Lloyd's Register Group Limited is a technical and business services organisation and a maritime classification society, wholly owned by the Lloyd’s Register Foundation, a UK charity dedicated to research and education in science and engineering. The organisation dates to 1760, its stated aims are to enhance the safety of life and the environment, by helping its clients to ensure the quality construction and operation of critical infrastructure. As Lloyd's Register of Shipping, it was a maritime organisation. During the late 20th century, it diversified into other industries including oil and gas, process industries and rail. Through its 100% subsidiary Lloyd's Register Quality Assurance Ltd, it is a major vendor of independent assessment services, including management systems certification for quality certification to ISO9001, ISO14001 and OSHAS18001. Lloyd's Register is unaffiliated with Lloyd's of London. In July 2012, the organisation converted from an industrial and provident society to a company limited by shares, named Lloyd’s Register Group Limited, with the new Lloyd’s Register Foundation as the sole shareholder.
At the same time the organisation gifted to the Foundation a substantial bond and equity portfolio to assist it with its charitable purposes. It will benefit from continued funding from the group’s operating arm, Lloyd’s Register Group Limited; the organisation was named after a 17th-century coffee house in London, frequented by merchants, marine underwriters, others, all men associated with shipping. The coffee house owner, Edward Lloyd, helped them to exchange information by circulating a printed sheet of all the news he heard. In 1760, the Register Society was formed by the customers of the coffee house who assembled the Register of Shipping, the first known register of its type. Between 1800 and 1833, a dispute between shipowners and underwriters resulted in each group publishing a list—the "Red Book" and the "Green Book". Both parties came to the verge of bankruptcy, they reached agreement in 1834 to unite and form Lloyd’s Register of British and Foreign Shipping, establishing a General Committee and charitable values.
In 1914, with an international outlook, the organisation changed its name to Lloyd's Register of Shipping. The Society printed the first Register of Ships in 1764 in order to give both underwriters and merchants an idea of the condition of the vessels they insured and chartered: ship hulls were graded by a lettered scale, ship's fittings were graded by number, thus the best classification "A1", from which the expression A1 or A1 at Lloyd's is derived, first appeared in the 1775–76 edition of the Register. The Register, with information on all seagoing, self-propelled merchant ships of 100 gross tonnes or greater, is published annually. A vessel remains registered with Lloyd's Register until she is sunk, hulked, or scrapped; the Register was published by the joint venture company of Lloyd's Register-Fairplay, formed in July 2001 by the merger of Lloyd's Register's Maritime Information Publishing Group and Prime Publications Limited. Lloyd's Register sold its share of the venture to IHS Markit in 2009.
Lloyd's Register provides quality assurance and certification for ships, offshore structures, shore-based installations such as power stations and railway infrastructure. However, Lloyd's Register is known best for the classification and certification of ships, inspects and approves important components and accessories, including life-saving appliances, marine pollution prevention, fire protection, radio communication equipment, deck gear, cables and anchors. LR's Rules for Ships are derived from principles of naval architecture and marine engineering, govern safety and operational standards for numerous merchant and owned vessels. LR's Rules govern a number of topics including: Materials used for construction of the vessel Ship structural requirements and minimum scantlings, depending on ship type Operation and maintenance of main and auxiliary machinery Operation and maintenance of emergency and control systemsSpecific editions of the rules are available to cater for merchant ships, naval ships, special purpose vessels and offshore structures.
A ship is known as being in class if she meets all the minimum requirements of LR's Rules, such a status affects the possibility of a ship getting insurance. Class can be withdrawn from a ship if she is in violation of any regulations and does not maintain the minimum requirements specified by the company. However, exceptional circumstances may warrant special dispensation from Lloyd's Register. Any alteration to the vessel, whether it is a structural alteration or machinery, must be approved by Lloyd's Register before it is implemented. Ships are inspected on a regular basis by a team of Lloyd's Register surveyors, one of the most important inspections being a ship's load line survey – due once every five years; such a survey includes an inspection of the hull to make sure that the load line has not been altered. Numerous other inspections such as the condition of hatch and door seals, safety barriers, guard rails are performed. Upon completion the ship is allowed to be operated for another year, is issued a load line certificate.
