England is a country, part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to Scotland to the north-northwest; the Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south; the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight. The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Palaeolithic period, but takes its name from the Angles, a Germanic tribe deriving its name from the Anglia peninsula, who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unified state in the 10th century, since the Age of Discovery, which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world; the English language, the Anglican Church, English law – the basis for the common law legal systems of many other countries around the world – developed in England, the country's parliamentary system of government has been adopted by other nations.
The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the world's first industrialised nation. England's terrain is chiefly low hills and plains in central and southern England. However, there is upland and mountainous terrain in the west; the capital is London, which has the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. England's population of over 55 million comprises 84% of the population of the United Kingdom concentrated around London, the South East, conurbations in the Midlands, the North West, the North East, Yorkshire, which each developed as major industrial regions during the 19th century; the Kingdom of England – which after 1535 included Wales – ceased being a separate sovereign state on 1 May 1707, when the Acts of Union put into effect the terms agreed in the Treaty of Union the previous year, resulting in a political union with the Kingdom of Scotland to create the Kingdom of Great Britain. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The name "England" is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means "land of the Angles"; the Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages. The Angles came from the Anglia peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea; the earliest recorded use of the term, as "Engla londe", is in the late-ninth-century translation into Old English of Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People. The term was used in a different sense to the modern one, meaning "the land inhabited by the English", it included English people in what is now south-east Scotland but was part of the English kingdom of Northumbria; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle recorded that the Domesday Book of 1086 covered the whole of England, meaning the English kingdom, but a few years the Chronicle stated that King Malcolm III went "out of Scotlande into Lothian in Englaland", thus using it in the more ancient sense.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its modern spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, in which the Latin word Anglii is used; the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars. How and why a term derived from the name of a tribe, less significant than others, such as the Saxons, came to be used for the entire country and its people is not known, but it seems this is related to the custom of calling the Germanic people in Britain Angli Saxones or English Saxons to distinguish them from continental Saxons of Old Saxony between the Weser and Eider rivers in Northern Germany. In Scottish Gaelic, another language which developed on the island of Great Britain, the Saxon tribe gave their name to the word for England. An alternative name for England is Albion; the name Albion referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus the 4th-century BC De Mundo: "Beyond the Pillars of Hercules is the ocean that flows round the earth.
In it are two large islands called Britannia. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, i.e. it was written in the Graeco-Roman period or afterwards. The word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins, it either derives from a cognate of the Latin albus meaning white, a reference to the white cliffs of Dover or from the phrase the "island of the Albiones" in the now lost Massaliote Periplus, attested through Avienus' Ora Maritima to which the former served as a source. Albion is now applied to England in a more poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England and made popular by its use in Arthurian legend; the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximate
Market Bosworth is a small market town and civil parish in western Leicestershire, England. At the 2001 Census, it had a population of 1,906. In 1974, Market Bosworth Rural District merged with Hinckley Rural District to form the district of Hinckley and Bosworth. Building work at the old Cattle Market and other sites has revealed evidence of settlement on the hill since the Bronze Age. Remains of a Roman villa have been found on the east side of Barton Road. Bosworth as an Anglo-Saxon village dates from the 8th century. Before the Norman Conquest of 1066, there were two manors at Bosworth one belonging to an Anglo-Saxon knight named Fernot, some sokemen. Following the Norman conquest, as recorded in the Domesday Book of 1086, both the Anglo-Saxon manors and the village were part of the lands awarded by William the Conqueror to the Count of Meulan from Normandy, Robert de Beaumont, 1st Earl of Leicester. Subsequently, the village passed by marriage dowry to the English branch of the French House of Harcourt.
King Edward I gave a royal charter to Sir William Harcourt allowing a market to be held every Wednesday. The village took the name Market Bosworth from 12 May 1285, on this day became a "town" by common definition; the two oldest buildings in Bosworth, St. Peter's Church and the Red Lion pub, were built during the 14th century; the Battle of Bosworth took place to south of the town in 1485 as the final battle in the Wars of the Roses between the House of Lancaster and the House of York. Following the discovery of the remains of Richard III in Leicester during 2012, on Sunday 22 March 2015 the king's funeral cortège passed through the town on its way to Leicester Cathedral for his reburial; this event is now commemorated with a floor plaque in front of the war memorial in the town square. In 1509 the manor passed from the Harcourts to the Grey family. In 1554, following the beheading of Lady Jane Grey, the manor of Bosworth was among lands confiscated in the name of Mary I of England and her husband Philip II of Spain.
