History of Argentina
The history of Argentina can be divided into four main parts: the pre-Columbian time or early history, the colonial period, the period of nation-building, the history of modern Argentina. Prehistory in the present territory of Argentina began with the first human settlements on the southern tip of Patagonia around 13,000 years ago. Written history began with the arrival of Spanish chroniclers in the expedition of Juan Díaz de Solís in 1516 to the Río de la Plata, which marks the beginning of Spanish occupation of this region. In 1776 the Spanish Crown established the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata, an umbrella of territories from which, with the Revolution of May 1810, began a process of gradual formation of several independent states, including one called the United Provinces of Río de la Plata. With the declaration of independence on July 9, 1816 and the military defeat of the Spanish Empire in 1824, a federal state was formed in 1853-1861, known today as the Republic of Argentina; the area now known as Argentina was sparsely populated until the period of European colonization.
The earliest traces of human life are dated from the Paleolithic period, there are further signs in the Mesolithic and Neolithic. However, large areas of the interior and Piedmont were depopulated during an extensive dry period between 4000 and 2000 B. C; the Uruguayan archaeologist Raúl Campá Soler divided the indigenous peoples in Argentina into three main groups: basic hunters and food gatherers, without the development of pottery. The second group could be found in the pampas and south of Patagonia, the third one included the Charrúa and Minuane and the Guaraní; the major ethnic groups included the Onas at Tierra del Fuego, Yámana at the archipelago between the Beagle Channel and Cape Horn, Tehuelche in the Patagonia, many peoples at the literal, guaycurúes and, at Chaco. The Guaraní had expanded across large areas of South America, but settled in the northeastern provinces of Argentina; the Toba nation and the Diaguita which included the Calchaqui and the Quilmes lived in the North and the Comechingones in what is today the province of Cordoba.
The Charrúa, Bohán and Chaná were people located in the actual territory of Entre Ríos and the Querandí in Buenos Aires. In the late 15th century, the Native tribes of the Quebrada de Humahuaca were conquered by the Inca Empire, under Topa Inca Yupanqui, to secure the supply of metals such as silver and copper; the Incan domination of the area lasted for about half a century and ended with the arrival of the Spanish in 1536. Europeans first arrived in the region with the 1502 Portuguese voyage of Gonçalo Coelho and Amerigo Vespucci. Around 1512, João de Lisboa and Estevão de Fróis discovered the Rio de La Plata in present-day Argentina, exploring its estuary, contacting the Charrúa people, bringing the first news of the "people of the mountains", the Inca empire, obtained from the local natives, they traveled as far south as the Gulf of San Matias at 42ºS, on the northern shores of Patagonia. The Spanish, led by Juan Díaz de Solís, visited the territory, now Argentina in 1516. In 1536 Pedro de Mendoza established a small settlement at the modern location of Buenos Aires, abandoned in 1541.
A second one was established in 1580 by Juan de Garay, Córdoba in 1573 by Jerónimo Luis de Cabrera. Those regions were part of the Viceroyalty of Peru, whose capital was Lima, settlers arrived from that city. Unlike the other regions of South America, the colonization of the Río de la Plata estuary was not influenced by any gold rush, since it lacked any precious metals to mine; the natural ports on the Río de la Plata estuary could not be used because all shipments were meant to be made through the port of Callao near Lima, a condition that led to contraband becoming the normal means of commerce in cities such as Asunción, Buenos Aires, Montevideo. The Spanish raised the status of this region by establishing the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata in 1776; this viceroyalty consisted of today's Argentina and Paraguay, as well as much of present-day Bolivia. Buenos Aires, now holding the customs of the new political subdivision, became a flourishing port, as the revenues from the Potosí, the increasing maritime activity in terms of goods rather than precious metals, the production of cattle for the export of leather and other products, other political reasons, made it become one of the most important commercial centers of the region.
