Felix the Cat is a funny-animal cartoon character created in the silent film era. The anthropomorphic black cat with his black body, white eyes, giant grin, coupled with the surrealism of the situations in which his cartoons place him, combine to make Felix one of the most recognized cartoon characters in film history. Felix was the first character from animation to attain a level of popularity sufficient to draw movie audiences. Felix originated from the studio of Australian cartoonist/film entrepreneur Pat Sullivan. Either Sullivan himself or his lead animator, American Otto Messmer, created the character. What is certain is that Felix emerged from Sullivan's studio, cartoons featuring the character enjoyed success and popularity in popular culture. Aside from the animated shorts, Felix starred in a comic strip beginning in 1923, his image soon adorned merchandise such as ceramics and postcards. Several manufacturers made stuffed Felix toys. Jazz bands such as Paul Whiteman's played songs about him.
By the late 1920s, with the arrival of sound cartoons, Felix's success was fading. The new Disney shorts of Mickey Mouse made the silent offerings of Sullivan and Messmer, who were unwilling to move to sound production, seem outdated. In 1929, Sullivan decided to make the transition and began distributing Felix sound cartoons through Copley Pictures; the sound Felix shorts proved to be a failure and the operation ended in 1932. Felix saw a brief three-cartoon resurrection in 1936 by the Van Beuren Studios. Felix cartoons began airing on American TV in 1953. Joe Oriolo introduced a redesigned, "long-legged" Felix, added new characters and gave Felix a "Magic Bag of Tricks" that could assume an infinite variety of shapes at Felix's behest; the cat has since starred in two feature films. As of the 2010s, Felix is featured on a variety of merchandise from clothing to toys. Joe's son Don assumed creative control of Felix. In 2002, TV Guide ranked Felix the Cat number 28 on its "50 Greatest Cartoon Characters of All Time" list.
In 2014, Joe Oriolo's son Don Oriolo sold the rights to the character to DreamWorks Animation, now part of Comcast's NBCUniversal division via Universal Pictures. On November 9, 1919, Master Tom, a prototype of Felix, debuted in a Paramount Pictures short entitled Feline Follies. Produced by the New York City-based animation studio owned by Pat Sullivan, the cartoon was directed by cartoonist and animator Otto Messmer, it was a success, the Sullivan studio set to work on producing another film featuring Master Tom, the Felix the Cat prototype in Musical Mews. It too proved to be successful with audiences. Otto Messmer claimed that John King of Paramount Magazine suggested the name "Felix", after the Latin words felis and felix; the name was first used for the third film starring The Adventures of Felix. Pat Sullivan claimed he named Felix after Australia Felix from Australian literature. In 1924, animator Bill Nolan redesigned the character, making him both cuter. Felix's new looks, coupled with Messmer's character animation, brought Felix to gain a higher profile.
The question of who created. Sullivan stated in numerous newspaper interviews that he created Felix and did the key drawings for the character. On a visit to Australia in 1925, Sullivan told The Argus newspaper that "he idea was given to me by the sight of a cat which my wife brought to the studio one day". On other occasions, he claimed that Felix had been inspired by Rudyard Kipling's "The Cat that Walked by Himself" or by his wife's love for strays. Members of the Australian Cartoonist Association have claimed that lettering used in Feline Follies matches Sullivan's handwriting and that Sullivan lettered within his drawings. In addition, at the 4:00 mark Feline Follies, the words'Lo Mum' are used in a speech bubble by one of the kittens, yet Messmer claimed to have single-handedly drawn Feline Follies from home, raising questions as to why an American would use the term'Mum' in a cartoon he drew himself. Sullivan's supporters say the case is supported by his March 18, 1917, release of a cartoon short entitled The Tail of Thomas Kat more than two years prior to Feline Follies.
Both an Australian ABC-TV documentary screened in 2004 and the curators of an exhibition at the State Library of New South Wales in 2005 suggested that Thomas Kat was a prototype or precursor of Felix. However, few details of Thomas have survived, his fur color has not been definitively established, the surviving copyright synopsis for the short suggests significant differences between Thomas and the Felix. For example, whereas the Felix magically transforms his tail into tools and other objects, Thomas is a non-anthropomorphized cat who loses his tail in a fight with a rooster, never to recover it. Sullivan was the studio proprietor and—as is the case with all film entrepreneurs—he owned the copyright to any creative work by his employees. In common with many animators at the time, Messmer was not credited. After Sullivan's death in 1933, his estate in Australia took ownership of the character, it was not until after Sullivan's death that Sullivan staffers such as Hal Walker, Al Eugster, Gerry Geronimi, Rudy Zamora, George Cannata, Sullivan's own lawyer, Harry Kopp, credited Messmer with Felix's creation.
