Mortise and tenon
The mortise and tenon joint has been used for thousands of years by woodworkers around the world to join pieces of wood, mainly when the adjoining pieces connect at an angle of 90°. In its basic form it is simple and strong. Although there are many joint variations, the mortise and tenon comprises two components, the mortise hole and the tenon tongue. The tenon, formed on the end of a member generally referred to as a rail, is inserted into a square or rectangular hole cut into the corresponding member. The tenon is cut to fit the hole exactly and usually has shoulders that seat when the joint fully enters the mortise hole. The joint may be glued, pinned, or wedged to lock it in place and this joint is used with other materials. For example, it is a method for stonemasons and blacksmiths. A mortise is a cavity cut into a timber to receive a tenon, there are several kinds of mortise, Open mortise a mortise that has only three sides. Stub mortise a mortise, the depth of which depends on the size of the timber.
Through mortise a mortise that passes entirely through a piece, wedged half-dovetail a mortise in which the back is wider, or taller, than the front, or opening. The space for the wedge initially allows room for the tenon to be inserted and it is sometimes called a suicide joint, since it is a one-way trip. Through-wedged half-dovetail a wedged half-dovetail mortise that passes entirely through the piece, a tenon is a projection on the end of a timber for insertion into a mortise. Usually the tenon is taller than it is wide. There are several kinds of tenon, Stub tenon short, the depth of which depends on the size of the timber, through tenon a tenon that passes entirely through the piece of wood it is inserted into, being clearly visible on the back side. Loose tenon a tenon that is a part of the joint. Teasel tenon a term used for the tenon on top of a jowled or gunstock post, a common element of the English tying joint. Top tenon the tenon that occurs on top of a post, hammer-headed tenon a method of forming a tenon joint when the shoulders cannot be tightened with a clamp.
Half shoulder tenon An asymmetric tenon with a shoulder on one side only, a common use is in framed and braced doors
Most stringed instruments produce their sound through the application of energy to the strings, which sets them into vibratory motion. The strings alone, produce only a faint sound because they displace only a volume of air as they vibrate. Consequently, the sound of the strings alone requires impedance matching to the air by transmitting their vibrations to a larger surface area capable of displacing larger volumes of air. This calls for an arrangement that allows for the strings to vibrate freely, a bridge is the customary means by which this is accomplished. Typically, the bridge is perpendicular to the strings and larger surface with the tension of the strings pressing down on the bridge and thus on the larger surface beneath it. That larger, more acoustically responsive surface may be coupled to a sound chamber—an enclosure such as the body of a guitar or violin—that provides resonance that helps amplify the sound, alternatively, a bridge may consist of multiple parts. One common form is a bridge that incorporates a separate bearing surface on which the strings rest and this is often of a material harder than the bridge itself, such as bone, high-density plastic, or metal. A classical guitar saddle sits loosely in the bridge and is kept there by string tension.
The saddle has shallow grooves in it, at least for the treble strings, yet another type of multi-part bridge is common on instruments whose sound plate is curved rather than flat. Instruments of this type, such as guitars and mandolins, often have a bridge with a base. On classical and flat-top guitars the bridge is glued to the top, a bridge held on to the top by string tension, as in archtop guitars, is known as a floating bridge, and requires a separate tailpiece to anchor the strings. The bridge must transfer vibration to the board or other amplifying surface. As the strings are set in motion, it does this by bending to and this causes the sounding board to vibrate at the same frequency as the string producing a wave-like motion and an audible sound. Bridges are designed to hold the strings at a height above the fingerboard of the instrument. Bridge height may be fixed or alterable, in addition to supporting the strings and transmitting their vibrations, the bridge controls the spacing between strings with shallow grooves cut in the bridge or its saddle.
The strings sit in grooves, thus are held in their proper lateral position. The nut, at the end of the instrument from the bridge or tailpiece. Bridges for electric guitars can be divided into two groups and non-vibrato
Seymour W. Duncan
Seymour W. Born in New Jersey, Duncan grew up in the 1950s and 1960s, during a time when electric guitar music grew into greater acceptance. In a 1984 interview Duncan talks about when he started to play guitar, I used to watch the Ted Mack Show and the Ricky Nelson Show and watch James Burton play who was, and still is, one of my favourite guitar players. He was one of the big influences on Tele sounds - you know I basically play Telecasters, Duncan began playing clubs and during one show, his Fender Telecasters lead pickup broke, forcing him to play the rest of the night on the rhythm pickup. Necessity being the mother of invention, Duncan rewound that lead pickup on a record player spinning at 33 1⁄3 rpm, while he developed his playing skills, Duncans knowledge of how guitars work grew. Duncan took every chance he had to talk with players about guitars, tone and forever, Duncan was hooked on the dynamics and character differences of pickups. As Duncan tinkered with materials and techniques, his bag of tricks grew and grew.