The viceroyalty was, short-lived due to lack of internal cohesion among its many regions and lack of Spanish support. Ships from Spain became scarce again after the Spanish defeat at the battle of Trafalgar, that gave the British maritime supremacy; the British tried to invade Buenos Aires and Montevideo in 1806 and 1807, but were defeated both times by Santiago de Liniers. Those victories, achieved without help from mainland Spain, boosted the confidence of the city; the beginning of the Peninsular War in Spain and the capture of the Spanish king Ferdinand VII created great concern all around the viceroyalty. It was thought; this idea led to multiple attempts to remove the local authorities at Chuquisaca, La Paz and Buenos Aires, all of which were short-lived. A new successful attempt, the May Revolution of 1810, took place when it was reported that all of Spain, with the exception of Cádiz and León, had been conquered; the May Revolution ousted the viceroy. Other forms of government, such as a constitutional monarchy or a Regency were considered.
Algo habrán hecho por la historia argentina
Algo habrán hecho is a documentary film for television that narrates the history of Argentina. It was created by the Argentine historian Felipe Pigna. In the first two seasons Mario Pergolini was a co-presenter of it, but after giving up on all works on television his role in the documentary was taken by Juan Di Natale. Di Natale and Pergolini were by that time co-presenters of the talk show Caiga quien caiga. Di Natale pointed that he was not meant to act as if he was Pergolini, but the script writers wrote instead the scripts based on his own personality; the first season, aired in 2005 on Canal 13, narrates the history of Argentina from the British invasions of the Río de la Plata to the fall of Juan Manuel de Rosas during the Battle of Caseros. The second season, aired in 2006 on Telefé, resumes the narration from that point and continues up to the suicide of Leandro N. Alem in 1896; the third one, aired in 2008 on Telefé, resumes as well from the end of previous season and ends with the meeting of Juan Domingo Perón and Eva Duarte at the Luna Park during a fund-raising to help after the San Juan earthquake.
The documentary uses 3 main styles. One style is the use of actors to represent certain key circumstances. A second style is the plain explanation of the things taking place, a third style was some limited interaction of the presenters with the historical characters portrayed or the social circumstances depicted; the third season had fewer historical reconstructions than the others, more explanations by Pigna and Di Natale. The documentary earned two Martín Fierro Awards and one Clarin award
HBO is an American premium cable and satellite television network owned by the namesake unit Home Box Office, Inc. a division of AT&T's WarnerMedia. The program which featured on the network consists of theatrically released motion pictures and original television shows, along with made-for-cable movies and occasional comedy and concert specials. HBO is the oldest and longest continuously operating pay television service in the United States, having been in operation since November 8, 1972. In 2016, HBO had an adjusted operating income of US$1.93 billion, compared to the US$1.88 billion it accrued in 2015. HBO has 130 million subscribers worldwide as of 2016; the network provides seven 24-hour multiplex channels, including HBO Comedy, HBO Latino, HBO Signature, HBO Family. It launched the streaming service HBO Now in April 2015 and has over 2 million subscribers in the United States as of February 2017; as of July 2015, HBO's programming is available to 36,493,000 households with at least one television set in the United States, making it the second largest premium channel in the United States.
In addition to its U. S. subscriber base, HBO distributes content in at least 151 countries, with 130 million subscribers worldwide. HBO subscribers pay for an extra tier of service that includes other cable- and satellite-exclusive channels before paying for the channel itself. However, a regulation imposed by the Federal Communications Commission requires that cable providers allow subscribers to get just "limited" basic cable and premium services such as HBO, without subscribing to expanded service. Cable providers can require the use of a converter box—usually digital—in order to receive HBO. HBO provides its content through digital media. HBO maintains near-ubiquitous distribution in hotels across the United States through agreements with DirecTV, Echostar, SONIFI Solutions, Satellite Management Services, Inc. Telerent Leasing Corporation, Total Media Concepts and World Cinema as well as cable providers that maintain hospitality service arrangements with individual hotels and local franchises of national hotel/motel chains.
