Vision for 2028.
While the Army Mission remains constant, the Army Strategy builds upon the Army's Brigade Modernization by adding focus to Corps and Division-level echelons. Modernization, reform for high-intensity conflict, Joint multi-domain operations are added to the strategy, to be completed by 2028; the Continental Army was created on 14 June 1775 by the Second Continental Congress as a unified army for the colonies to fight Great Britain, with George Washington appointed as its commander. The army was led by men who had served in the British Army or colonial militias and who brought much of British military heritage with them; as the Revolutionary War progressed, French aid and military thinking helped shape the new army. A number of European soldiers came on their own to help, such as Friedrich Wilhelm von Steuben, who taught Prussian Army tactics and organizational skills; the army fought numerous pitched battles and in the South in 1780–1781, at times using the Fabian strategy and hit-and-run tactics, under the leadership of Major General Nathanael Greene, hit where the British were weakest to wear down their forces.
Washington led victories against the British at Trenton and Princeton, but lost a series of battles in the New York and New Jersey campaign in 1776 and the Philadelphia campaign in 1777. With a decisive victory at Yorktown and the help of the French, the Continental Army prevailed against the British. After the war, the Continental Army was given land certificates and disbanded in a reflection of the republican distrust of standing armies. State militias became the new nation's sole ground army, with the exception of a regiment to guard the Western Frontier and one battery of artillery guarding West Point's arsenal. However, because of continuing conflict with Native Americans, it was soon realized that it was necessary to field a trained standing army; the Regular Army was at first small and after General St. Clair's defeat at the Battle of the Wabash, the Regular Army was reorganized as the Legion of the United States, established in 1791 and renamed the United States Army in 1796; the War of 1812, the second and last war between the United States and Great Britain, had mixed results.
The U. S. Army did not conquer Canada but it did destroy Native American resistance to expansion in the Old Northwest and it validated its independence by stopping two major British invasions in 1814 and 1815. After taking control of Lake Erie in 1813, the U. S. Army seized parts of western Upper Canada, burned York and defeated Tecumseh, which caused his Western Confederacy to collapse. Following U. S. victories in the Canadian province of Upper Canada, British troops who had dubbed the U. S. Army "Regulars, by God!", were able to capture and burn Washington, defended by militia, in 1814. The regular army, however proved they were professional and capable of defeating the British army during the invasions of Plattsburgh and Baltimore, prompting British agreement on the rejected terms of a status quo ante bellum. Two weeks after a treaty was signed, Andrew Jackson defeated the British in the Battle of New Orleans and Siege of Fort St. Philip, became a national hero. U. S. troops and sailors captured HMS Cyane and Penguin in the final engagements of the war.
Per the treaty, both sides (the United S
The Palais Garnier is a 1,979-seat opera house, built from 1861 to 1875 for the Paris Opera. It was called the Salle des Capucines, because of its location on the Boulevard des Capucines in the 9th arrondissement of Paris, but soon became known as the Palais Garnier, in recognition of its opulence and its architect, Charles Garnier; the theatre is often referred to as the Opéra Garnier and was known as the Opéra de Paris or the Opéra, as it was the primary home of the Paris Opera and its associated Paris Opera Ballet until 1989, when the Opéra Bastille opened at the Place de la Bastille. The Paris Opera now uses the Palais Garnier for ballet; the Palais Garnier has been called "probably the most famous opera house in the world, a symbol of Paris like Notre Dame Cathedral, the Louvre, or the Sacré Coeur Basilica." This is at least due to its use as the setting for Gaston Leroux's 1910 novel The Phantom of the Opera and the novel's subsequent adaptations in films and the popular 1986 musical.
Another contributing factor is that among the buildings constructed in Paris during the Second Empire, besides being the most expensive, it has been described as the only one, "unquestionably a masterpiece of the first rank." This opinion is far from unanimous however: the 20th-century French architect Le Corbusier once described it as "a lying art" and contended that the "Garnier movement is a décor of the grave". The Palais Garnier houses the Bibliothèque-Musée de l'Opéra de Paris, although the Library-Museum is no longer managed by the Opera and is part of the Bibliothèque Nationale de France; the museum is included in unaccompanied tours of the Palais Garnier. The opera was constructed in what Charles Garnier is said to have told the Empress Eugenie was "Napoleon III" style The Napoleon III style was eclectic, borrowed from many historical sources; these were combined with axial symmetry and modern techniques and materials, including the use of an iron framework, pioneered in other Napoleon III buildings, including the Bibliotheque Nationale and the markets of Les Halles.
The façade and the interior followed the Napoleon III style principle of leaving no space without decoration. Garnier used polychromy, or a variety of colors, for theatrical effect, achieved different varieties of marble and stone and gilded bronze; the façade of the Opera used seventeen different kinds of material, arranged in elaborate multicolored marble friezes and lavish statuary, many of which portray deities of Greek mythology. The principal façade is on the south side of the building, overlooking the Place de l'Opéra and terminates the perspective along the Avenue de l'Opéra. Fourteen painters and seventy-three sculptors participated in the creation of its ornamentation; the two gilded figural groups, Charles Gumery's L'Harmonie and La Poésie, crown the apexes of the principal façade's left and right avant-corps. They are both made of gilt copper electrotype; the bases of the two avant-corps are decorated with four major multi-figure groups sculpted by François Jouffroy, Jean-Baptiste Claude Eugène Guillaume, Jean-Baptiste Carpeaux, Jean-Joseph Perraud.