It was here that he did repairs and rewinds for such artists as Jimmy Page, George Harrison, Eric Clapton, David Gilmour, Pete Townshend, Jimi Hendrix, Peter Frampton and his guitar hero Jeff Beck. It was through his work with Beck in particular, that Duncan honed his pickup winding skills—some of Duncans first signature pickup tones appear on Becks early solo albums, Duncans sabbatical in England resulted in a flock of new fans and friends. Duncan came back to the United States and eventually settled in California and he established contact with people such as Leo Fender, Les Paul and Seth Lover and continued learning about and making pickups. Demand for his custom pickups grew and in late 1978 together with Cathy Carter Duncan, he started his own company, today the company has over 120 employees. Fender Custom Shop makes a Seymour Duncan Signature Esquire, Duncan is still involved in designing and fabricating pickups at the factory as well as playing guitar and making appearances at clinics and conventions.
Seymour Duncan Company site D-TAR website
The Fender Mustang is a solid body electric guitar produced by the Fender Musical Instruments Corporation. It was introduced in 1964 as the basis of a redesign of Fenders student models. It was produced until 1982 and reissued in 1990, in the 1990s, the Mustang attained cult status largely as a result of its use by a number of alternative rock bands. Early examples are seen as the most collectible of all the short-scale Fender guitars. The Mustang features two single-coil pickups—an unusual pickup switching configuration—and a unique tremolo system and it was originally available in two scale lengths. All three Mustang-bodied models were offered with optionally the 21 fret 22. 5-inch neck, or a 22 fret 24-inch neck, but the 24-inch was overwhelmingly more popular and 3/4 scale examples are rare. A 24-inch scale is relatively short, the same as the Fender Jaguar but a full inch. The short scale may improve ease of use for people with small hands and this short scale, combined with a unique and extremely direct tremolo arm would make the Mustang a cult guitar in the 1990s.
Before that, its low cost and marketing as a student guitar made it an obvious candidate for aftermarket upgrades, particularly pickup changes. Its wiring with the original pickups lent itself to custom modifications, in 1966 Fender issued the Fender Mustang Bass. A new bass body was designed for this with an offset body style to the Mustang guitar. In 1969 Fender released the Competition Mustang with a racing stripe paint job, body contours were added at this time. The competition mustangs came in Competition Red, Competition Blue, and this paint scheme was heavily influenced by the Shelby Mustang cars of the late 1960s. In 1982 Fender discontinued both the Mustang and the Musicmaster II and these were the last of the offset student models to be made. Fender replaced the Mustang line with the short-lived Fender Bullet line of guitars, in 1990 Fender re-issued the Mustang, largely as a result of the vintage movement prevalent at the time. Among grunge and punk rock guitarists, Fenders discontinued models had become extremely popular, such models had Fender quality, but were less expensive secondhand than vintage Stratocasters and Telecasters.
The reissued Mustang is made in Japan and available in only the 24-inch scale, while the original Mustangs used mostly poplar wood for the body, MG-72 Mustang reissues are made of the similar basswood, the newer MG-65 reissues revert to the original poplar. The natural-finished MG-77 reissue is made of ash, in 2011 Fender released a new Mustang model in the Pawn Shop series, called the Mustang Special
Born to Run
Born to Run is the third studio album by American singer-songwriter Bruce Springsteen. As his effort to break into the mainstream, the album was a commercial success, two singles were released from the album, Born to Run and Tenth Avenue Freeze-Out, the first helped Springsteen to reach mainstream popularity. The tracks Thunder Road and Jungleland became staples of album-oriented rock radio, Born to Run garnered widespread acclaim when it was first released on August 25,1975, by Columbia Records. It has since been considered by critics to be one of the greatest albums in popular music, on November 14,2005, a 30th Anniversary remaster of the album was released as a box set including two DVDs, a production diary film and a concert movie. It was released in remastered form as a disc as well. Springsteen began work on the album in May 1974, given an enormous budget in a last-ditch effort at a commercially viable record, Springsteen became bogged down in the recording process while striving for a wall of sound production.