Since June 2018, through a content partnership with Enseo, HBO Go is distributed to some Marriott International hotels around the U. S.. Many HBO programs have been syndicated to other networks and broadcast television stations, a number of HBO-produced series and films have been released on DVD. Since HBO's more successful series air on over-the-air broadcasters in other countries, HBO's programming has the potential of being exposed to a higher percentage of the population of those countries compared to the United States; because of the cost of HBO, many Americans only view HBO programs through DVDs or in basic cable or broadcast syndication—months or years after these programs have first aired on the network—and with editing for both content and to allow advertising, although several series have filmed alternate "clean" scenes intended for syndication runs. In 1965, Charles Dolan—who had done pioneering work in the commercial use of cables and had developed Teleguide, a closed-circuit tourist information television system distributed to hotels in the New York metropolitan area—won a franchise to build a cable television system in the Lower Manhattan section of New York City.
The new system, which Dolan named "Sterling Information Services", became the first urban underground cable televisi
Juan José Castelli
Juan José Castelli was an Argentine lawyer. He was one of the leaders of the May Revolution, he led an ill-fated military campaign in Upper Peru. Juan José Castelli was born in Buenos Aires, went to school at the Real Colegio de San Carlos in Buenos Aires and Monserrat College in the city of Córdoba, Argentina, he graduated as a lawyer in Upper Peru. His cousin, Manuel Belgrano, introduced him to the public administration of the Viceroyalty of the Rio de la Plata. Along with Belgrano, Nicolás Rodríguez Peña, Hipólito Vieytes, Castelli planned a revolution to replace the absolute monarchy with the new ideas of the Age of Enlightenment, he led the Buenos Aires patriots during the May Revolution, which ended with the removal of viceroy Baltasar Hidalgo de Cisneros from power. He is known as the "Speaker of the Revolution" for his speech during the open cabildo held in Buenos Aires on May 22, 1810. Castelli was appointed a Committee member of the Primera Junta and was sent to Córdoba to end Santiago de Liniers's counter-revolution.
He succeeded, ordered the execution of Liniers and his supporters. He commanded the establishment of a revolutionary government in Upper Peru with the aim of freeing the indigenous peoples and African slaves. In 1811 Castelli signed a truce with the Spanish in Upper Peru, but they betrayed him and caught the Northern Army unprepared; as a result, the Argentines suffered a major loss in the Battle of Huaqui on June 20, 1811. When Castelli returned to Buenos Aires, the First Triumvirate imprisoned him for losing the battle, Castelli died shortly afterwards from tongue cancer. Castelli was born in Buenos Aires in 1764, he was the first of eight children born to a Venetian doctor, Ángel Castelli Salomón, Josefa Villarino, a relative of Manuel Belgrano. He was trained by the Jesuits shortly before their expulsion, attended the Real Colegio de San Carlos in Buenos Aires; as was customary, one of the children of the Castelli family was ordained into the priesthood, Juan José was chosen for this. He was sent to study at the Colegio Monserrat, part of the University of Córdoba.
He was influenced by the works of Voltaire and Diderot, by Jean-Jacques Rousseau's The Social Contract. He was a fellow student of men who would have influence in the public life of South America, including Saturnino Rodríguez Peña, Juan José Paso, Manuel Alberti, Pedro Medrano, Juan Martínez de Rozas, among others, he focused on studying philosophy and theology, but when his father died in 1785, he abandoned his career in the priesthood, for which he felt no strong vocation. Rejecting his mother's proposal of sending him to study in Spain at the University of Salamanca and Alcalá de Henares, alongside his cousin Manuel Belgrano, he enrolled in jurisprudence studies in the University of Chuquisaca, in the Upper Peru. There, he learned about the ongoing French Revolution, the new ideas of the Age of Enlightenment, he learned about the 1782 Rebellion of Túpac Amaru II and the oppression of the indigenous peoples, which influenced his actions in his future Upper Peru campaign. Before returning to Buenos Aires, he visited Potosí and witnessed the use of slave labor in the mines.