Lloyd's Register provide a list of regulations to the public. List of regulations: The Rules and Regulations for the Classification of Ships January 2016 The Rules and Regulations For The Classification Of Special Service Craft The Rules and Regulations for the Classification of Naval Ships January 2015 The Rules for the Manufacture, Testing an
The Emirates Stadium is a football stadium in Holloway, London and the home of Arsenal. With a capacity of 60,260 it is the fourth-largest football stadium in England after Wembley Stadium, Old Trafford and Tottenham Hotspur Stadium. In 1997, Arsenal explored the possibility of relocating to a new stadium, having been denied planning permission by Islington Council to expand its home stadium, Highbury. After considering various options, the club bought an industrial and waste disposal estate in Ashburton Grove in 2000. A year they received the council's approval to build a stadium on the site. Relocation began in 2002, but financial difficulties delayed work until February 2004. Emirates was announced as the main sponsor for the stadium; the entire stadium project was completed in 2006 at a cost of £390 million. The club's former stadium was redeveloped as an apartment complex; the stadium has undergone a process of "Arsenalisation" since 2009 with the aim of restoring Arsenal's heritage and history.
The stadium has hosted international fixtures and music concerts. Spectator safety at football grounds was a major concern during the 1980s, following incidents of hooliganism, disasters such as the Bradford City stadium fire and the Heysel Stadium disaster in 1985, the Hillsborough disaster in 1989; the Taylor Report into the Hillsborough tragedy was finalised in January 1990 and recommended the removal of terraces in favour of seating. Under the amended Football Spectators Act 1989, it became compulsory for first and second tier English clubs to have their stadia all-seated in time for the 1994–95 season. Arsenal, like many other clubs, experienced difficulty raising income for converted terraced areas. At the end of the 1990–91 season, the club introduced a bond scheme which offered supporters the right to purchase a season ticket at its renovated North Bank stand of Highbury; the board felt. At a price of between £1,000 to £1,500, the 150-year bond was criticised by supporters, who argued it blocked the participation of those less well-off from supporting Arsenal.
A campaign directed by the Independent Arsenal Supporters' Association brought relative success as only a third of all bonds were sold. The North Bank was the final stand to be refurbished, it opened in August 1993 at a cost of £20 million. The rework reduced the stadium's capacity, from 57,000 at the beginning of the decade to under 40,000. High ticket prices to serve the club's existing debts and low attendance figures forced Arsenal to explore the possibility of building a larger stadium in 1997; the club wanted to attract an evergrowing fanbase and financially compete with the biggest clubs in England. By comparison, Manchester United enjoyed a rise in gate receipts. Arsenal's initial proposal to rebuild Highbury was met with disapproval from local residents, as it required the demolition of 25 neighbouring houses, it became problematic once the East Stand of the stadium was granted Grade II listing in July 1997. After much consultation, the club abandoned its plan, deciding a capacity of 48,000 was not large enough.
Arsenal investigated the possibility of relocating to Wembley Stadium and in March 1998 made an official bid to purchase the ground. The Football Association and the English National Stadium Trust opposed Arsenal's offer, claiming it harmed England's bid for the 2006 FIFA World Cup, which FIFA itself denied. In April 1998, Arsenal withdrew its bid and Wembley was purchased by the English National Stadium Trust; the club however was given permission to host its UEFA Champions League home ties at Wembley for the 1998–99 and 1999–2000 seasons. Although Arsenal's time in the competition was brief, twice exiting the group stages, the club set its record home attendance and earned record gate income in the 1998–99 season, highlighting potential profitability. In November 1999, Arsenal examined the feasibility of building a new stadium in Ashburton Grove. Anthony Spencer, estate agent and club property adviser, recommended the area to director Danny Fiszman and vice-chairman David Dein having scoured over North London for potential areas.