But, fed by the release of a mix of Born to Run to nearly a dozen radio stations. Springsteen has noted a progression in his songwriting compared to his previous work, Springsteen has referred to a maturation in his lyrics, calling Born to Run the album where I left behind my adolescent definitions of love and freedom—it was the dividing line. In addition, Springsteen spent more time in the studio refining songs than he had on the two albums. All in all, the album more than 14 months to record. During this time Springsteen battled with anger and frustration over the album, during the process, Springsteen brought in Jon Landau to help with production. This was the beginning of the breakup of Springsteens relationship with producer and manager Mike Appel, the album was Springsteens first to feature pianist Roy Bittan and drummer Max Weinberg. The album is noted for its use of introductions to set the tone of each song, Springsteen has said that he wanted Born to Run to sound like Roy Orbison singing Bob Dylan, produced by Spector.
Most of the tracks were first recorded with a rhythm section band comprising Springsteen, Bittan. Also, original pressings have Meeting Across the River billed as The Heist, the original album cover has the title printed in a graffiti style font. These copies, known as the cover, are very rare. With much publicity, Born to Run vaulted into the top 10 in its second week on the charts, the question of hype became a story in itself as critics began wondering if Springsteen was for real or the product of record company promotion. Upset with Columbias promotion department, Springsteen said the decision to him as the future of rock was a very big mistake
Acer /ˈeɪsər/ is a genus of trees or shrubs commonly known as maple. There are approximately 128 species, most of which are native to Asia, with a number appearing in Europe, northern Africa. Only one species, Acer laurinum, extends to the Southern Hemisphere, the type species of the genus is the sycamore maple, Acer pseudoplatanus, the most common maple species in Europe. Most maples are trees growing to 10–45 m height, others are shrubs less than 10 meters tall with a number of small trunks originating at ground level. Most species are deciduous, and many are renowned for their autumn colour, but a few in southern Asia. Most are shade-tolerant when young and are often riparian, many of the root systems are typically dense and fibrous, inhibiting the growth of other vegetation underneath them. A few species, notably Acer cappadocicum, frequently produce root sprouts, maples are distinguished by opposite leaf arrangement. The leaves in most species are palmate veined and lobed, with 3 to 9 veins each leading to a lobe, a small number of species differ in having palmate compound, pinnate compound, pinnate veined or unlobed leaves.
Several species, including Acer griseum, Acer mandshuricum, Acer maximowiczianum, one species, Acer negundo, has pinnately compound leaves that may be simply trifoliate or may have five, seven, or rarely nine leaflets. A few, such as Acer laevigatum and Acer carpinifolium, have pinnately veined simple leaves, the flowers are regular and borne in racemes, corymbs, or umbels. They have four or five sepals, four or five petals about 1 –6 mm long, four to ten stamens about 6 –10 mm long, and two pistils or a pistil with two styles. The ovary is superior and has two carpels, whose wings elongate the flowers, making it easy to tell which flowers are female. Maples flower in winter or early spring, in most species with or just after the appearance of the leaves. Maple flowers are green, orange or red, though individually small, the effect of an entire tree in flower can be striking in several species. Some maples are a spring source of pollen and nectar for bees. The distinctive fruits are called samaras, maple keys and these seeds occur in distinctive pairs each containing one seed enclosed in a nutlet attached to a flattened wing of fibrous, papery tissue.
They are shaped to spin as they fall and to carry the seeds a considerable distance on the wind, people often call them helicopters due to the way that they spin as they fall. During World War II, the US Army developed an air drop supply carrier that could carry up to 65 pounds of supplies and was based on the Maple seed
Gretsch is an American company that manufactures guitars and drums. The company was founded in 1883 by Friedrich Gretsch, a 27-year-old German immigrant, Friedrich Gretsch manufactured banjos and drums until his death in 1895. In 1916, his son, Fred Gretsch Sr. moved operations to Brooklyn, most modern-era Gretsch guitars are manufactured in the Far East, though American-made Custom Shop models are available. In 2003, Gretsch entered an agreement with Fender Musical Instruments Corporation. Under the terms of that agreement Fred W. Gretsch would retain ownership while FMIC would handle most of the development, Gretsch was founded in 1883 by Friedrich Gretsch, a young German immigrant. His Brooklyn shop was designed for the manufacture of banjos, tambourines, in 1895, Gretsch died at the age of 39, and the successful company was taken over by his son Fred Sr. By 1916, Fred had moved the company into a larger 10-story building in the Williamsburg district, chuck Berry played the Duo Jet when he recorded his first major hit, Maybellene and is pictured on his LP After School Session.