Castelli established a legal firm in his family home. He represented the University of Córdoba in various causes, as well as his uncle, Domingo Belgrano Peri. Through his associations with Saturnino Rodríguez Peña, he met and befriended his brother, Nicolás Rodríguez Peña, his associate, Hipólito Vieytes. Castelli married María Rosa Lynch in 1794, they had seven children: Angela, Luciano, Francisco José, Juana. Like many other nineteenth century Argentines prominent in public life, he was a freemason; the intellectuals of the viceroyalty received and secretly distributed a copy of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen, promulgated by the French Revolution in 1789. Meanwhile, Belgrano returned from his studies in Europe, was appointed as Perpetual Secretary of the new Consulate of Commerce of Buenos Aires. Belgrano and Castelli shared similar ideas about the Spanish trade monopoly and the rights of the natives. Belgrano attempted to appoint Castelli as interim Secretary of the Consulate as his assistant, but faced strong opposition from the peninsular merchants, who delayed the appointment until 1796.
Belgrano became ill during his stay in Europe, which forced him to take extended leaves from work, wanted Castelli to be his successor if he resigned. There was a similar opposition during the 1799 election of delegates to the Buenos Aires Cabildo: Castelli was elected as third Regidor, but was rejected by merchants associated with the port of Cádiz; the conflict lasted a year, until the prominent local merchant Cornelio Saavedra wrote a memorandum recommending Castelli. Viceroy Avilés confirmed him in office by royal decree, in May 1800. Castelli, rejected the post because of his high workload in the Consulate; this was seen as an insult by peninsular merchants such as Martín de Álzaga, influential in the Cabildo. Castelli and Belgrano backed a pair of projects from Francisco Cabello y Mesa, who had just arrived from Spain. Cabello proposed the creation of a "Patriotic and Economic Society" lodge and the publication of a newspaper; this newspaper, the first one published in Buenos Aires, was named Telégrafo Mercantil.
However, both projects were short-lived: the lodge was never established and its activities were banned by royal decree, the Consulate was instructed to withdraw support for the newspaper, closed. Published by Castelli and Belgrano (secretary of the pu
Manuel José Joaquín del Corazón de Jesús Belgrano y González referred to as Manuel Belgrano, was an Argentine economist, lawyer and military leader. He created the Flag of Argentina, he is regarded as one of the main Libertadores of the country. Belgrano was born in Buenos Aires, the fourth child of Italian businessman Domingo Belgrano y Peri and Josefa Casero, he came into contact with the ideas of the Age of Enlightenment while at university in Spain around the time of the French Revolution. Upon his return to the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata, where he became a notable member of the criollo population of Buenos Aires, he tried to promote some of the new political and economic ideals, but found severe resistance from local peninsulars; this rejection led him to work towards a greater autonomy for his country from the Spanish colonial regime. At first, he unsuccessfully promoted the aspirations of Carlota Joaquina to become a regent ruler for the Viceroyalty during the period the Spanish King Ferdinand VII was imprisoned during the Peninsular War.
He favoured the May Revolution, which removed the viceroy Baltasar Hidalgo de Cisneros from power on 25 May 1810. He was elected as a voting member of the Primera Junta; as a delegate for the Junta, he led the ill-fated Paraguay campaign. His troops were defeated by Bernardo de Velasco at the battles of Campichuelo and Paraguarí. Though he was defeated, the campaign initiated the chain of events that led to the Independence of Paraguay in May 1811, he retreated to the vicinity of Rosario, to fortify it against a possible royalist attack from the Eastern Band of the Uruguay River. While there, he created the flag of Argentina; the First Triumvirate did not approve the flag, but because of slow communications, Belgrano would only learn of that many weeks while reinforcing the Army of the North at Jujuy. There, knowing he was at a strategic disadvantage against the royalist armies coming from Upper Peru, Belgrano ordered the Jujuy Exodus, which evacuated the entire population of Jujuy Province to San Miguel de Tucumán.
