Feminism is a range of social movements, political movements, ideologies that aim to define and achieve the political, economic and social equality of the sexes. Feminism incorporates the position that societies prioritize the male point of view, that women are treated unfairly within those societies. Efforts to change that include fighting gender stereotypes and seeking to establish educational and professional opportunities for women that are equal to those for men. Feminist movements have campaigned and continue to campaign for women's rights, including the right to vote, to hold public office, to work, to earn fair wages, equal pay and eliminate the gender pay gap, to own property, to receive education, to enter contracts, to have equal rights within marriage, to have maternity leave. Feminists have worked to ensure access to legal abortions and social integration and to protect women and girls from rape, sexual harassment, domestic violence. Changes in dress and acceptable physical activity have been part of feminist movements.
Some scholars consider feminist campaigns to be a main force behind major historical societal changes for women's rights in the West, where they are near-universally credited with achieving women's suffrage, gender-neutral language, reproductive rights for women, the right to enter into contracts and own property. Although feminist advocacy is, has been focused on women's rights, some feminists, including bell hooks, argue for the inclusion of men's liberation within its aims, because they believe that men are harmed by traditional gender roles. Feminist theory, which emerged from feminist movements, aims to understand the nature of gender inequality by examining women's social roles and lived experience. Numerous feminist movements and ideologies have developed over the years and represent different viewpoints and aims; some forms of feminism have been criticized for taking into account only white, middle class, college-educated perspectives. This criticism led to the creation of ethnically specific or multicultural forms of feminism, including black feminism and intersectional feminism.
Charles Fourier, a utopian socialist and French philosopher, is credited with having coined the word "féminisme" in 1837. The words "féminisme" and "féministe" first appeared in France and the Netherlands in 1872, Great Britain in the 1890s, the United States in 1910; the Oxford English Dictionary lists 1852 as the year of the first appearance of "feminist" and 1895 for "feminism". Depending on the historical moment and country, feminists around the world have had different causes and goals. Most western feminist historians contend that all movements working to obtain women's rights should be considered feminist movements when they did not apply the term to themselves. Other historians assert that the term should be limited to the modern feminist movement and its descendants; those historians use the label "protofeminist" to describe earlier movements. The history of the modern western feminist movement is divided into four "waves"; the first comprised women's suffrage movements of the 19th and early-20th centuries, promoting women's right to vote.
The second wave, the women's liberation movement, began in the 1960s and campaigned for legal and social equality for women. In or around 1992, a third wave was identified, characterized by a focus on individuality and diversity; the fourth wave, from around 2012, used social media to combat sexual harassment, violence against women and rape culture. First-wave feminism was a period of activity during the early-20th centuries. In the UK and US, it focused on the promotion of equal contract, marriage and property rights for women. New legislation included the Custody of Infants Act 1839 in the UK, which introduced the tender years doctrine for child custody and gave women the right of custody of their children for the first time. Other legislation, such as the Married Women's Property Act 1870 in the UK and extended in the 1882 Act, became models for similar legislation in other British territories. Victoria passed legislation in 1884 and New South Wales in 1889. With the turn of the 19th century, activism focused on gaining political power the right of women's suffrage, though some feminists were active in campaigning for women's sexual and economic rights too.
Women's suffrage began in Britain's Australasian colonies at the close of the 19th century, with the self-governing colonies of New Zealand granting women the right to vote in 1893. This was followed by Australia granting female suffrage in 1902. In Britain the suffragettes and suffragists campaigned for the women's vote, in 1918 the Representation of the People Act was passed granting the vote to women over the age of 30 who owned property. In 1928 this was extended to all women over 21. Emmeline Pankhurst was the most notable activist in England. Time named her one of the 100 Most Important People of the 20th Century, stating: "she shaped an idea of women for our time. In the US, notable leaders of this movement included Lucretia Mott, Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Susan B. Anthony, who each campaigned for the abolition of slavery before championing women's right to vote; these women were influenced by the Quaker theology of spi
The Polish News Bulletin is an English-language publishing house headquartered in Warsaw, Poland. Its main issues consist of economic press digests. PNB publications are used as business intelligence by diplomats and foreign expats living and working in Poland; the Polish News Bulletin Company sp. Z o.o. is owned by Czech media monitoring group, NEWTON Media a.s. The Polish News Bulletin was established in 1947. In the first post-war years it worked as a competence center of two English-speaking embassies headquartered in the Polish capital: Embassy of the United States and Embassy of the United Kingdom, Warsaw. PNB bulletins had been prepared by team of translators and editors who examined and summarized Polish press releases creating daily digests. After the Revolutions of 1989 and their aftermath, Poland became a free-market economy, allowing PNB to broaden its business model into a publishing house which caters business intelligence to both – embassies and international companies entering the Polish market.
CEOs Andrzej Mietkowski, 1999–2006Georg Ranzenbacher, 2006–2011Ireneusz Bera, 2011–2013Joanna Szczęsna-Iwaszkiewicz, 2013-now Polish News Bulletin Daily – published since 1947, from the beginning of PNB's existence. Issued daily, from Monday to Friday. Consists of daily press digests and analises of the current developments from Poland. PNB Economic Review – published twice a week, on Tuesdays and Fridays. Focused on economic and business news from Poland and central European region. PNB Law Supplement – published once a week, on Wednesdays. Covers law and administrative changes. PNB Weekend Supplement – published once a week, on Thursdays. Includes deep insight analyses and expert opinions on major political developments. PNB Special Report – a monthly review of selected sectors of the Polish Economy. During seventy years of uninterrupted publishing, The Polish News Bulletin established numerous international partnerships with foreign news agencies and publishing houses. PNB content was, or still is, accessible via platforms such as LexisNexis, Factiva, EBSCO and Euromoney.
Jean-Jacques Marcel was a French international footballer who played midfielder. He was an integral part of the French national teams of the 1950s; the south Frenchman was signed in 1949 by the FC Sochaux and in their youth team but fast played to the first. Jean Jacques Marcel was a physically strong right runner with qualities both in the defensive and in the play forward, had a hard shot and a good head ball play – 76 goals in over 420 league plays were unusual in that time for a midfielder. Still playing for France U-21, he was for the first time called in France first team1953 due to his constant achievements. In 1954 he moved to its homeland region with Olympique Marseille and remained there for five years, playing alongside 17 years older Larbi Ben Barek, he played one year in Toulon before ending his professional career in 1965 with RCF Paris. He won no titles, for not playing for big teams of the French championship, contrary to his teams in France national football team. Between May 1953 and October 1961 Jean-Jacques Marcel appeared in 44 international matches for the France national football team.
He scored three goals and was in four meetings captain. Its place in the national team was undisputed in all the years; the third place with France in Sweden was at the same time the largest success of its career. He played at the first European championship; until 1959 it formed a talented middle row together with Armand Penverne, in which Marcel – differently than in its clubs – played on the left side. In 1965 Marcel returned to its birth city and played still some years as an amateur with the club, from which he had come out, it vocationally supported first its father, at that time mayor of Brignoles, in its trade in wine. Marcel lived withdrawn, but still in the small town between Aix-en-Provence. On 3 October 2014, it was announced by his former football club, he was 83. Profile on French federation official site