The land, 450 metres from Highbury was composed of a rubbish processing plant and industrial estate, 80% owned to varying levels by Islington Council and Sainsbury's. After passing the first significant milestone at Islington Council's planning committee, Arsenal submitted a planning application for a new-build 60,000 seater stadium in November 2000; this included a redevelopment project at Drayton Park, converting the existing ground Highbury to flats and building a new waste station in Lough Road. As part of the scheme, Arsenal intended to create 1,800 new jobs for the community and 2,300 new homes. Improvements to three railway stations, Holloway Road, Drayton Park and Finsbury Park, were included to cope with the increased capacity requirements from matchday crowds. Islington Stadium Communities Alliance – an alliance of 16 groups representing local residents and businesses, was set up in January 2000 as a body against the redevelopment. Alison Carmichael, a spokeswoman for the group, said of the move, "It may look like Arsenal are doing great things for the area, but in its detail the plan is awful.
We blame the
The Den is a football stadium in Bermondsey, south-east London, the home of Millwall Football Club. It is adjacent to the South London railway originating at London Bridge, a quarter of a mile from the Old Den, which it replaced in 1993. Built on a previous site of housing, a church and the Senegal Fields playgrounds, it has an all-seated capacity of 20,146; the highest match attendance in the 2017-18 season was 17,614. The Den is the sixth ground that Millwall have occupied since their formation in the Millwall area of the Isle of Dogs in 1885; the New Den, as it was known to distinguish it from its predecessor, was the first new all-seater stadium in England to be completed after the Taylor Report on the Hillsborough disaster of 1989. It was designed with effective crowd management in mind, with the escape routes being short and direct. After chairman Reg Burr decided that it would not be viable to redevelop The Old Den as an all-seater stadium, he announced in 1990 that the club would relocate to a new stadium in the Senegal Fields area in south Bermondsey.
It was planned to have a seating capacity of between 25,000 and 30,000, the club opted to wait so the capacity was kept to just over 20,000. Millwall played their final game at The Old Den on 8 May 1993 after 83 years and moved to the new stadium a quarter-of-a-mile away from Cold Blow Lane; the £16 million New Den was opened by John Smith, the leader of the Labour Party and of the Opposition at the time, on 4 August 1993 prior to a prestigious friendly against Sporting Portugal, which Sporting won 2–1. The Den was the first new stadium constructed for a professional football team in London since 1937. Millwall have experienced mixed fortunes since relocating to The Den, their first season at the stadium saw them finish third in Division One — their highest finish since relegation from the top flight four years earlier. However, their dreams of Premier League football were ended by a defeat in the playoffs and they were relegated to Division Two in 1996, not winning promotion from that level until 2001.
They again came close to reaching the Premier League in 2002, finishing fourth, but once again losing in the playoffs. The Lions reached the FA Cup final for the first time in 2004, despite a 3–0 defeat by Manchester United they qualified for a European competition for the first time in their history. Millwall have been relegated twice since then. However, the stadium has yet to host Premier League football - Millwall had played in the old First Division for two seasons from 1988 during their final few years at their previous stadium. In September 2016 Lewisham Council approved a compulsory purchase order of land surrounding The Den rented by Millwall, as part of a major redevelopment of the "New Bermondsey" area; the plans are controversial because the developer, Renewal, is controlled by offshore companies with unclear ownership, is seen by the club and local community to be profiteering by demolishing existing homes and businesses as well as Millwall's car-park and the acclaimed and well recognised Millwall Community Trust - to build up to 2,400 new private homes, with no council housing and less than 15% of'affordable housing'.
Millwall had submitted their own plans for regeneration centred around the football club itself, but the council voted in favour of Renewal's plans. In December 2016 Private Eye reported how Renewal had been founded by a former Lewisham Council leader and senior officer, suggesting potential bias, that the decision to approve Renewal's plans may have been made as long ago as 2013 despite the fact that no due diligence had been able to be carried out by PricewaterhouseCoopers due to "poor" and "limited" access to information and management at Renewal, registered in the Isle of Man. On 20 January 2011 the east stand of The Den was renamed as the Dockers Stand, paying tribute to Millwall's earlier history and supporter-base of Thames dockers; the south stand is known as the Cold Blow Lane stand, the name of the road which led into The Old Den. The north stand is for visiting supporters and the west stand was renamed the Barry Kitchener stand, named after Millwall's longest serving player, it houses press box and executive seats.
