Feng shui known as Chinese geomancy, is a traditional practice originating from ancient China, which claims to use energy forces to harmonize individuals with their surrounding environment. The term feng shui translates as "wind-water" in English; this is a cultural shorthand taken from the passage of the now-lost Book of Burial recorded in Guo Pu's commentary: Feng Shui is considered pseudoscientific. Feng shui is one of the Five Arts of Chinese Metaphysics, classified as physiognomy; the feng shui practice discusses architecture in terms of "invisible forces" that bind the universe and humanity together, known as qi. Feng shui was used to orient buildings—often spiritually significant structures such as tombs, but dwellings and other structures—in an auspicious manner. Depending on the particular style of feng shui being used, an auspicious site could be determined by reference to local features such as bodies of water, or stars or the compass; as of 2013 the Yangshao and Hongshan cultures provide the earliest known evidence for the use of feng shui.
Until the invention of the magnetic compass, feng shui relied on astronomy to find correlations between humans and the universe. In 4000 BC, the doors of Banpo dwellings aligned with the asterism Yingshi just after the winter solstice—this sited the homes for solar gain. During the Zhou era, Yingshi was known as Ding and used to indicate the appropriate time to build a capital city, according to the Shijing; the late Yangshao site at Dadiwan includes a palace-like building at the center. The building borders a large plaza, it stands on a north–south axis with another building that housed communal activities. Regional communities may have used the complex. A grave at Puyang that contains mosaics— a Chinese star map of the Dragon and Tiger asterisms and Beidou — is oriented along a north–south axis; the presence of both round and square shapes in the Puyang tomb, at Hongshan ceremonial centers and at the late Longshan settlement at Lutaigang, suggests that gaitian cosmography existed in Chinese society long before it appeared in the Zhoubi Suanjing.
Cosmography that bears a striking resemblance to modern feng shui devices and formulas appears on a piece of jade unearthed at Hanshan and dated around 3000 BC. Archaeologist Li Xueqin links the design to the liuren astrolabe, zhinan zhen, luopan. Beginning with palatial structures at Erlitou, all capital cities of China followed rules of feng shui for their design and layout. During the Zhou era, the Kaogong ji codified these rules; the carpenter's manual Lu ban jing codified rules for builders. Graves and tombs followed rules of feng shui, from Puyang to Mawangdui and beyond. From the earliest records, the structures of the graves and dwellings seem to have followed the same rules; the history of feng shui covers 3,500+ years before the invention of the magnetic compass. It originated in Chinese astronomy; some current techniques can be traced to Neolithic China. The astronomical history of feng shui is evident in the development of techniques. According to the Zhouli, the original feng shui instrument may have been a gnomon.
Chinese used circumpolar stars to determine the north–south axis of settlements. This technique explains. In some of the cases, as Paul Wheatley observed, they bisected the angle between the directions of the rising and setting sun to find north; this technique provided the more precise alignments of the Shang walls at Zhengzhou. Rituals for using a feng shui instrument required a diviner to examine current sky phenomena to set the device and adjust their position in relation to the device; the oldest examples of instruments used for feng shui are liuren astrolabes known as shi. These consist of a two-sided board with astronomical sightlines; the earliest examples of liuren astrolabes have been unearthed from tombs that date between 278 BC and 209 BC. Along with divination for Da Liu Ren the boards were used to chart the motion of Taiyi through the nine palaces; the markings on a liuren/shi and the first magnetic compasses are identical. The magnetic compass has been in use since its invention. Traditional feng shui instrumentation consists of the Luopan or the earlier south-pointing spoon —though a conventional compass could suffice if one understood the differences.
A feng shui ruler may be employed. The goal of feng shui as practiced today is to situate the human-built environment on spots with good qi, an imagined form of "energy"; the "perfect spot" is an axis in time. Feng shui is not a science, is classified as a pseudoscience since it exhibits a number of classic pseudoscientific aspects such as making claims about the functioning of the world which are not amenable to testing with the scientific method. Qi （ 氣 ） is a movable negative life force which plays an essential role in feng shui; the Book of Burial says that burial takes advantage of "vital qi". Wu Yuanyin said that vital qi was "congealed qi", the state of qi that engenders life; the goal of feng shui is to take advantage of vital qi by appropriate siting of graves and structures. Some people destroyed graveyards of their enemies to weaken their qi. Polarity is expr
Nordic Paper AS is a Norwegian industrial company, operating in Norway and Sweden. It was founded in 2001 when Peterson Scanproof, a branch of M. Peterson & Søn which consisted of production units in Greåker and Säffle, was merged with a paper factory in Geithus, owned by Norske Skog Union; the craft paper producer M. Peterson & Søn retained ownership after the reorganization into Nordic Paper, together with Norske Skog Union's parent Norske Skogindustrier. In 2006 both Peterson and Norske Skogindustrier backed out, in favor of numerous investors; as a result of the ownership change, the factory in Geithus was closed. However, two kraft paper factories in Bäckhammar and Åmotfors were acquired
Zombie Massacre is a 2013 Italian-German-Canadian-American zombie horror film written and directed by Luca Boni and Marco Ristori. Uwe Boll acted within the film in the role of President of the United States; the film stars Christian Boeving, Mike Mitchell, Tara Cardinal, is an adaptation of the Wii video game of the same name, developed by 1988 Games. The film had its UK DVD release on July 1, 2013; as the U. S. government begins experimenting with a bacteriological weapon in a small town in Eastern Europe, a disaster occurs in which the weapon spreads its effects on the citizens of the area, turning them into mutated zombies. To cover up the exposure and make it look like a nuclear meltdown of an area power station, the U. S. President orders a team of contracted mercenaries to be sent in to wipe out the zombie plague and secure the "accident" while facing off with the zombie horde. Christian Boeving as Jack Stone Mike Mitchell as John'Mad Dog' McKellen Tara Cardinal as Eden Shizuka Jon Campling as Doug Mulligan Carl Wharton as General Carter Daniel Vivian as Dragan Ilic Nathalia Henao as Claire Howard Gerry Shanahan as Doctor Neumann Ivy Corbin as Sam Neumann Michael Segal as First Victim / Ultimate creature Uwe Boll as President of the US In 2007, plans for the film and Wii video game were first announced.
In 2011, it was announced that Boni and Ristori were attached to direct, with filming expected to take place the following year. In October 2012, a trailer for Apocalypse Z was released. HorrorNews.net gave the film a rating of C–, stating that while the film was "overall ", the directing and makeup effects were a highlight. Zombie Massacre on IMDb