Two other models were introduced - the Country Club, and the White Falcon, Guitar production by the Gretsch Company began in the early 1930s, and Gretsch guitars became highly sought after, most notably in the 1950s and 1960s. They lost favor with players during the 1970s and 1980s for various reasons, Gretsch eventually went bankrupt, was revived in 1989 by Fred W. Gretsch, a great-grandson of Friedrich Gretsch. Fred W. Gretsch remains president of the company, during this time, Chet Atkins became an endorser of Gretsch. Atkins was one of the pre-eminent guitarists of his day, and his endorsement gave Gretsch greater visibility in competition with Gibson and Fender. Gretsch ultimately sold thousands of guitars with Chets name on the pickguard, most notably the 6120 Chet Atkins model, the worldwide success of Eddys twangy instrumental records, television appearances, and extensive touring, helped expose the Gretsch guitar to the teenage rock and roll market. George Harrison, years later, would refer to model as the Eddie Cochran/Duane Eddy guitar.
Other Chet Atkins models were the Country Gentleman and the Tennessean, many rockabilly players had followed in the footsteps of Eddie Cochran, who wielded a 6120 and Gene Vincents guitarist Cliff Gallup, who played a Duo Jet. Elvis Presley owned a Gretsch Country Gentleman—, playing it briefly both on stage and in the studio, Gretsch quickly became a legitimate competitor to both Gibson and its main rivals and Rickenbacker. Gretsch fortunes rose yet again in the sixties when George Harrison played a Gretsch Country Gentleman on The Ed Sullivan Show. Despite popular belief, he acquired two Country Gentleman guitars, his first was destroyed when it fell out of the trunk of a car on the roadway. He would switch to a Gretsch Tennessean and his Country Gentleman made its last appearance in the video of Youre Going to Lose That Girl in the movie Help
A router is a tool used to rout out an area in the face of a relatively hard workpiece, typically of wood or plastic. The main application of routers is in woodworking, especially cabinetry, the router is most commonly used as a plunging tool and inverted in a router table. The hand tool form of router is the original form and it is a specialized type of hand plane with a broad base and a narrow blade projecting well beyond its base plate. Today the power tool form of router, with a spindle, is the more common form. Although the hand tool has a few advantages over the tool and retains favour with some workers, it has been mostly replaced by the modern spindle router. Some workers consider it to be the single most versatile woodworking power tool, becoming more popular is the use of a CNC wood router, which implements the advantages of CNC. Related to the router is a smaller, lighter version designed specifically for trimming laminates and it can be used for smaller general routing work. For example, with an appropriate jig it can be used for recessing door hinges, even rotary tools can be used as routers when the right bits and accessories are attached.
Before power routers existed, the hand tool form was used, especially by patternmakers. The first handheld power routers were invented in 1915 and were Jet Motor Hand Routers, the name derives from a combination of the inventors last name Onsrud and the term router. The Onsruter married a router plane with an endmill to create the first handheld power router, the idea for the Onsruter started when a rail road company decided they wanted to power the front light on a Steam Locomotive using exhaust steam from the engine. Oscar Onsrud and his son Rudy came up with, and submitted, a few months Rudy was talking with a friend about his frustrations making the groove in the bottom of a cane bottom chair using a router plane. The modified endmills would have to spin at 30,000 RPM, instead of the 3,000 RPM of a machine, in order to cut wood. These bits needed a steeper rake and clearance angle to evacuate the chips than needed on a traditional endmill and these new bits became known as router bits or router cutters.
Further refinement produced the plunge router, invented by ELU in Germany around 1949 and this is even better adapted for many types of work. Starting in the 1960s, the power tool form of router became the common form. Modern routers are used in place of traditional moulding planes or spindle moulder machines for edge decoration of timber. Routing is a high speed process of cutting and shaping wood, plastic, routing is properly applied to relatively weak and brittle materials, typically wood
Sir James Paul McCartney, MBE is an English singer-songwriter, multi-instrumentalist, and composer. With John Lennon, George Harrison, and Ringo Starr, he gained fame with the rock band the Beatles, largely considered the most popular. His songwriting partnership with Lennon is the most celebrated of the post-war era, after the bands break-up, he pursued a solo career and formed the band Wings with his first wife and Denny Laine. McCartney has been recognised as one of the most successful composers and performers of all time, More than 2,200 artists have covered his Beatles song Yesterday, more than any other copyrighted song in history. Wings 1977 release Mull of Kintyre is one of the all-time best-selling singles in the UK.5 million RIAA-certified units in the United States. McCartney, Lennon and Starr all received The Most Excellent Order of the British Empire in 1965, McCartney has released an extensive catalogue of songs as a solo artist and has composed classical and electronic music.
