North Shields is a town on the north bank of the River Tyne in North East England, eight miles north-east of Newcastle upon Tyne. Part of Northumberland, its name derives from Middle English schele meaning "temporary sheds or huts used by fishermen". North Shields is first recorded in 1225, when the Prior of Tynemouth, decided to create a fishing port to provide fish for the Priory, situated on the headland at the mouth of the River Tyne, he supplied ships anchored near the priory. A number of rudimentary houses or'shiels' were erected at the mouth of the Pow Burn where the stream enters the Tyne, as well as wooden quays which were used to unload the fishing boats; the quays were used to ship coal from local collieries owned by the Priory. Soon the population of the new township numbered 1000; the burgesses of Newcastle upon Tyne were determined to preserve the custom rights that they had enjoyed up till which covered the whole length of the river. They petitioned the king in 1290 and managed to suspend trade from the new settlement.
It was forbidden to load and unload cargoes at North Shields. The opposition of the Newcastle burgesses remained for a considerable time but despite this, North Shields continued to develop as a centre for fishing and exporting salt, produced at local saltpans. For a considerable period the Newcastle burgesses, known as the Hostmen, who controlled the export of coal from the Tyne, resisted the export of this commodity from North Shields; the town was restricted to a narrow strip of land alongside the river because of the steep bank which hemmed it in. The town became too overcrowded and in the 18th century buildings began to be erected on the plateau 60 feet above the old, insanitary dwellings alongside the river; the prosperous businessmen and shipowners occupied the New Town whereas the working people remained in the lower part of town. The low, riverside part of the town was linked to the newer, higher part of the town by a series of stairs; these stairs were populated by slum dwellings. Although these dwellings have long since been cleared away, the sets of stairs still exist.
One of the first developments of the new town was Dockwray Square, built in 1763: a set of elegant town houses that became populated by wealthy families. However, due to the poor provision of water and drainage facilities, the wealthy families soon moved to the more central part of the new town the new Northumberland Square. Dockwray Square deteriorated into slums. In the early twentieth century Stan Laurel lived at a house in Dockwray Square for a few years, before he became famous; the square has since been re-developed and a statue of Laurel stands in the middle to commemorate his stay there. Because of the difficulty of navigating ships into the mouth of the river past the dangerous Black Midden rocks, buildings were erected in the 16th century with permanent lights burning to be used as a guide by the mariners. High and Low lights are pictured on a 1655 map of the river Tyne: a pair of square castellated towers. Both lights were rebuilt in 1727, these buildings still stand today. In 1810, the Old Lights were replaced by new High and Low Lights, placed at the top and bottom of the steep bank alongside the river.
All these lights were owned and operated by Trinity House of Newcastle-upon-Tyne until they ceased operation. Today, the Old High Beacon, as well as the Low Lights, are private residences. In 2014 the black-painted Old Low Light was opened to the public following a substantial refurbishment. In 1806, a market place was opened on New Quay. In 1870, work began on constructing a fish quay to provide shelter for the docked fishing boats; this quay is still in use today. Clifford's Fort, located on the Fish Quay, was built in the 17th century as a coastal defence against the Dutch; the Fort played a role during the Napoleonic Wars. The site of the fort was used to build new fish processing facilities and little now remains of the original fort; the area is undergoing restoration. Part of the foundations of the 18th century Master Gunner’s House were found below the concrete floor of a fish processing unit. Elsewhere on the site, part of the stone edging of Cable Tanks belonging to the Submarine Mining Depot were uncovered.
One of North Shields' oldest landmarks is the "Wooden Dolly" statue. In 1814, the female figurehead of a collier brig was placed at the entrance to Custom House Quay, on Liddell Street, stood there until 1850, when it was vandalised. A second figurehead was placed on the same spot; the "Wooden Dolly", as the figurehead was known, was used by seafarers as a source of good-luck charms, by cutting pieces of wood from her to be taken with them on voyages. The figurehead was defaced beyond repair and after 14 years was replaced by Wooden Dolly No. 3. This remained until 1901. A fifth Wooden Dolly a fishwife, was placed in Northumberland Square in 1958 and still remains there. In 1992, a sixth Wooden Dolly, was placed where the first four had been, at the entrance to Custom House Quay, can still be seen there, next to the Prince of Wales public house. In 1887, the town's businesses were listed as a marine engine, chain cable and anchor manufacturer, shipbuilding yards, salt-works, an earthenware and stained glass manufacturer.
