History of the Russians in Baltimore
The history of the Russians in Baltimore dates back to the mid-19th century. The Russian community is a growing population and constitutes a major source of new immigrants to the city; the Russian community was centered in East Baltimore, but most Russians now live in Northwest Baltimore's Arlington neighborhood and in Baltimore's suburb of Pikesville. In 1920, 4,632 foreign-born White people in Baltimore spoke the Russian language, many of them being Russian-speaking Jews. Russian was the second most spoken Slavic or Eastern European language in the city after the Polish language. In the 1930 United States Census, Russian-Americans were the largest foreign-born group in Baltimore. In that year 17,500 Russian-born immigrants lived in the city and more than 24,000 Baltimoreans were of Russian parentage. In 1940, 14,670 immigrants from the Soviet Union lived in Baltimore, many of whom were of Russian descent; these immigrants comprised 24.1% of the city's foreign-born white population. During the 1990s around 8,208 immigrants settled in Baltimore from Russia and other countries of the former Soviet Union.
The Russian community in the Baltimore metropolitan area numbered 35,763 as of 2000, making up 1.4% of the area's population. In the same year Baltimore city's Russian population was 0.8 % of the city's population. 19,430 Russians live in adjacent Baltimore County and in total 7.2% of the Baltimore metropolitan area's foreign-born population is Russian-American. According to the 2000 Census, the Russian language was spoken at home by 1,235 people in Baltimore; as of 2005, the Baltimore region had the 15th-largest Russian-speaking population in the United States. In 2013, an estimated 5,647 Russian-Americans resided in 0.9 % of the population. As of September 2014, immigrants from Russia were the twenty-sixth largest foreign-born population in Baltimore and the Russian language was the seventh most spoken language other than English. Most Russian immigrants to Baltimore have been Russian Jews. In the 1930 United States Census there were 17,000 Russians living in the city, most of whom were Jewish.
In comparison to Baltimore's wealthy and assimilated German Jews, the Russian Jews were poor and lived in slums with other Russians. The German-Russian divide among Baltimore's Jewry lead many Jews from Russia to associate more with the Russian community than the wider Jewish community. Baltimore's Russian community, including the Russian Jews, was centered in Southeast Baltimore; the largest wave of Russian-Jewish immigrants to Baltimore occurred during the 1880s. A second wave of Russian-Jewish immigrants came during the 1990s, following the collapse of the Soviet Union. In the 1960 United States Census, Russian Jews comprised 18.2% of Baltimore's population. By 1940, Russian Jews were the majority in 13 of Baltimore's census tracts. Russian Jews helped establish several synagogues in Baltimore, including the B'nai Israel Synagogue and the Shaarei Tfiloh Synagogue. While most people of Russian descent in Baltimore are Jewish, a significant minority are Christians from the Russian Orthodox Church.
Ethnic Russians from Belarus established the Transfiguration of our Lord Russian Orthodox Church in 1963 in order to serve the needs of the Russian Orthodox community. Russian Orthodox Christians established the Holy Trinity Russian Orthodox Church. To facilitate the integration of Russian immigrants into American society, the Baltimore branch of the HIAS established a bilingual Russian-English newspaper titled The News Exchange in May, 1978. In the 1990 United States Census over 30,000 people of Russian descent lived in Baltimore and Baltimore County. At the time, over 400 Russian-speaking people settled in the Baltimore area each year. Ze Mean Bean Café in Fell's Point opened in 1995, it is a restaurant, as well as other Slavic and Eastern European fare. In 1995 a biweekly Russian language newspaper titled Kaskad was founded by a Russian-speaking Jewish immigrant from Belarus; as of 1995, the Baltimore area was home to several Russian grocery stores, a Russian language magazine, a Russian language radio program.