His counter-offensive at the Battle of Tucumán resulted in a key strategic victory, it was soon followed by a complete victory over the royalist army of Pío Tristán at the Battle of Salta. However, his deeper incursions into Upper Perú led to defeats at Vilcapugio and Ayohuma, leading the Second Triumvirate to order his replacement as Commander of the Army of the North by the newly arrived José de San Martín. By the Asamblea del Año XIII had approved the use of Belgrano's flag as the national war flag. Belgrano went on a diplomatic mission to Europe along with Bernardino Rivadavia to seek support for the revolutionary government, he returned in time to take part in the Congress of Tucumán. He promoted the Inca plan to create a constitutional monarchy with an Inca descendant as Head of State; this proposal had the support of San Martín, Martín Miguel de Güemes, many provincial delegates, but was rejected by the delegates from Buenos Aires. The Congress of Tucumán approved the use of his flag as the national flag.
After this, Belgrano again took command of the Army of the North, but his mission was limited to protecting San Miguel de Tucumán from royalist advances while San Martín prepared the Army of the Andes for an alternative offensive across the Andes. When Buenos Aires was about to be invaded by José Gervasio Artigas and Estanislao López, he moved the Army southwards, but his troops mutinied in January 1820. Belgrano died of dropsy on 20 June 1820, his last words were: "¡Ay, Patria mía!". Manuel José Joaquín del Corazón de Jesús Belgrano was born in Buenos Aires on 3 June 1770, at his father's house, it was located near the Santo Domingo convent, at Santo Domingo street, between the streets Martín de Tours and Santísima Trinidad. Though the city was still rather small, the Belgranos lived at one of the wealthiest neighbourhoods. Manuel Belgrano was baptised at the Buenos Aires Metropolitan Cathedral the following day; as he was born in the Americas he was considered a social class below the Peninsulars.
His father Domenico was Ligurian, from the town of Italy. His maternal last name was Peri, he changed his name "Domenico" to the Spanish "Domingo" as well. He was an Italian merchant authorised by the King of Spain to move to the Americas, had contacts in Spain, Rio de Janeiro, Britain, he promoted the establishment of the Commerce Consulate of Buenos Aires, which his son Manuel would lead years later. Belgrano's mother was María Josefa González Islas y Casero, born in the city of Santiago del Estero, Argentina; the family was the second richest in Buenos Aires, after the Escaladas. They had 16 sons. Domingo Belgrano Pérez managed a family business, arranged for his four daughters to marry merchants who would become his trusted agents in the Banda Oriental, Misiones Province, Spain; the eight living male sons followed different paths: Domingo José Estanislao became canon at the local cathedral, while Carlos José and José Gregorio joined the army. Manuel Belgrano was meant to follow his father's work, but when he developed other interests, it was his brother Francisco José María de Indias who continued the family business.
Belgrano completed his first studies at the San Carlos school, where he learned Latin, logic, physics
Système universitaire de documentation
The système universitaire de documentation or SUDOC is a system used by the libraries of French universities and higher education establishments to identify and manage the documents in their possession. The catalog, which contains more than 10 million references, allows students and researcher to search for bibliographical and location information in over 3,400 documentation centers, it is maintained by the Bibliographic Agency for Higher Education. Official website
Mariano Moreno was an Argentine lawyer and politician. He played a decisive role in the Primera Junta, the first national government of Argentina, created after the May Revolution. Moreno was born in Buenos Aires in 1778, his father was Manuel Moreno y Argumosa, born in Santander, who arrived in the city in 1776 and married María del Valle. Mariano had thirteen brothers. During his youth he studied Latin and philosophy at San Carlos Royal College, followed by college studies of law at Chuquisaca. During these studies, he learned the new ideas of the Spanish Enlightenment, he married María Guadalupe Cuenca and returned to Buenos Aires, becoming a prominent lawyer for the Cabildo. Unlike most other criollos, he rejected the Carlotist project and the administration of Santiago de Liniers, joining instead the ill-fated mutiny of Álzaga against him, he worked for Baltasar Hidalgo de Cisneros. He wrote the economic paper The Representation of the Landowners, which persuaded the viceroy to open trade with Britain.