Fishing was a major employer. The Smiths Dock Compa
A road, railway line or canal is raised onto an embankment made of compacted soil to avoid a change in level required by the terrain, the alternatives being either to have an unacceptable change in level or detour to follow a contour. A cutting is used for the same purpose where the land is higher than required. Embankments are constructed using material obtained from a cutting. Embankments need to be constructed using non-aerated and waterproofed, compacted material to provide adequate support to the formation and a long-term level surface with stability. To intersect an embankment without a high flyover, a series of tunnels can consist of a section of high tensile strength viaduct or pair of facing abutments for a bridge. Harsimus Stem Embankment remains of a railway built by the Pennsylvania Railroad in Jersey City, New Jersey, United States Federal Highway Administration Design Manual: Deep Mixing for Embankment and Foundation Support Federal Highway Administration Scott, J. Loveridge, F. & O'Brien, A.
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The Tanfield Railway is a 4 ft 8 1⁄2 in standard gauge heritage railway in Gateshead and County Durham, England. Running on part of a former colliery wooden waggonway a steam railway, it operates preserved industrial steam locomotives; the railway operates a passenger service every Sunday, plus other days, as well as occasional demonstration coal, goods & mixed trains. The line runs 3 miles between a southern terminus at East Tanfield, Durham, to a northern terminus at Sunniside, Gateshead. Another station, Andrews House, is situated near the Marley Hill engine shed. A halt serves the historic site of the Causey Arch; the railway claims to be "the world's oldest railway". The Tanfield Waggonway was built by the Grand Allies from about 1720 to transport coal more reliably & cheaply from inland collieries of County Durham, to the staiths on the River Tyne at Redheugh. From here the coal was transported in keels downriver to South Shields transferred to colliers for the voyage down the North Sea coast to south east England.
Many older shorter coal waggonways existed to the north of the present heritage line, in the Whickham & Lobley Hill areas, but the Tanfield Waggonway was a much longer and engineered route which gave the Grand Allies market dominance all year round. The Tanfield route was in continuous use from 1725 until final closure in 1964; the route and structures of the oldest section of the now preserved part of the line, between Sunniside and Causey, dates from 1725, is thus the world's oldest railway still in operation. The Middleton Railway claims to be the oldest railway, on the basis that it was the first railway granted powers under the first railway Act of Parliament in 1758; the Causey to East Tanfield section was built in 1839. The Marley Hill engine shed was built by 1854, was in industrial use until 1970; the shed is on the Bowes Railway, whereas locos used on the Tanfield branch were stabled at the nearby Bowes Bridge MPD, the coaling ramp and turntable pit of which are still visible adjacent to the track between Andrews House and Sunniside.
A winding engine engine occupied the Bowes Bridge site from 1840-81, a locomotive shed from 1881-1962. The headshunt by Marley Hill signal box is the point where the west-east Bowes Railway crossed the south-north Tanfield branch; when the Tanfield Railway began running trains in 1977 a curve was installed to allow Marley Hill locos & trains onto the Tanfield Branch. Marley Hill engine shed; as collieries on the NCB line closed in the 1960s, coal was brought by road to adjacent drops for onward rail transport, the shed saw further use servicing other local colliery locomotives. A wooden railed horse drawn waggonway, conversion to a steel railed railway began in 1837, by 1840 was complete as far as Tanfield Moor Colliery, using stationary steam engines, gravity inclines & horses. In 1881, while operated by the North Eastern Railway, steam locomotives replaced the stationary steam engines and horses. Although a coal railway, it did carry some passengers; the railway closed when the last colliery on the line at East Tanfield ceased production in 1964.
The early years of the railway as a preservation project concentrated on Marley Hill, preparing locos for steaming, working on the shed structure and acquiring basic needs such as water and electricity. Locomotives No.21 and No.5 were steamed in public in 1973. The first passenger train ran for a week August 1975, using locomotives No.21, No.32 and Sir Cecil A Cochrane, a small carriage acquired from the British Steel Corporation site at Teesside. The preserved line was first built from Marley Hill to the current northern terminus, Sunniside Station, with passenger trains beginning on 2 July 1981, an official opening ceremony on 14 July 1982. Andrews House station just south of Marley Hill sheds was completed between 1987 and 1989 and was equipped with platforms, a water tower, a station building and a footbridge; the first train south to Causey was on 27 July 1991, with the official opening ceremony being held on 15 August 1991. The first train further south to the current end of the line at East Tanfield occurred on 18 October 1992.