An annual Russian Festival is held at the Holy Trinity Russian Orthodox Church in October. The festival celebrates Russian heritage and cuisine; the National Slavic Museum opened in 2012. The museum focuses on the Slavic history including Baltimore's Russian history. Bernard Ades, a Communist lawyer, most known for his defense of Euel Lee, an African American. Ben Cardin, a Democratic politician who serves as the junior United States Senator from Maryland in office since 2007. Meyer Cardin, a jurist who served as an associate judge on the Supreme Bench of Baltimore City. Mary Dobkin, a Russian-born amateur sports coach and advocate for children. Cass Elliot, a singer and member of The Mamas & the Papas. Daniel Ellison, a U. S. Representative from Maryland. Nick Kisner, Professional Boxer, who has Chechen roots on his mother’s side. Barry Levinson, a screenwriter, Academy Award winning film director and producer of film and television. Jessica Long, a United States Paralympic swimmer, the current world record holder in 10 Paralympic events.
David Macht, a Pharmacologist and Doctor of Hebrew Literature responsible for many contributions to pharmacology during the first half of the 20th century. Tatyana McFadden, a United States Paralympian athlete competing in the category T54. Paul Israel Pickman, a film director, producer, newspaper publisher and columnist. Steven Posner, a corporate raider who worked together on a number of major hostile takeovers along with his father Victor Posner. Victor Posner, a businessman known as one of the highest paid business executives of his generation. Carroll Rosenbloom, a businessman
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Historic districts in the United States
Historic districts in the United States are designated historic districts recognizing a group of buildings, properties, or sites by one of several entities on different levels as or architecturally significant. Buildings, structures and sites within a historic district are divided into two categories and non-contributing. Districts vary in size: some have hundreds of structures, while others have just a few; the U. S. federal government designates historic districts through the United States Department of Interior under the auspices of the National Park Service. Federally designated historic districts are listed on the National Register of Historic Places, but listing imposes no restrictions on what property owners may do with a designated property. State-level historic districts may follow similar criteria or may require adherence to certain historic rehabilitation standards. Local historic district designation offers, by far, the most legal protection for historic properties because most land use decisions are made at the local level.
Local districts are administered by the county or municipal government. The first U. S. historic district was established in Charleston, South Carolina in 1931, predating the U. S. federal government designation by more than three decades. Charleston city government designated an "Old and Historic District" by local ordinance and created a board of architectural review to oversee it. New Orleans followed in 1937, establishing the Vieux Carré Commission and authorizing it to act to maintain the historic character of the city's French Quarter. Other localities picked up on the concept, with the city of Philadelphia enacting its historic preservation ordinance in 1955; the regulatory authority of local commissions and historic districts has been upheld as a legitimate use of government police power, most notably in Penn Central Transportation Co. v. City of New York; the Supreme Court case validated the protection of historic resources as "an permissible governmental goal." In 1966 the federal government created the National Register of Historic Places, soon after a report from the U.
S. Conference of Mayors had stated Americans suffered from "rootlessness." By the 1980s there were thousands of federally designated historic districts. Some states, such as Arizona, have passed referendums defending property rights that have stopped private property being designated historic without the property owner's consent or compensation for the historic overlay. Historic districts are two types of properties and non-contributing. Broadly defined, a contributing property is any property, structure or object which adds to the historical integrity or architectural qualities that make a historic district, listed locally or federally, significant. Different entities governmental, at both the state and national level in the United States, have differing definitions of contributing property but they all retain the same basic characteristics. In general, contributing properties are integral parts of the historic context and character of a historic district. In addition to the two types of classification within historic districts, properties listed on the National Register of Historic Places are classified into five broad categories.
They are, structure, site and object. All but the eponymous district category are applied to historic districts listed on the National Register. A listing on the National Register of Historic Places is governmental acknowledgment of a historic district. However, the Register is "an honorary status with some federal financial incentives." The National Register of Historic Places defines a historic district per U. S. federal law, last revised in 2004. According to the Register definition a historic district is: a geographically definable area, urban or rural, possessing a significant concentration, linkage, or continuity of sites, structures, or objects united by past events or aesthetically by plan or physical development. A district may comprise individual elements separated geographically but linked by association or history. Districts established under U. S. federal guidelines begin the process of designation through a nomination to the National Register of Historic Places. The National Register is the official recognition by the U.