In 1994, a boxing match was held at The Den. Local boy Michael Bentt lost his WBO World Heavyweight Championship to Herbie Hide; the fight was Bentt's last after being rushed to the hospital and told he could never fight again, after suffering brain injuries in the loss. On 1 May 2006, The Den hosted the FA Women's Cup Final between Arsenal L. F. C. and Leeds United L. F. C.. Arsenal Ladies won the Cup 5–0. Three international matches have been hosted at The Den. Ghana 1–1 Senegal, Jamaica 0–0 Nigeria and Australia 3–4 Ecuador. Former Millwall player Tim Cahill scored two of Australia's goals, becoming the country's all-time top scorer. On September 5, 2015, the ground hosted Rugby league as Wigan Warriors defeated the Catalans Dragons 42-16 in a Super League Super 8s match in front of a crowd of 8,101; the Den hosted the Samaritans Celebrity Soccer Sixes on 18 May 2008. Film and Television stars played at The Den, the first time the event has not been hosted by a Premier League Club. Babyshambles failed losing 3-2 to dance act Faithless.
The winners of the women's trophy were Cansei de Ser Sexy. Around 150 celebrities took part including McFly, Tony Hadley, Amy Winehouse and ex-Millwall fan favourite Terry Hurlock to raise money for the charity; the Den doubles as The Dragon's Lair, home ground of Harchester United in the TV series Dream
Richard George Rogers, Baron Rogers of Riverside is a British-Italian architect noted for his modernist and functionalist designs in high-tech architecture. Rogers is best known for his work on the Pompidou Centre in Paris, the Lloyd's building and Millennium Dome both in London, the Senedd in Cardiff, the European Court of Human Rights building in Strasbourg, he is a winner of the RIBA Gold Medal, the Thomas Jefferson Medal, the RIBA Stirling Prize, the Minerva Medal and Pritzker Prize. He is a Senior Partner at Rogers Stirk Harbour + Partners known as the Richard Rogers Partnership. Richard Rogers was born in Florence in 1933 into an Anglo-Italian family, his father, William Nino Rogers, was the cousin of Italian architect Ernesto Nathan Rogers. His ancestors moved from Sunderland to Venice in about 1800 settling in Trieste and Florence. In 1939 William Nino Rogers decided to come back to England. Upon moving to England, Richard Rogers went to Leatherhead. Rogers did not excel academically, which made him believe that he was "stupid because he could not read or memorize his school work" and as a consequence he stated that he became "very depressed".
He wasn't able to read until the age of 11, it was not until after he had his first child that he realised that he was dyslexic. After leaving St Johns School, he undertook a foundation course at Epsom School of Art before going into National Service between 1951 and 1953, he attended the Architectural Association School of Architecture in London, where he gained the Architectural Association's Diploma from 1954 until 1959, subsequently graduating with a master's degree from the Yale School of Architecture in 1962 on a Fulbright Scholarship. While studying at Yale, Rogers met fellow architecture student Norman Foster and planning student Su Brumwell. After leaving Yale he joined Owings & Merrill in New York. On returning to England in 1963, he, Norman Foster and Brumwell set up architectural practice as Team 4 with Wendy Cheeseman. Rogers and Foster earned a reputation for what was termed by the media high-tech architecture. By 1967, Team 4 had split up, but Rogers continued to collaborate with Su Rogers, along with John Young and Laurie Abbott.