East Tanfield Station itself was opened in 1997. The Causey to Tanfield section is through a wood lined gorge. Part of the reason the line was preserved was the fact Marley Hill shed remained open until 1970; the vintage machinery in the workshop is still capable of full locomotive overhauls. The oldest locomotive on the railway was built in Gateshead in 1873, all of the railway's carriage stock dates from the 19th Century; the current preserved line passes near to Causey Arch, the oldest surviving railway bridge in the world. It was built to carry a new branch from the route of the now preserved line, to a site known as Dawson's Drift. Built between 1725 and 1727, at 150 ft long and 80 ft high, it was the largest single-span bridge in Britain, remained so for 30 years. Sunniside Station 54.920°N 1.675°W / 54.920. One is undergoing repairs and three more are under overhaul for future operation, with th
Sunderland station is a National Rail and Tyne & Wear Metro station in the city centre of Sunderland, North East England. Both heavy rail and light rail services use the same platforms. Although the tracks are shared by light and heavy rail vehicles between Sunderland and Pelaw, Northern trains do not call at any of the intermediate stations; the first railway passenger services to Sunderland were provided by the Durham & Sunderland Railway Company in 1836 linking it to Hetton and Haswell. The line approached from the south along the coast and the terminus was near South Dock, known as Town Moor station; the Durham & Sunderland Railway extended their line towards the intended terminus in Durham though the eventual terminus, which opened in 1839, was at Shincliffe Town just outside the city and it was not until the North Eastern Railway extended the line to Durham Elvet that this line reached Durham. Undistinguished either in architecture, convenience or accommodation it was replaced 22 years by Hendon station, half a mile to the south, at a point where the line had to be joined by the Newcastle & Darlington Junction Railway Company's line to Penshaw and Durham.
In 1854 the Marquis of Londonderry opened the Londonderry, Seaham & Sunderland Railway to link the existing Londonderry and South Hetton Collieries to the South Dock which, from 1855, carried passengers between Seaham Harbour and a terminus at Hendon Burn. Londonderry Railway services began to use Durham & Sunderland Railway's terminus in 1868. Meanwhile, the Newcastle & Darlington Company had built their station at Fawcett Street, just south of the site of the present station. On 4 August 1879, the North Eastern Railway Company opened a line from Ryhope Grange Junction over the river to Monkwearmouth, a new station was built on the present site. Both of the other stations at Hendon and Fawcett Street were closed on the same date; the new station served passengers of both the North Eastern Railway and the independent Londonderry Railway until the latter sold its Seaham to Sunderland route to the former in 1900, allowing the North Eastern Railway to extend the line along the coast to create a new through route to West Hartlepool which opened in 1905.
The current station, known as Sunderland Central at that time, was known locally as the New Station. Its platforms and lines lie in a cutting running north and south bounded by retaining walls to the east and west, its single entrance and street-level buildings were at the North End, but a second entrance and associated buildings at the south were added five years later. The platform area was covered by an overall semi-elliptical arched-rib roof which together with the North End buildings, was badly damaged by bombs in 1943. In 1953, the old roof was replaced by umbrella-type roofing and the south end buildings were given an interim facelift, the complete rebuilding being deferred to enable advantage to be taken of the site's potential for property development and to ensure compatibility with the town's proposals for the redevelopment of this central area; the complete rebuilding of the station was accomplished by November 1965. The current station buildings, which opened after re-building work in November 1965, formed at that time part of a complete rebuilding scheme which involved the entire area of the station site, decked over and developed at street level.
The buildings covered the south end of the station area and a two-storey block of 20 shops, which were built by City and Central Shops Limited, occupies the central area. The old station buildings at the North End, which were retained in use until the new properties were being developed, were closed and demolished. In that area British Railways provided new premises for parcels traffic and Post Office Mails, which were redeveloped with the alterations to the platforms for Metro train services in 2002, Littlewood's Mail Order Stores Limited, developed a four-storey department store with a main frontage on to High Street West. In November 1965, following the withdrawal of local stopping train services on the lines to West Hartlepool and South Shields, passenger trains were concentrated on one island platform with access to the concourse area by a dual'one-direction' stairway; the second island platform was given over to the working of parcels traffic as a new parcels office premises was to be built at the North End and brought into use.