S. government of cultural resources worthy of preservation. While designation through the National Register does offer a district or property some protections, it is only in cases where the threatening action involves the federal government. If the federal government is not involved the listing on the National Register provides the site, property or district no protections. For example, if company A wants to tear down the hypothetical Smith House and company A is under contract with the state government of Illinois the federal designation would offer no protections. If, company A was under federal contract the Smith House would be protected. A federal designation is little more than recognition by the government that the resource is worthy of preservation. In general, the criteria for acceptance to the National Register are applied but there are considerations for exceptions to the criteria and historic districts have influence on some of those exceptions; the National Register does not list religious structures, moved structures, reconstructed structures, or properties that have achieved significance within the last 50 years.
However, if a property falls into one of those categories and are "integral parts of districts that do meet the criteria" an exception allowing their listing will be made. Historic dis
The Patapsco River mainstem is a 39-mile-long river in central Maryland which flows into the Chesapeake Bay. The river's tidal portion forms the harbor for the city of Baltimore. With its South Branch, the Patapsco forms the northern border of Maryland; the name "Patapsco" is derived from the Algonquian pota-psk-ut, which translates to "backwater" or "tide covered with froth." Captain John Smith was the first European to explore the river noting it on his 1612 map as the Bolus River. The "Red river", was named after the clay color, is considered the "old Bolus", as other branches were labelled Bolus on maps; as the river was not navigable beyond Elkridge, it was not a major path of commerce with only one ship listed as serving the northern branch, four others operating around the mouth in 1723. The Patapsco River is referred to as The River of History as it is regarded as the center of Maryland’s Industrial Revolution beginning in the 1770s. Milling and manufacturing operations abounded along the river throughout the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries relying on water power generated by multiple small dams.
The nation’s first railroad, the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad's original main line was constructed in 1829 and ran west along the Patapsco Valley. Many old railroad bridges were constructed in the valley, most notably the Thomas Viaduct, still intact, the Patterson Viaduct, of which ruins remain. Flour mills and the hydropower dam, Bloede Dam, built in 1907, were powered by the river; the valley is prone to periodic flooding. Modern floods include the 1868 flood that washed away 14 houses and killed 39 people around Ellicott City. A 1923 flood topped bridges while in 1952, an eight-foot wall of water swept the shops of Ellicott City. A 1956 flood inflicted heavy damage at the Bartigis Brothers plant. In 1972, as a result of rainfall from the remnants of Hurricane Agnes, Ellicott City and the Old Main Line sustained serious damage; the July 2016 Maryland flood ravaged Main Street leaving two dead, followed just two years by a flash flood on May 27, 2018 that took the life of one rescuer. The mouth of the Patapsco River forms Baltimore harbor, the site of the Battle of Baltimore during the War of 1812.
This is where Francis Scott Key, while aboard a British ship, wrote "The Star-Spangled Banner," a poem set to music as the national anthem of the United States. Today, a red and blue buoy marks the spot where HMS Tonnant was anchored; the Patapsco has a watershed area of 950 square miles. Through most of its length, the Patapsco is a minor river, flowing for the most part through a narrow valley; the last 10 miles, form a large tidal estuary inlet of Chesapeake Bay. The inner part of this estuary provides the harbor of Baltimore, composed of the Northwest Harbor and the Middle Branch including Thoms Cove; the Patapsco estuary is north of the Magothy River. The Patapsco River forms the harbor. Besides Baltimore, the river flows through Ellicott City and Elkridge; the Patapsco River mainstem begins at the confluence of the North and South Branches, near Marriottsville 15 miles west of downtown Baltimore. The 19.4-mile-long South Branch rises further west at Parr's Spring, where Howard County, Carroll and Montgomery counties meet.