They claimed that Felix was based on an animated Charlie Chaplin that Messmer had animated for Sullivan's studio earlier on. The down-and-out personality and movements of the cat in F
IE Tab is an extension for the Google Chrome web browser. The extension allows users to view pages using the Internet Explorer layout engine; this can be used for viewing pages that only render properly, or work in Internet Explorer. IE Tab was conceived by a Taiwanese medical student, Hong Jen Yee, he first provided a simple demonstration page. Other Taiwan developers created an extension to facilitate the use of the plugin. With some instructions for XPCOM usage from European Mozilla developer Christian Biesinger, the plugin and extension were integrated forming the prototype of IE Tab; the tool was released on mozdev.org and the MozillaZine forum. The original developer, Hong Jen Yee, abandoned the project in 2006, but subsequent development has been carried on by Blackfish Software since 2009. IE Tab for Chrome IE Tab for Firefox
The Buddhist crisis was a period of political and religious tension in South Vietnam between May and November 1963, characterized by a series of repressive acts by the South Vietnamese government and a campaign of civil resistance, led by Buddhist monks. The crisis was precipitated by the shootings of nine unarmed civilians on May 8 in the central city of Huế who were protesting a ban of the Buddhist flag; the crisis ended with a coup in November 1963 by the Army of the Republic of Vietnam, the arrest and assassination of President Ngô Đình Diệm on November 2, 1963. In South Vietnam, a country where the Buddhist majority was estimated to comprise between 70 and 90 percent of the population in 1963, President Ngô Đình Diệm's pro-Catholic policies antagonized many Buddhists. A member of the Catholic minority, Diệm headed a government, biased towards Catholics in public service and military promotions, as well as in the allocation of land, business favors and tax concessions. Diệm once told a high-ranking officer, forgetting that he was a Buddhist, "Put your Catholic officers in sensitive places.
They can be trusted." Many officers in the Army of the Republic of Vietnam converted to Catholicism in the belief that their career prospects depended on it, many were refused promotion if they did not do so. Additionally, the distribution of firearms to village self-defense militias intended to repel Viet Cong guerrillas was done so that weapons were only given to Catholics; some Catholic priests ran private armies, in some areas forced conversions, looting and demolition of pagodas occurred. Some Buddhist villages converted en masse to receive aid or avoid being forcibly resettled by Diem's regime; the Catholic Church was the largest landowner in the country, the "private" status, imposed on Buddhism by the French, which required official permission to conduct public activities, was not repealed by Diệm. The land owned by the church was exempt from land reform, Catholics were de facto exempt from the corvée labor that the government obliged all other citizens to perform. Under Diệm, the Catholic Church enjoyed special exemptions in property acquisition, in 1959, he dedicated the country to the Virgin Mary.
The Vatican flag was flown at major public events in South Vietnam. Earlier in January 1956, Diệm enacted Order 46 which permitted "Individuals considered dangerous to the national defense and common security be confined by executive order, to a concentration camp." This order was used against dissenting Buddhists. A enforced 1958 law—known as Decree Number 10—was invoked in May 1963 to prohibit the display of religious flags; this disallowed the flying of the Buddhist flag on the birthday of Gautama Buddha. The application of the law caused indignation among Buddhists on the eve of the most important religious festival of the year, as a week earlier Catholics had been encouraged to display Vatican flags at a government-sponsored celebration for Diem's brother, Archbishop Ngô Đình Thục, the most senior Catholic cleric in the country. However, Diệm proclaimed the flag embargo. On May 8, in Huế, a crowd of Buddhists protested against the ban on the Buddhist flag; the police and army broke up the demonstration by firing guns at and throwing grenades into the gathering, leaving nine dead.
On May 30, more than 500 monks demonstrated in front of the National Assembly in Saigon. The Buddhists had evaded a ban on public assembly by hiring four buses and filling up and pulling the blinds down, they drove around the city before the convoy stopped at the designated time and the monks disembarked. This was the first time that an open protest had been held in Saigon against Diệm in his eight years of rule, they unfurled banners and sat down for four hours before disbanding and returning to the pagodas to begin a nationwide 48-hour hunger strike organized by the Buddhist patriarch Thich Tinh Khiet. On June 1, Diệm's authorities announced the dismissal of the three major officials involved in the Huế incident: the province chief and his deputy, the government delegate for the Central Region of Vietnam; the stated reason was. By this time, the situation appeared to be beyond reconciliation. On June 3, Vietnamese police and troops of the Army of the Republic of Vietnam poured chemicals on the heads of praying Buddhist protestors in the South Vietnamese city of Huế. 67 people were hospitalized and the United States threatened to withdraw aid.
On June 11, Buddhist monk Thích Quảng Đức burned himself to death at a busy Saigon road intersection in protest against Diệm's policies. On July 7, 1963, the secret police of Ngô Đình Nhu—the brother of President Ngô Đình Diệm—attacked a group of journalists from the United States who were covering Buddhist protests on the ninth anniversary of Diem's rise to power. Peter Arnett of the Associated Press was punched in the nose, but the quarrel ended after David Halberstam of The New York Times, being much taller than Nhu's men and caused the secret police to retreat. Arnett and his colleague, the Pulitzer Prize-winning journalist and photographer Malcolm Browne, were accosted by police at their office and taken away for questioning on suspicion of attacking police officers. On Sunday, August 18, the Buddhists staged a mass protest at Xá Lợi Pagoda, Saigon's largest, attracting around 15,000 people, undeterred by rain; the attendance was three times higher than that at the previous Sunday's rally.
The event lasted as speeches by the monks interspersed religious ceremonies. A Vietnamese journalist