In early 1968 he was commissioned to design a house and studio for Humphrey Spender near Maldon, Essex, a glass cube framed with I-beams. He continued to develop his ideas of prefabrication and structural simplicity to design a Wimbledon house for his parents; this was based on ideas from his conceptual Zip-Up House, such as the use of standardized components based on refrigerator panels to make energy-efficient buildings. Rogers subsequently joined forces with Italian architect Renzo Piano, a partnership, to prove fruitful, his career leapt forward when he, Piano and Gianfranco Franchini won the design competition for the Pompidou Centre in July 1971, alongside a team from Ove Arup that included Irish engineer Peter Rice. This building established Rogers's trademark of exposing most of the building's services on the exterior, leaving the internal spaces uncluttered and open for visitors to the centre's art exhibitions; this style, dubbed "Bowellism" by some critics, was not universally popular at the time the centre opened in 1977, but today the Pompidou Centre is a admired Parisian landmark.
Rogers revisited this inside-out style with his design for London's Lloyd's building, completed in 1986 – another controversial design which has since become a famous and distinctive landmark in its own right. After working with Piano, Rogers established the Richard Rogers Partnership along with Marco Goldschmied, Mike Davies and John Young in 1977; this became Rogers Stirk Harbour + Partners in 2007. The firm maintains offices in London and Sydney. Rogers has devoted much of his career to wider issues surrounding architecture, urbanism and the ways in which cities are used. One early illustration of his thinking was an exhibition at the Royal Academy in 1986, entitled "London As It Could Be", which featured the work of James Stirling and Rogers' former partner Norman Foster; this exhibition made public a series of proposals for transforming a large area of central London, subsequently dismissed as impractical by the city's authorities. In 1995, he became the first architect to deliver the BBC's annual Reith Lectures.
This series of five talks, titled Sustainable City, were adapted into the book Cities for a Small Planet. The BBC made these lectures available to the public for download in July 2011. In 1998, he set up the Urban Task Force at the invitation of the British government, to help identify causes of urban decline and establish a vision of safety and beauty for Britain's cities; this work resulted in a white paper, Towards an Urban Renaissance, outlining more than 100 recommendations for future city designers. Rogers served for several years as chair of the Greater London Authority panel for Architecture and Urbanism, he has been chair of the board of Trustees of The Architecture Foundation. From 2001 to 2008 he was chief advisor on architecture and urbanism to Mayor of London Ken Livingstone, he stood down from the post in October 2009. Rogers has served as an advisor to two mayors of Barcelona on urban strategies. Amidst this extra-curricular activity, Rogers has continued to create controversial and iconic works.
The most famous of these, the Millennium Dome, was designed by the Rogers
Lombard Street, London
Lombard Street is a street notable for its connections with the City of London's merchant and insurance industries, stretching back to medieval times. From Bank junction, where nine streets converge by the Bank of England, Lombard Street runs southeast for a short distance before bearing left into a more easterly direction, terminates at a junction with Gracechurch Street and Fenchurch Street, its overall length is 260 metres. It has been compared with Wall Street in New York City. Lombard Street, since the construction of King William Street, has two distinctive sections; the short section between Bank junction and the church of St Mary Woolnoth is spacious and carries two-way traffic including several bus routes, which continues along King William Street. Lombard Street bears to the east and the remainder is much narrower and is one-way. At the eastern end of the street, a number of modern buildings exist on both sides, in contrast to the older buildings and architectural styles along much of its length.
Built in 1990–92, the former headquarters of Barclays covers a large plot on the north corner of Lombard and Gracechurch Streets, is the largest and tallest building in the immediate vicinity of Lombard Street, at 87 metres high. Addresses on the street are numbered 1 to 40 along the south side, running from Bank to Gracechurch Street 41 to 82 along the north side, from Gracechurch Street to Bank; the postcode for the street is EC3V. The nearest London Underground stations to Lombard Street are Bank and Monument, with one of the numerous entrances to Bank station being situated on Lombard Street itself. Mainline railway stations at Cannon Street and Fenchurch Street are close by; the street runs downhill towards Bank. At its junction with Gracechurch Street it is at an elevation of 16.7 metres, whilst at its junction at Bank it is at 13.5 metres. Side streets and alleys run towards Cornhill to the north, Cannon Street to the south. Running north is Pope's Head Alley, Change Alley, Birchin Lane and George Yard.