The latter begins at elevation 780 feet on Parr's Ridge, just south of Interstate 70 and east of Ridge Road, two miles south of Mount Airy, Maryland. The South Branch Patapsco River traces the southern boundary of Carroll County and the northern boundary of Howard County; the first land record regarding Parr's Springs dates from 1744, when John Parr laid out a 200 acres tract he called Parr's Range. During the Civil War, Parr's Spring was a stop for the Army of the Potomac's Brig. Gen. David M. Gregg's cavalry, on June 29, 1863, while en route to Gettysburg, Pennsylvania. Parr's Spring was dug to form a 1.75 acres pond in the 1950's, filled by seven spring heads that form the headwaters of the South Branch of the Patapsco River. The North Branch flows 20.9 miles southward from its origins in Carroll County. Liberty Dam and its reservoir, located on the North Branch, is a major component of the Baltimore city water system. Patapsco Valley State Park extends along 32 miles of the Patapsco and its branches, encompassing a total of 14,000 acres in five different areas.
The river cuts a gorge 100–200 feet deep within the park, which features rocky cliffs and tributary waterfalls. Bloede's Dam,a hydroelectric dam built in 1906, was located on the Patapsco River within the Park, it was a nearly complete barrier to anadromous fish passage. Although a fish ladder was installed in 1992, it blocked five of six native fish species trying to run upstream to spawn. Impetus to remove Bloede's Dam began in the 1980s when nine drowning deaths occurred, to restore fish passage to a large portion of the Patapsco River watershed. Dam demolition began on September 12, 2018, opening the fishery and creating a rocky rapid for kayaking. Two dams upstream of Bloede's Dam and Union, were removed in 2010; the removal of Bloede's Dam leaves Daniels Dam, 9 miles upstream, as the last remaining dam along the mainstem Patapsco River. Removal of Bloede's Dam in September, 2018 opened up 65 miles of the Patapsco River watershed which will restore spawning runs of at least six species of native anadromous fish: alewife, blueback herring, American shad (Alosa sapid
History of the Czechs in Baltimore
The history of the Czechs in Baltimore dates back to the mid-19th century. Thousands of Czechs immigrated to East Baltimore during the late 19th and early 20th centuries, becoming an important component of Baltimore's ethnic and cultural heritage; the Czech community has founded a number of cultural institutions to preserve the city's Czech heritage, including a Roman Catholic church, a heritage association, a festival, a language school, a cemetery. During the height of the Czech community in the late 1800s and early 1900s, Baltimore was home to 12,000 to 15,000 people of Czech birth or heritage; the population began to decline during the mid-to-late 20th century, as the community assimilated and aged and many Czech Americans moved to the suburbs of Baltimore. By the 1980s and early 1990s, the former Czech community in East Baltimore had been entirely dispersed. By 1870, there were 1,000 Czech Catholics in Baltimore. Within a decade that number increased to over 5,000. In 1870 there were 766 Bohemian-born residents of Baltimore, making Bohemia the third largest source of immigration to Baltimore after the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and Germany.
According to the US Immigration Office, the Baltimore Czech community numbered around 10,000 people between 1882 and 1910. In the 1920 United States Census, there were 7,750 Czechs, making Baltimore the fifth largest city for Czechs in the United States. Only Chicago, New York City, St. Louis had larger Czech populations. In the same year 3,348 people spoke the Czech language, making Czech the third most spoken Slavic or Eastern European language after Polish and Russian. During the same year, 7,000 Czech Roman Catholics belonged to the St. Wenceslaus Roman Catholic parish. By the 1930 United States Census, the Baltimore Czech population decreased to number 7,652 people. In 1940, 1,816 immigrants from Czechoslovakia lived in Baltimore; these immigrants comprised 3% of the city's foreign-born white population. In total, 4,031 people of Czech birth or descent lived in the city, comprising 2.9% of the foreign-stock white population. In the 1960 United States Census, Czech-Americans comprised 57.5% of the foreign-born population in Southeast Baltimore's tract 7-3.