Prior to this, the parcels traffic was being dealt with at the North End using the old stables block to the West for deliveries and a similar sized room at the East side for incoming parcels. Parcels traffic at the time included pigeon specials, heavy engineering parts, parcels to Europe, greyhounds to Ireland and the occasional corpse! There was a parcels clerk at the Brian Mills Mail Order Depot. At that time, the revised station working enabled the running lines and sidings at the south end of the station to be simplified; the consequent reduction in permanent way released areas of land at track level, available for the erection of support for further street level development between Athenaeum Street and Holmside bridges and on the south side of Holmeside. At the time that the modernised buildings opened from 4 November 1965, train services from Sunderland included a half hourly service each weekday to and from Newcastle, an hourly service to and from West Hartlepool and Middlesbrough, with additional trains at peak periods.
There were then through morning trains to London and to Liverpool, a sleeping car service to London every night of the week. Good connections were available from Newcastle with all parts of the country. Nexus, the operator of the
Benton Metro station
Benton Metro station is on the Tyne and Wear Metro Yellow line between Four Lane Ends and Palmersville. The railway station serves Benton in North Tyneside, just north of Newcastle upon England; the station opened on 1 March 1871 by the North Eastern Railway. Since 11 August 1980 it has been served by Metro trains. Benton was the original terminus of the now defunct Red line, although short workings continued to operate as Yellow line services between Pelaw and Benton - in peak hours and during Saturday shopping hours. Since the opening of Northumberland Park station most of these short workings continue to Monkseaton. Train times and station information for Benton Metro station from Nexus
Rail freight transport
Rail freight transport is the use of railroads and trains to transport cargo as opposed to human passengers. A freight train or goods train is a group of freight cars or goods wagons hauled by one or more locomotives on a railway, transporting cargo all or some of the way between the shipper and the intended destination as part of the logistics chain. Trains may haul bulk material, intermodal containers, general freight or specialized freight in purpose-designed cars. Rail freight practices and economics vary by region; when considered in terms of ton-miles or tonne-kilometers hauled per unit of energy consumed, rail transport can be more efficient than other means of transportation. Maximum economies are realized with bulk commodities when hauled over long distances. However, shipment by rail is not as flexible as by the highway, which has resulted in much freight being hauled by truck over long distances. Moving goods by rail involves transshipment costs when the shipper or receiver lack direct rail access.
These costs may exceed that of operating the train itself, a factor that practices such as containerization aim to minimize. Traditionally, large shippers build factories and warehouses near rail lines and have a section of track on their property called a siding where goods are loaded onto or unloaded from rail cars. Other shippers have their goods hauled by truck to or from a goods station. Smaller locomotives transfer the rail cars from the sidings and goods stations to a classification yard, where each car is coupled to one of several long-distance trains being assembled there, depending on that car's destination; when long enough, or based on a schedule, each long-distance train is dispatched to another classification yard. At the next classification yard, cars are resorted; those that are destined for stations served by that yard are assigned to local trains for delivery. Others are reassembled into trains heading to classification yards closer to their final destination. A single car might be reclassified or switched in several yards before reaching its final destination, a process that made rail freight slow and increased costs.
Many freight rail operators are trying to reduce these costs by reducing or eliminating switching in classification yards through techniques such as unit trains and containerization. In many countries, railroads have been built to haul one commodity, such as coal or ore, from an inland point to a port. Rail freight uses many types of freight car; these include box cars or covered wagons for general merchandise, flat cars or flat wagons for heavy or bulky loads, well wagons or "low loader" wagons for transporting road vehicles. Most coal and aggregates are moved in hopper wagons or gondolas or open wagons that can be filled and discharged to enable efficient handling of the materials. A major disadvantage of rail freight is its lack of flexibility. In part for this reason, rail has lost much of the freight business to road transport. Many governments are now trying to encourage more freight onto trains, because of the environmental benefits that it would bring. Compared to road transport whісh employs the uѕе of trucks, rail transportation ensures thаt goods thаt соuld оtherwіѕе bе transported on а number of trucks are transported in а single shipment.
Thіѕ saves. In Europe many manufacturing towns developed before the railway. Many factories did not have direct rail access; this meant that freight had to be shipped through a goods station, sent by train and unloaded at another goods station for onward delivery to another factory. When lorries replaced horses it was economical and faster to make one movement by road. In the United States in the West and Mid-West towns developed with railway and factories had a direct rail connection. Despite the closure of many minor lines carload shipping from one company to another by rail remains common. Railroads were early users of automatic data processing equipment, starting at the turn of the twentieth century with punched cards and unit record equipment. Many rail systems have turned to computerized scheduling and optimization for trains which has reduced costs and helped add more train traffic to the rails. Freight railroads relationship with other modes of transportation varies widely. There is no interaction with airfreight, close cooperation with ocean-going freight and a competitive relationship with long distance trucking and barge transport.