Heading south is St Swithin's Lane, Post Office Court, Abchurch Lane, Nicholas Lane, Clement's Lane and Plough Court. Lombard Street has its origins in one of the main Roman roads of Londinium, it formed a plot of land granted by King Edward I to goldsmiths from the part of northern Italy known as Lombardy. In 1537 Sir Richard Gresham suggested to Lord Privy Seal, Thomas Cromwell that they "make a goodely Bursse in Lombert-streete, for marchuants to repayer unto". From this originated the Royal Exchange built by Thomas. Lloyd's Coffee House, which became the global insurance market Lloyd's of London, moved to Lombard Street near the General Post Office from Tower Street in 1691; the location, on the south side of the street, is now occupied at street level by a supermarket. Lloyd's is now located in Lime Street, where its current building was completed in 1986; until the 1980s, most UK-based banks had their head offices in Lombard Street and it has been the London home for money lenders. No. 54 was the long-standing headquarters of Barclays before the financial institution moved in 2005 to One Churchill Place at Canary Wharf.
No. 71 was the headquarters of Lloyds Bank, No. 60 was the headquarters of the Trustee Savings Bank. Lombard Street has a number of colourful signs hanging from the buildings, depicting organisations and buildings once located there. Having been banned, the present-day signs were erected for the coronation of Edward VII in 1902. From 1678 to 1829, the General Post Office had its headquarters on Lombard Street; the expense of continuously expanding the post office site in the middle of the financial district, however necessitated a move to St Martins-le-Grand. The slums at the site were cleared in the early 19th century and the General Post Office East was constructed. St Mary Woolnoth is situated on the corner of Lombard Street and King William Street, continues to be an active parish church; the City & South London Railway had obtained permission to demolish the 18th-century church and build a station on the site. After public protest, the company changed its plans to build only a sub-surface ticket hall and lift entrance in the crypt of the church.
This necessitated moving the bodies elsewhere, strengthening the crypt with a steel framework and underpinning the church's foundations. The church of St Edmund and Martyr stands on the street, on the north side close to Gracechurch Street. Destroyed during the Great Fire of London in 1666, St Edmund's was rebuilt during the 1670s by Christopher Wren, it is no longer used for regular worship and now performs service as the London Centre for Spirituality. A third church existed, until its demolition in 1937, near the junction of Gracechurch Street, known as All Hallows Lombard Street; the site now forms. Ball Alley connected the church with George Yard. Lombard Street was one of the principal streets of the ward of Langbourn, forming the core of the ward's West division. Boundary changes in 2003 and 2013 have resulted in most of the northern side remaining in Langbourn, whilst the southern side is now in the ward of Candlewick; the changes of 2013 now mean that all of the southern side of the street, with the notable exception of the guild— or ward—church of St Mary Woolnoth, is in Candlewick (from 2003 to 20
2012 Summer Olympics
The 2012 Summer Olympics, formally the Games of the XXX Olympiad and known as London 2012, was an international multi-sport event, held from 27 July to 12 August 2012 in London, United Kingdom. The first event, the group stage in women's football, began on 25 July at the Millennium Stadium in Cardiff, followed by the opening ceremonies on 27 July. 10,768 athletes from 204 National Olympic Committees participated. Following a bid headed by former Olympic champion Sebastian Coe and then-Mayor of London Ken Livingstone, London was selected as the host city on 6 July 2005 during the 117th IOC Session in Singapore, defeating bids from Moscow, New York City and Paris. London became the first city to host the modern Olympics three times, having hosted the Summer Games in 1908 and in 1948. Construction for the Games involved considerable redevelopment, with an emphasis on sustainability; the main focus was a new 200-hectare Olympic Park, constructed on a former industrial site at Stratford, East London.