The Czech community was centered in Baltimore's Ward 7. According to the 1990 United States Census 22,000 Americans of Czech or Slovak ancestry lived in Maryland, most of whom lived in or near Baltimore; the Czech community in the Baltimore metropolitan area numbered 17,798 as of 2000, making up 0.7% of the area's population. In the same year Baltimore city's Czech population was 0.3 % of the city's population. 27,603 people of Czech descent lived in the greater Baltimore–Washington metropolitan area. In 2013, an estimated 1,290 Czech-Americans resided in 0.2 % of the population. As of September 2014, immigrants from the Czech Republic were the fifty-eight largest foreign-born population in Baltimore; the first Bohemian Jew to arrive in Baltimore immigrated in 1822. Between 1820 and the Civil War, around 300,000 Central European Jews arrived in the United States, many of whom were Bohemian Jews. Around 10,000 of these Jews, many of them Bohemian, passed through Fell's Point and settled in Baltimore.
Early Czech immigrants to Baltimore came from the regions of Bohemia and Silesia, which at the time were part of the Austrian Empire and the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Because the United States Census Bureau counted the Czechs as "Austrians" until 1881, it is difficult to know an accurate count for Czech immigrants before that time. After 1881, many Czechs were still listed as Austrians or "Austro-Bohemians" because of their Austrian citizenship; these early Bohemian immigrants to Baltimore in the years following the Civil War first settled in Fell's Point moved further north along Barnes and Abbott Streets near Broadway settling in large numbers along Collington Avenue near the Northeast Market. The largest great wave of Czech immigrants occurred from the late 1800s through the early 1900s. Enough Czechs had immigrated by 1860; the developing community was thriving by the 1870s, known as Little Bohemia or Bohemia Village. Numerous rowhouses were built to accommodate the growing Bohemian community, which continued to grow throughout the 1880s and 1890s.
The homes were constructed by Bohemian immigrants, most notably the architect Frank Novak. Many of the immigrants who settled here owned market stalls; the majority of the Baltimore Bohemians were Roman Catholics. In 1870, there were around 1,000 Bohemian Catholics and within a decade that number had increased to over 5,000; the St. Wenceslaus parish was organized in 1872, in order to serve the needs of the growing population, becoming the Bohemian National Parish of the Roman Catholic Church in Baltimore. Sokol Jednota Blesk, a Czech gymnastics association, was founded in 1872. Members met on Frederick Street near Fell's Point. In August 1879, the Fairmount and Chapel Streets Permanent Building and Loan Association No 1 Inc. was founded to serve the needs of Czech immigrants. The bank was located on the second floor of Anton Rytina's Bar at 1919 East Fairmount Avenue. All bank records were written in the Czech language until 1948. In 1880, the politician Vaclav Joseph Shimek helped establish the Grand Lodge Č.
S. P. S. of Baltimore, the Baltimore chapter of the Czech-Slovak Protective Society. Shimek was the six-time president of Sokol Baltimore. Shimek's Bohemian Hall, now the United Baptist Church at Barnes Street and Broadway, was located i
Baltimore County, Maryland
Baltimore County is third-most populous county located in the U. S. state of Maryland and is part of the Baltimore metropolitan area and Baltimore-Washington metropolitan area. Along with Washington, D. C. and its suburbs, the Baltimore County forms the southern anchor of the Northeast megalopolis, which stretches northward to Boston. Baltimore County hosts a diversified economy, with particular emphasis on education and health care; the county is home to multiple universities, including Goucher College, Stevenson University, Towson University, University of Maryland, Baltimore County. The name "Baltimore" derives from Cecil Calvert, 2nd Baron Baltimore, the proprietor of the new colony in the Province of Maryland, the town of Baltimore in County Cork, Ireland; the earliest known documentary record of the county is dated January 12, 1659, when a writ was issued on behalf of the General Assembly of Maryland to its sheriff. The official founding of the county came in 1659, among the now 23 counties of the State of Maryland.
This assumes that a certain amount of organization and appointments in the middle 17th Century had occurred. Baltimore County was known more as a geographical entity than a political one, with its territorial limits including most of northeastern Maryland, the northwestern frontier of the Province and included the present day jurisdictions of Baltimore City and Harford Counties, as well as parts of Carroll, Anne Arundel, Frederick and Kent Counties. In 1674, a proclamation of the Proprietor established the then-extensive boundary lines for old Baltimore County. Over the next century, various segments of the old county were sliced off as population and settlements increased in fringe regions. A portion of northeastern Baltimore County, as well as a portion of northwestern Kent County, was split off to create Cecil County. In 1748, a portion of western Baltimore County, as well as a portion of Prince George's County to the south, were split off to create Frederick County. In 1773, Harford County to the east was split off, in 1837 another part of western Baltimore County was combined with a part of eastern Frederick County to create Carroll County.