The façade incorporates other work by Gumery, Alexandre Falguière, others. Gilded galvanoplastic bronze busts of many of the great composers are located between the columns of the theatre's front façade and depict, from left to right, Auber, Mozart, Spontini and Halévy. On the left and right lateral returns of the front façade are busts of the librettists Eugène Scribe and Philippe Quinault, respectively; the sculptural group Apollo and Music, located at the apex of the south gable of the stage flytower, is the work of Aimé Millet, the two smaller bronze Pegasus figures at either end of the south gable are by Eugène-Louis Lequesne. Known as the Rotonde de l'Empereur, this group of rooms is located on the left side of the building and was designed to allow secure and direct access by the Emperor via a double ramp to the building; when the Empire fell, work stopped. It now houses the Bibliothèque-Musée de l'Opéra de Paris, home to nearly 600,000 documents including 100,000 books, 1,680 periodicals, 10,000 programs, letters, 100,000 photographs, sketches of costumes and sets and historical administrative records.
Located on the right side of the building as a counterpart to the Pavillon de l'Empereur, this pavilion was designed to allow subscribers direct access from their carriages to the interior of the building. It is covered by a 13.5-metre diameter dome. Paired obelisks mark the entrances to the rotunda on the south; the interior consists of interweaving corridors, stairwells and landings, allowing the movement of large numbers of people and space for socialising during intermission. Rich with velvet, gold leaf, cherubim and nymphs, the interior is characteristic of Baroque sumptuousness; the building features a large ceremonial staircase of white marble with a balustrade of red and green marble, which divides into two divergent flights of stairs that lead to the Grand Foyer. Its design was inspired by Victor Louis's grand staircase for the Théâtre de Bordeaux; the pedestals of the staircase are decorated with female torchères, created by Albert-Ernest
Vicenza is a city in northeastern Italy. It is in the Veneto region at the northern base of the Monte Berico, where it straddles the Bacchiglione River. Vicenza is 60 kilometres west of Venice and 200 kilometres east of Milan. Vicenza is a thriving and cosmopolitan city, with a rich history and culture, many museums, art galleries, villas and elegant Renaissance palazzi. With the Palladian Villas of the Veneto in the surrounding area, his renowned Teatro Olimpico, the "city of Palladio" has been listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 1994. In December 2008, Vicenza had an estimated population of 115,927 and a metropolitan area of 270,000. Vicenza is the third-largest Italian industrial centre as measured by the value of its exports, is one of the country's wealthiest cities, in large part due to its textile and steel industries, which employ tens of thousands. Additionally, about one fifth of the country's gold and jewelry is made in Vicenza contributing to the city's economy. Another important sector is the engineering/computer components industry.
Vicentia was settled by the Italic Euganei tribe and by the Paleo-Veneti tribe in the 3rd and 2nd centuries BC. The Romans allied themselves with the Paleo-Veneti in their fight against the Celtic tribes that populated north-western Italy; the Roman presence in the area grew exponentially over time and the Paleo-Veneti were assimilated. In 157 BC, the city was a de facto Roman centre and was given the name of Vicetia or Vincentia, meaning "victorious"; the citizens of Vicetia received Roman citizenship and were inscribed into the Roman tribe Romilia in 49 BC. The city was known for its agriculture, marble quarry, wool industry and had some importance as a way-station on the important road from Mediolanum to Aquileia, near Tergeste, but it was overshadowed by its neighbor Patavium. Little survives of the Roman city, but three of the bridges across the Bacchiglione and Retrone rivers are of Roman origin, isolated arches of a Roman aqueduct exist outside the Porta Santa Croce. During the decline of the Western Roman Empire, Vandals and his Visigoths, as well as the Huns laid waste to the area, but the city recovered after the Ostrogoth conquest in 489 AD, before being conquered by the Byzantine Empire soon after.
It was an important Lombard city and a Frankish center. Numerous Benedictine monasteries were built beginning in the 6th century. In 899, Vicenza was destroyed by Magyar raiders. In 1001, Otto III handed over the government of the city to the bishop, its communal organization had an opportunity to develop, separating soon from the episcopal authority, it took an active part in the League with Verona and, most of all, in the Lombard League against Emperor Frederick I Barbarossa compelling Padua and Treviso to join: its podestà, Ezzelino II il Balbo, was captain of the league. When peace was restored, the old rivalry with Padua and other cities was renewed, besides which there were the internal factions of the Vivaresi and the Maltraversi; the tyrannical Ezzelino III from Bassano drove the Guelphs out of Vicenza, caused his brother, Alberico, to be elected podestà. The independent commune joined the Second Lombard League against Emperor Frederick II, was sacked by that monarch, after which it was annexed to Ezzelino's dominions.
On his death the old oligarchic republic political structure was restored – a consiglio maggiore of four hundred members and a consiglio minore of forty members – and it formed a league with Padua and Verona. Three years the Vicentines entrusted the protection of the city to Padua, so as to safeguard republican liberty. Vicenza came under rule of Venice in 1404, its subsequent history is that of Venice, it was besieged by the Emperor Sigismund, Maximilian I held possession of it in 1509 and 1516. Vicenza was a candidate to host the Council of Trent; the 16th century was the time of Andrea Palladio, who left many outstanding examples of his art with palaces and villas in the city's territory, which before Palladio's passage, was arguably the most downtrodden and esthetically lacking city of the Veneto. After 1797, under Napoleonic rule, it was made a duché grand-fief within Napoleon's personal Kingdom of Italy for general Caulaincourt imperial Grand-Écuyer. After 1814, Vicenza passed to the Austrian Empire.
In 1848, the populace rose against Austria, more violently than in any other Italian centre apart from Milan and Brescia. As a part of the Kingdom of Lombardy-Venetia, it was annexed to Italy after the Third War of Italian independence. Vicenza's area was a location of major combat in both World War I and World War II, it was the most damaged city in Veneto by Allied bombings, including many of its monuments; the end of World War II was followed by a period of depression, caused by the devastation during the two world wars. In t