He has taken part in projects to promote international charities related to subjects as animal rights, seal hunting, land mines, poverty. He has married three times and is the father of five children, James Paul McCartney was born on 18 June 1942 in Walton Hospital, England, where his mother, Mary Patricia, had qualified to practise as a nurse. His father, James McCartney, was absent from his sons birth due to his work as a firefighter during World War II. Paul has one brother, Michael. Though the children were baptised in their mothers Catholic faith, their father was a former Protestant turned agnostic, McCartney attended Stockton Wood Road Primary School in Speke from 1947 until 1949, when he transferred to Joseph Williams Junior School in Belle Vale because of overcrowding at Stockton. In 1953, with three others out of ninety examinees, he passed the 11-Plus exam, meaning he could attend the Liverpool Institute. In 1954, he met schoolmate George Harrison on the bus from his home in Speke.
The two quickly became friends, McCartney admitted, I tended to talk down to him because he was a year younger. McCartneys mother Mary was a midwife and the primary wage earner, her earnings enabled them to move into 20 Forthlin Road in Allerton. She rode a bicycle to her patients, McCartney described an early memory of her leaving at about three in the morning streets, on 31 October 1956, when McCartney was fourteen, his mother died of an embolism. McCartneys loss became a point of connection with John Lennon, whose mother, McCartneys father was a trumpet player and pianist, who had led Jim Macs Jazz Band in the 1920s. He kept a piano in the front room, encouraged his sons to be musical and advised Paul to take piano lessons
I Walk the Line
I Walk the Line is a song written and recorded in 1956 by Johnny Cash. After three attempts with moderate ratings, it became Cashs first number one hit on the Billboard charts. It reached number 17 on the US pop charts and it remained on the record charts for over 43 weeks, and sold over 2 million copies. It has used on many LPs released from Sun Records, such as With His Hot and Blue Guitar, Sings the Songs That Made Him Famous. It was the song for a 1970 film starring Gregory Peck. The unique chord progression for the song was inspired by backwards playback of guitar runs on Cashs tape recorder while he was in the Air Force stationed in Germany. Later in an interview, Cash stated, “I wrote the song backstage one night in 1956 in Gladewater. I was newly married at the time, and I suppose I was laying out my pledge of devotion, after the writing of the song Cash had a discussion with fellow performer Carl Perkins who encouraged him to adopt I Walk the Line as the song title. Cash originally intended the song as a ballad, but producer Sam Phillips preferred a faster arrangement.
Once while performing the song on his TV show, Cash told the audience, the humming was necessary since the song required Cash to change keys several times while singing it. The songs lyrics refer to marital fidelity, personal responsibility, and avoiding temptation, the song was originally recorded at Sun Studio on April 2,1956, and was released on May 1. It spent six weeks at the top spot on the U. S. country Juke Box charts that summer, one week on the C&W Jockey charts, I Walk the Line crossed over and reached number 19 on the pop music charts. It was performed with the help of Marshall Grant and Luther Perkins and his wife, were living in Memphis, Tennessee, at the time. Cash became the front man for the group and precipitated the introduction of the group to Sam Phillips of Sun Records, in 1955 they began recording under the Sun label. The song was re-recorded four times during Cashs career. In 1964 for the I Walk the Line album, again in 1969 for the At San Quentin album, in 1970 for the I Walk the Line soundtrack, and finally in 1988 for the Classic Cash, Hall of Fame Series album.