After the adjustment of Baltimore County's southern boundary with Anne Arundel County, stated to be the upper Middle and Western Branches of the Patapsco River in 1727, a portion of the County's northwestern area was designated in 1838 as the "Western District" or "Howard District" of Arundel and in 1851 was separated to form Howard County. Before 1674, Baltimore County court sessions were held in private residences, according to sketchy documentary evidence. In 1674, the General Assembly passed "An Act for erecting a Court-house and Prison in each County within this Province"; the site of the courthouse and county seat for Baltimore County was evidently "Old Baltimore" near the Bush River on land that in 1773 became part of Harford County. The exact location of Old Baltimore was lost, it was certain that the location was somewhere on the site of the present-day Aberdeen Proving Grounds, a U. S. Army weapons testing facility. APG's Cultural Resource Management Program attempted to find Old Baltimore, contracting with R. Christopher Goodwin & Associates.
Goodwin first performed historical and archival work and coordinated with existing landscape features to locate the site of Old Baltimore. APG's Explosive Ordnance Disposal of Army personnel defused any unexploded ordnance. In 1997-1998. Goodwin dug 420 test pits, uncovering artifacts including a King Charles II farthing coin, French and English gun flints. An unearthed brick foundation proved to be the remains of the tavern owned by colonist James Phillips. Another prominent land holder in Old Baltimore was William Osbourne, who operated the ferry across the Bush River. In his article "Migrations of Baltimore Town", Reverend George Armistead Leakin related a letter he had received from Dr. George I. Hays. In that letter, Dr. Hays related an account of a raid by the Susquehannocks who took William Osbourne's oldest son. Osbourne was unsuccessful in an attempt to rescue the boy; the boy was never seen by Osbourne again. In 1683, the Maryland General Assembly passed "An Act for Advancement of Trade" to "establish towns and places of trade, within the province."
One of the towns established by the act was "on Bush River, on Town Land, near the Court-House". The courthouse on the Bush River referenced in the 1683 Act was in all likelihood the one created by the 1674 Act. "Old Baltimore" was in existence as early as 1674, but no documents describe what may have preceded it. By 1695, the "Old Baltimore" courthouse had evidently been abandoned. County justices put the site up for sale. A new courthouse at "Simm's Choice" on the Baltimore County side of Little Gunpowder Falls had been under construction since 1692. In 1700, builder Michael Judd, sold it to the county justices; this move away from the Bush River area reflects the growing economic and political importance of the Gunpowder region. During the next decade, the county seat moved to Joppa. By 1724, the legislative assembly authorized Thomas Tolley, Capt. John Taylor, Daniel Scott, Lancelot Todd and John Stokes to purchase 20 acres from a tract named "Taylor's Choice" after John Taylor; the assembly's ordinance directed that the land be divided into 40 lots with streets and alleys to accompany the courthouse and jail erected previously.
By 1750 about 50 houses, a church, a courthouse, three stone warehouses, taverns, stores, a public wharf and a "gallows-tree" with an "Amen Corner" with pillories and whipping posts (now located northeas
Port of Baltimore
Helen Delich Bentley Port of Baltimore is a shipping port along the tidal basins of the three branches of the Patapsco River in Baltimore, Maryland on the upper northwest shore of the Chesapeake Bay. It is the nation's largest port facilities for specialized cargo and passenger facilities operated by the Maryland Port Administration, a unit of the Maryland Department of Transportation. During a 2006 celebration of the port's 300th birthday, the port was renamed in honor of Helen Delich Bentley, a former longtime U. S. Representative to the United States Congress from Baltimore, she was a former maritime reporter/editor for The Baltimore Sun, local major daily newspaper. In 1608, Captain John Smith traveled 170 miles from Jamestown exploring the shores, rivers and streams to the upper Chesapeake Bay towards the Susquehanna River, leading the first European expedition to the Patapsco River, named after the native Algonquian peoples who fished shellfish and hunted. English royal and proprietary land grants from 1661 were combined in 1702 by James Carroll who named it Whetstone Point because of the landform shape resembling a sharpening stone.