Although he was not prominently involved in the May Revolution that deposed Cisneros, he was appointed as secretary of war of the new government, the Primera Junta. Along with Juan José Castelli, he promoted harsh policies against the supporters of the former government and the strengthening of the new one; these policies were detailed in the Operations plan. Moreno organized military campaigns to Paraguay and Upper Peru and ensured the execution of Santiago de Liniers after the defeat of his counter-revolution, he established the first Argentine newspaper, La Gazeta de Buenos Ayres, translated Jean-Jacques Rousseau's The Social Contract into Spanish. When the Junta achieved the first military victories, President Cornelio Saavedra opposed Moreno, favoring moderate policies instead. Allied with Gregorio Funes, Saavedra expanded the number of members of the Junta to leave Morenism in a minority. With disputes still going on, Moreno was appointed to a diplomatic mission to Britain but died at sea on the way there.
His brother Manuel Moreno alleged. His supporters were still an influential political party for some years after his death. Historians hold several perspectives about the role and historical significance of Moreno, from hagiography to repudiation, he is considered the precursor of Argentine journalism. Mariano Moreno was the eldest of 14 children of poor parents, Manuel Moreno y Argumosa and Ana María Valle, he studied at Colegio Grande de San Carlos, but without living in it, as his family could not afford the price. He graduated with an honorary diploma, he met influential people within the literary field, who helped him to continue his studies at the University of Chuquisaca when his father could not afford the cost. This was the only big university in South America at the time, he studied the books of Montesquieu, Denis Diderot, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, other European philosophers of the Age of Enlightenment. He studied French languages as well, to understand authors from Britain and France; this allowed him to work as a translator, he spent several years working with Rousseau's The Social Contract.
Moreno was convinced that society could be changed by the power of reason. He studied philosophical texts of the Spanish Enlightenment under the tutelage of the priest Terrazas and aspired to implement the new ideas in his country, he wrote a thesis with strong criticism of the native slavery at the mines of Potosí, influenced by the Spanish jurist Juan de Solorzano Pereira, the foremost publisher of Indian Law, Victoria Villalva, fiscal of the Audiencia of Charcas and defender of the indigenous cause. He started his professional career between 1803 and 1804, in the office of Augustine Gascón, officiating as labor counselor for Indians; as a result, he confronted powerful people like the mayors of Chayanta. He left the city after being threatened and returned to Buenos Aires in 1805 with his wife Maria Guadalupe Cuenca and their newborn son. Once in the city, he became a reporter of the hearings of the Royal Audiencia, a local appeallate court; the Buenos Aires Cabildo, the local council, hired him as an advisor as well.
He defended Melchor Fernández, aggrieved by Bishop Benito Lue y Riega, in one of his first cases. In another of his early disputes, he backed the Cabildo in denying the appointment as an ensign of the young Bernardino Rivadavia. A British army invaded Buenos Aires in 1806. Although Moreno was not involved with the military counter-offensive which drove them out, he opposed the British presence in Buenos Aires, he wrote a diary that noted all the events, so that, in the future, his countrymen would know the circumstances that allowed such an invasion. The British made a new attack in this time invading Montevideo, they published a bilingual English–Spanish newspaper known as "The Southern Star" or "La estrella del sur". It advocated free trade, a British goal, promoted American independence under British protection; the Royal Audiencia of Buenos Aires banned the newspaper and requested Moreno to write articles refuting those of the British publication. Moreno refused because, although he did not accept British rule, he agreed with some of their criticisms of the Spanish government.
Fearing a new attack to Buenos Aires, Moreno left the city with his whole family and relocated in the countryside. His house in Buenos Aires, left unoccupied, was used to keep prisoner William Carr Beresford, the Britis