The Games made use of venues that existed before the bid. The Games received widespread acclaim for their organisation, with the volunteers, the British military and public enthusiasm praised highly; the opening ceremony, directed by Danny Boyle, received widespread acclaim throughout the world, particular praise from the British public and a minority of ranging criticisms from some social media sites. During the Games, Michael Phelps became the most decorated Olympic athlete of all time, winning his 22nd medal. Saudi Arabia and Brunei entered female athletes for the first time, so that every eligible country has sent a female competitor to at least one Olympic Games. Women's boxing was included for the first time, thus the Games became the first at which every sport had female competitors; these were the final Olympic Games under the IOC presidency of Jacques Rogge. The final medal tally was led by the United States, followed by China and host Great Britain. Several world and Olympic records were set at the games.
Though there were several controversies, the 2012 games were deemed successful with the rising standards of competition amongst nations across the world, packed stadiums and smooth organisation. Furthermore, the focus on sporting legacy and post-games venue sustainability was seen as a blueprint for future Olympics. By 15 July 2003, the deadline for interested cities to submit bids to the International Olympic Committee, nine cities had submitted bids to host the 2012 Summer Olympics: Havana, Leipzig, Madrid, New York City and Rio de Janeiro. On 18 May 2004, as a result of a scored technical evaluation, the IOC reduced the number of cities to five: London, Moscow, New York and Paris. All five submitted their candidate files by 19 November 2004 and were visited by the IOC inspection team during February and March 2005; the Paris bid suffered two setbacks during the IOC inspection visit: a number of strikes and demonstrations coinciding with the visits, a report that a key member of the bid team, Guy Drut, would face charges over alleged corrupt party political finances.
Throughout the process, Paris was seen as the favourite as this was its third bid in recent years. London was seen as lagging behind Paris by a considerable margin, its position began to improve after the appointment of Lord Coe as the new head of London 2012 on 19 May 2004. In late August 2004, reports predicted a tie between Paris. On 6 June 2005, the IOC released its evaluation reports for the five candidate cities, they did not contain any scores or rankings, but the report for Paris was considered the most positive. London was close behind, having closed most of the gap observed by the initial evaluation in 2004. New York and Madrid received positive evaluations. On 1 July 2005, when asked who would win, Jacques Rogge said, "I cannot predict it since I don't know how the IOC members will vote, but my gut feeling tells me that it will be close. It will come down to a difference of say ten votes, or maybe less."On 6 July 2005, the final selection was announced at the 117th IOC Session in Singapore.
Moscow was the first city to be eliminated, followed by New Madrid. The final two contenders were Paris. At the end of the fourth round of voting, London won the right to host the 2012 Games with 54 votes to 50. Tragically, the celebrations in London were short-lived, being overshadowed by bombings on London's transport system less than 24 hours after the announcement; the London Organising Committee of the Olympic Games was created to oversee the staging of the Games after the success of the bid, held its first board meeting on 3 October 2005. The committee, chaired by Lord Coe, was in charge of implementing and staging the Games, while the Olympic Delivery Authority was in charge of the construction of the venues and infrastructure; the latter was established in April 2006. The Government Olympic Executive, a unit within the Department for Culture and Sport, was the lead government body for coordinating the London 2012 Olympics, it focused on oversight of the Games, cross-programme programme management and the London 2012 Olympic Legacy before and after the Games that would benefit London and the United Kingdom.
The organisation was responsible for the supervision of the £9.3 billion of public sector funding. In August 2011, security concerns arose surrounding the hosting of the Olympic Games in London due to the 2011 England riots, with a few countries expressing fear over the safety of the Games, in spite of the International Olympic Committee's assurance that the riots would not affect the Games; the IOC's Coordination Commission for the 2
Blackfriars Bridge is a road and foot traffic bridge over the River Thames in London, between Waterloo Bridge and Blackfriars Railway Bridge, carrying the A201 road. The north end is near Temple Church, along with Blackfriars station; the south end is near the Oxo Tower. The first fixed crossing at Blackfriars was a 995 feet long toll bridge designed in an Italianate style by Robert Mylne and constructed with nine semi-elliptical arches of Portland stone. Beating designs by John Gwynn and George Dance, it took nine years to build, opening to the public in 1769, it was the third bridge across the Thames in the built-up area of London, supplementing the ancient London Bridge, which dated from several centuries earlier, Westminster Bridge. It was named "William Pitt Bridge" as a dedication, but its informal name relating to the precinct within the City named after the Blackfriars Monastery, a Dominican priory which once stood nearby, was adopted, it was made toll free. The City of London Corporation was responsible for promoting it and the location between the other two bridges was chosen because it was realised that the disused wharfage of the lower River Fleet from the Thames to what became Ludgate Circus would allow access into the north bank without unduly disrupting the neighbourhood.