The song is simple and like most Cash songs, the lyrics tell more of a story than the music conveys. It is based upon the boom-chicka-boom or freight train rhythm common in many of Cashs songs, in the original recording of the song, there is a key change between each of the five verses, and Cash hums the new root note before singing each verse
Johnny Cash was an American singer-songwriter, guitarist and author. He is widely considered one of the most influential musicians of the 20th century and one of the music artists of all time. Although primarily remembered as an music icon, his genre-spanning songs and sound embraced rock and roll, blues, folk. This crossover appeal won Cash the rare honor of multiple inductions in the Country Music and Roll and he traditionally began his concerts with the simple Hello, Im Johnny Cash, followed by his signature Folsom Prison Blues. Much of Cashs music contained themes of sorrow, moral tribulation and redemption and his signature songs include I Walk the Line, Folsom Prison Blues, Ring of Fire, Get Rhythm, and Man in Black. During the last stage of his career, Cash covered songs by several late 20th-century rock artists, notably Hurt by Nine Inch Nails, Cash was born on February 26,1932, in Kingsland, one of seven children born to Ray Cash and Carrie Cloveree. He was mostly of Scottish and English ancestry, and as an adult traced his surname to 11th-century Fife, after meeting with the then-laird of Falkland, Cash Loch and other locations in Fife bear the name of his family.
At birth, Cash was named J. R. Cash, when Cash enlisted in the United States Air Force, he was not permitted to use initials as a first name, so he changed his name to John R. Cash. In 1955, when signing with Sun Records, he took Johnny Cash as his stage name, the Cash children were, Margaret Louise, Jack, J. R. Reba and Tommy. Tommy Cash became a country artist. In March 1935, when Cash was three years old, the family settled in Dyess, Arkansas and he started working in cotton fields at age five, singing along with his family while working. The family farm was flooded on at least two occasions, which inspired him to write the song Five Feet High and Rising. His familys economic and personal struggles during the Great Depression inspired many of his songs, Cash was very close to his older brother, Jack. In May 1944, Jack was pulled into a head saw in the mill where he worked and was almost cut in two. He suffered for over a week before he died on May 20,1944, Cash often spoke of the horrible guilt he felt over this incident.
Jack insisted on working, as the family needed the money, on his deathbed, Jack said he had visions of Heaven and angels. Decades later, Cash spoke of looking forward to meeting his brother in Heaven, Cashs early memories were dominated by gospel music and radio. Taught guitar by his mother and a friend, Cash began playing and writing songs at the age of twelve
Bruce Frederick Joseph Springsteen is an American singer-songwriter. He is known for his work with the E Street Band, Springsteens recordings have included both commercially accessible rock albums and more somber folk-oriented works. His most successful albums, Born to Run and Born in the U. S. A. find pleasures in the struggles of daily American life. He has sold more 120 million records worldwide and more than 64 million records in the United States, in 2009, Springsteen was a Kennedy Center Honors recipient, in 2013 was named MusiCares person of the year and in 2016 was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom. He married Patti Scialfa in 1991, and the couple have had three children – Evan James, Jessica Rae and Sam Ryan, Bruce Frederick Joseph Springsteen was born on September 23,1949, at Monmouth Medical Center in Long Branch, New Jersey. He was brought home from the hospital to Freehold Borough where he spent his childhood and he lived on South Street and attended Freehold Borough High School.
His father, Douglas Frederick Springsteen, was of Dutch and Irish ancestry, Springsteen said his mother, Adele Ann, a legal secretary and of Italian ancestry, was the main breadwinner. His maternal grandfather was born in Vico Equense, a town near Naples and he has two younger sisters and Pamela. Pamela had a film career, but left acting to pursue still photography full-time, she took photos for his Human Touch, Lucky Town. The Springsteens are among the early Dutch families who settled in the colony of New Netherland in the 1600s, raised a Roman Catholic, Springsteen attended the St. In a 2012 interview, he explained that it was his Catholic upbringing rather than political ideology that most influenced his music and he noted in the interview that his faith had given him a very active spiritual life, although he joked that this made it very difficult sexually. He added, Once a Catholic, always a Catholic, in the ninth grade, Springsteen transferred to the public Freehold High School, but did not fit in there either.
Former teachers have said he was a loner, who wanted nothing more than to play his guitar and he completed high school, but felt so uncomfortable that he skipped his own graduation ceremony. He briefly attended Ocean County College, but dropped out, Springsteen grew up hearing fellow New Jersey singer Frank Sinatra on the radio. He became interested in being involved in music himself when, in 1956 at the age of seven, in 1964, Springsteens mother bought him his first guitar for $18. 1964 was an important year for Springsteen, having seen The Beatles appearance on The Ed Sullivan Show, thereafter he started playing for audiences with a band called the Rogues at local venues such as the Elks Lodge in Freehold. In 1965, Springsteens mother took out a loan to buy her 16-year-old son a $60 Kent guitar, in the same year, he went to the house of Tex and Marion Vinyard, who sponsored young bands in town. They helped him become the lead guitarist and subsequently one of the singers of the Castiles