Many businesses ship their products by rail if they are shipped long distance because it can be cheaper to ship in large quantities by rail than by truck. Freight trains are sometimes illegally boarded by individuals who do not have the money or the desire to travel a practice referred to as "hopping". Most hoppers stow away in boxcars. Bolder hoppers will catch a train "on the fly", that is, as it is moving, leading to occasional fatalities, some of which go unrecorded; the act of leaving a town or area, by hopping a freight train is sometimes referred to as "catching-out", as in catching a train out of town. Bulk cargo constitutes the majority of tonnage carried by most freight railroads. Bulk cargo is commodity cargo, transported unpackaged
A heritage railway is a railway operated as living history to re-create or preserve railway scenes of the past. Heritage railways are old railway lines preserved in a state depicting a period in the history of rail transport; the British Office of Rail and Road defines heritage railways as follows: "...'lines of local interest', museum railways or tourist railways that have retained or assumed the character and appearance and operating practices of railways of former times. Several lines that operate in isolation provide genuine transport facilities, providing community links. Most lines constitute tourist or educational attractions in their own right. Much of the rolling stock and other equipment used on these systems is original and is of historic value in its own right. Many systems aim to replicate both the look and operating practices of historic former railways companies." Heritage railway lines have historic rail infrastructure, substituted in modern rail systems. Historical installations, such as hand-operated points, water cranes, rails fastened with hand-hammered rail spikes, are characteristic features of heritage lines.
Unlike tourist railways, which carry tourists and have modern installations and vehicles, heritage-line infrastructure creates views and soundscapes of the past in operation. Due to a lack of modern technology or the desire for historical accuracy, railway operations can be handled with traditional practices such as the use of tokens. Heritage infrastructure and operations require the assignment of roles, based on historical occupations, to the railway staff. Some, or all and volunteers, including Station masters and signalmen, sometimes wearing period-appropriate attire, can be seen on some heritage railways. Most heritage railways use heritage rolling stock, although modern rail vehicles can be used to showcase railway scenes with historical-line infrastructure. While some heritage railways are profitable tourist attractions, many are not-for-profit entities. Still other heritage railways offer a viable public-transit option, can maintain operations with revenue from regular riders or government subsidies.
Children's railways are extracurricular educational institutions where children and teenagers learn about railway work. The railways developed in the USSR during the Soviet era. Many were called "Pioneer railways", after the youth organisation of that name; the first children's railway opened in Moscow in 1932 and, at the breakup of the USSR, 52 children's railways existed in the country. Although the fall of communist governments has led to the closure of some, preserved children's railways are still functioning in post-Soviet states and Eastern European countries. Many children's railways were built on parkland in urban areas. Unlike many industrial areas served by a narrow-gauge railway, parks were free of redevelopment. Child volunteers and socialist fiscal policy enabled the existence of many of these railways. Children's railways which still carry traffic have retained their original infrastructure and rolling stock, including vintage steam locomotives. Examples of children's railways with steam locomotives include the Dresden Park Railway in Germany.
Creating passages for trains up steep hills and through mountain regions offers many obstacles which call for technical solutions. Steep grade railway technologies and extensive tunneling may be employed; the use of narrow gauge allows tighter curves in the track, offers a smaller structure gauge and tunnel size. At high altitudes and logistical difficulties, limited urban development and demand for transport and special rolling-stock requirements have left many mountain railways unmodernized; the engineering feats of past railway builders and views of pristine mountain scenes have made many railways in mountainous areas profitable tourist attractions. Pit railways have been in operation in underground mines all over the world. Small rail vehicles transport ore, waste rock, workers through narrow tunnels. Sometimes trains were the sole mode of transport in the passages between the work sites and the mine entrance; the railway's loading gauge dictated the cross-section of passages to be dug. At many mining sites, pit railways have been abandoned due to mine closure or adoption of new transportation equipment.
Some show mines offer mantrip rides into the mine. The Metro 1, built from 1894 to 1896, is the oldest line of the Budapest Metro system and the second-oldest underground railway in the world; the M1 underwent major reconstruction during the 1980s and 1990s, Line 1 now serves eight original stations whose original appearance has been preserved. In 2002, the line was listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. In the Deák Ferenc Square concourse's Millennium Underground Museum, many other artifacts of the metro's early history may be seen; the first heritage railway to be rescued and run by volunteers was the Talyllyn Railway in Wales. This narrow-gauge line, taken over by a group of enthusiasts in 1950, was the beginning of the preservation movement worldwide. In Britain, heritage railways are railway lines which