The area is now known as Locust Point a industrial area. The port was founded on this site in 1706 by the colonial General Assembly of the Province of Maryland and designated one of the official Port of Entry for the tobacco trade with the Kingdom of England. In 1729–1730, the point was incorporated into newly established Baltimore Town to the northwest at "The Basin" of the Northwest Branch of the Patapsco; this area was known as the Inner Harbor. In 1776 local citizenry erected earthworks for port defense during the American Revolutionary War known as Fort Whetstone; these port fortifications were replaced beginning in 1798. In addition Fort McHenry reconstructed with brick and stone in a "star fort" shape; this work was conducted by the officers and engineers of the United States Army and its Corps of Engineers and the U. S. Department of War. Fells Point, first named Long Island Point in 1670, is the deepest point in the natural harbor on the north shore of the Northwest Branch of the Patapsco.
It soon became the colony's main ship building center, with many shipyards, famed for the construction of the unique styled Baltimore clipper smaller sized sailing schooners. These were notorious as they were used by commerce privateers; this type of activity led to the British attack in September 1814, during the War of 1812 known as the Battle of Baltimore. It is noted for the famous bombardment of Fort McHenry as well as a land attack to the southeast at the Battle of North Point which attacked fortifications on the east side of town at Loudenschlager's and Potter's Hills. Fells Point was incorporated into old Baltimore Town in 1773; the Continental Navy ordered their first frigate warship, USS Virginia, from George Wells at Fells Point in 1775. The first ship named the U. S. F Constellation was produced at the Harris Creek shipyard east of Fells Point by a master shipwright from Hingham, Massachusetts named David Stodder; the third USS Enterprise was built at Henry Spencer's shipyard. Over 800 ships were commissioned from Fells Point shipyards from 1784 to 1821.
The California Gold Rush of 1848–1849 lead to many orders for fast vessels. Many overland pioneers relied upon canned goods supplied from Baltimore factories. After the founding of Baltimore the waterfront developed drydocks, ship chandlers, as well as industry including mills were built behind the wharves. In what is now Canton, further southeast of Baltimore and Fells Point along the Patapsco River, John O'Donnell's plantation was developed in the early 1800s for worker housing and industry, including the Canton Iron Works owned by Peter Cooper and Horace Abbott during the Civil War and others. In 1828 the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad began track laying extending into Locust Point in 1845; the arrival of the Baltimore and Ohio and other railroads made the port a major transshipment point between inland points and the rest of the world. By the 1840s, the Baltimore Steam Packet Company was providing overnight steamship service down the Chesapeake Bay. After the Civil War, coffee ships were designed here for trade with Brazil.
Other industrial activities in Canton included Baltimore Copper Smelting Company and small oil refineries purchased by Standard Oil. By the end of the nineteenth century, European ship lines had terminals for emigrants from Britain, Ireland and Poland. Maintenance of harbor channels and navigation aids began early. Dredging in the harbor can be traced back as far as 1783, when the Ellicott brothers excavated the bottom at their wharf in the Inner Harbor. In 1790 the state government began systematic dredging using a "mud machine", which used a horse-drawn drag bucket upgraded with steam power. In 1825 Sen. Sam Smith of Maryland petitioned Congress for federal funding for this work. At this time Congress was smarting from the incursions of the War of 1812 and had determined to expand naval defenses. In Baltimore it led to the misconceived construction of Fort Carroll, an island three-tiered brick fortification in the 1840s, supervised by young Col. Robert E. Lee of the United States Army Corps of Engineers but federal dredging appropriations preceded that project, beginning in 1830.
This first project was completed in 1838. In the 1850s a second dredging project was undertaken, this time under Capt. Henr