The Fleet can be seen discharging into the Thames at its north side. By taking an access road from its southern landing to a junction with the routes created to simplify passage between those bridges to its east and west to the south it would add to those improvements; this created the junction at St George's Circus between Westminster Bridge Road, Borough Road and the named Blackfriars Road which crossed the open parish of Christchurch Surrey. The continuation to the south at the major junction at Elephant and Castle is therefore named London Road. Although it was built of Portland stone the workmanship was faulty. Between 1833 and 1840 extensive repairs were necessary, a good deal of patching-up was done, until at last it was decided to build a new bridge on the same site and this coincided with the creation of the Thames Embankment's junction with the new Queen Victoria Street required a major reconfiguration; the original Blackfriars Bridge was demolished in 1860, P. A. Thom & Company won with the lowest tender and placed an order with Lloyds and Company for the necessary ironwork.
Due to P. A. Thom's problems in finding solid foundations, Fosters & Company went into liquidation having lost £250,000 on the project; the metalwork was built by The Patent Shaft and Axletree Company, following their takeover of Lloyds and Company. The present bridge which on 6 November 1869 was opened by Queen Victoria is 923 feet long, consisting of five wrought iron arches built to a design by Joseph Cubitt. Cubitt designed the adjacent rail bridge and it was a condition that the spans and piers of the two bridges be aligned. Like its predecessor it is owned and maintained by the Bridge House Estates, a charitable trust overseen by the City of London Corporation. Like London Bridge the full length and its southern end is within the City's borders and not in the adjoining borough of Southwark. Due to the volume of traffic over the bridge, it was widened between 1907–10, from 70 feet to its present 105 feet; the bridge became internationally notorious in June 1982, when the body of Roberto Calvi, a former chairman of Italy's largest private bank, was found hanging from one of its arches with five bricks and around $14,000 in three different currencies in his pockets.
Calvi's death was treated as suicide, but he was on the run from Italy accused of embezzlement and in 2002 forensic experts concluded that he had been murdered by the Mafia, to whom he was indebted. In 2005, five suspected members of the Mafia were tried in a Rome court for Calvi's murder, but all were acquitted in June 2007 for lack of evidence. On the piers of the bridge are stone carvings of water birds by sculptor John Birnie Philip. On the East side, the carvings seabirds. On the north side of the bridge is a statue of Queen Victoria; the ends of the bridge are shaped like a pulpit in a reference to Black Friars. The bridge gave its name to Blackfriars Bridge railway station on the southern bank which opened in 1864 before closing to passengers in 1885 following the opening of what is today the main Blackfriars station. Blackfriars Bridge station continued as a goods stop until 1964 when it was demolished, much of it redeveloped into offices; the River Fleet empties into the Thames under the north end of Blackfriars Bridge.
The structure was given Grade II listed status in 1972. In 1774 the new bridge was mentioned in a popular song in Charles Dibdin's opera The Waterman, referring to the boatmen who used to carry fashionable folks to Vauxhall Gardens and Ranelagh Gardens. "And did you not hear of the jolly young waterman, Who at Blackfriars Bridge used for to ply? And he feathered his oars with such skill and dexterity, Winning each heart and delighting each eye." A Bailey Bridge constructed over the River Rhine at Rees, Germany, in 1945 by the Royal Canadian Engineers was named "Blackfriars Bridge", and, at 558 m including the ramps at each end, was the longest Bailey bridge constructed. In Neil Gaiman's Neverwhere, "Blackfriars Bridge" was