They awarded the manor to the Catholic nobleman Edward Hastings. In 1567, his heirs sold it to Lord Mayor of London, who never lived in Bosworth; the first Dixie to live in Bosworth was his grand-nephew, Sir Wolstan Dixie of Appleby Magna, who moved to the town in 1608. He started construction of a manor house and park, as well as establishing the free Dixie Grammar School; the modern hall, Bosworth Hall, was the work of 2nd Baronet. In 1885 the 11th Baronet'Beau' Dixie was forced to auction Bosworth Hall to pay his gambling debts, it was bought by Lady Agnes Tollemache, whose husband Charles Tollemache Scott enlarged the estate, planted woodlands and rebuilt the lodges and farms. Lady Agnes' daughter sold the estate in 1913; the War Memorial in the town square honours 19 local men who died in the First World War, 11 men dead in the Second World War. This includes people born, having lived in Market Bosworth. William Bradshaw – Puritan Dr. John Charles Bucknill – asylum reformer, psychiatrist Sir Charles Carter Chitham, policeman in British India Richard Dawes – Latin scholar Lady Florence Dixie – wife of the 11th baronet.
Revised his father's book Leicestershire Words and Proverbs, Davey Graham - influential folk guitarist, born at Bosworth Infirmary and commemorated with a blue memorial plaque James Holden – electronic music producer Thomas Hooker – Puritan, founder of Connecticut Samuel Johnson – essayist and lexicographer. C. in the 1920s Thomas Simpson – mathematician Ollie Smith - England international rugby player began his career with Market Bosworth RFC The Town entered into the Britain in Bloom competition on the 500th anniversary of the battle in 1985. Floral decorations were displayed around the town; the success of this entry caused the formation of the "Bosworth in Bloom Committee", to prepare for more displays. In 2012 -- the Town won a Gold Award; the town has two football teams, AFC Market Bosworth and Market Bosworth FC. Both have teams across various age groups from under 5s to over 35s; the triathlon club and cricket club are based at the same ground as Market Bosworth FC, the sports and social club.
The town has a rugby club and a tennis club. The facilities within Market Bosworth are good for a town of its size; the market square is in the centre of the town, surrounded by various shops, including craft shops, small cafes, a traditional butchers and green grocers store, a bank and estate agents. A regular market takes place on monthly Sunday Farmers' Markets; the town has three schools, Market Bosworth Primary and Junior School, The Market Bosworth School, the private Dixie Grammar School, three churches, Anglican and Free Church, a fire statio
Fire services in the United Kingdom
The fire services in the United Kingdom operate under separate legislative and administrative arrangements in England and Wales, Northern Ireland, Scotland. Emergency cover is provided by over fifty agencies; these are known as a fire and rescue service, the term used in modern legislation and by government departments. The older terms of fire brigade and fire service survive in informal usage and in the names of a few organisations. England and Wales have local fire services which are each overseen by a fire authority, made up of representatives of local governments. Fire authorities have the power to raise a Council Tax levy for funding, with the remainder coming from the government. Scotland and Northern Ireland have centralised fire services, so their authorities are committees of the devolved parliaments; the total budget for fire services in 2014-15 was £2.9 billion. Central government maintains national standards and a body of independent advisers through the Chief Fire and Rescue Adviser, created in 2007, while Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Constabulary and Fire & Rescue Services provides direct oversight.
The devolved government in Scotland has HMFSI Scotland. Firefighters in the United Kingdom are allowed to join unions, the main one being the Fire Brigades Union, while chief fire officers are members of the National Fire Chiefs Council, which has some role in national co-ordination; the fire services have undergone significant changes since the beginning of the 21st century, a process, propelled by a devolution of central government powers, new legislation and a change to operational procedures in the light of terrorism attacks and threats. See separate article History of fire safety legislation in the United Kingdom Comprehensive list of recent UK fire and rescue service legislation: Fire services are established and granted their powers under new legislation which has replaced a number of Acts of Parliament dating back more than 60 years, but is still undergoing change. 1938: Fire Brigades Act 1938. This Act provided for centralised co-ordination of fire brigades in Great Britain and made it mandatory for local authorities to arrange an effective fire service.
1947: Fire Services Act 1947 This Act transferred the functions of the National Fire Service to local authorities. Now repealed in England and Wales by Schedule 2 of the Fire and Rescue Services Act 2004. 1959: Fire Services Act 1959 This Act amended the 1947 Act. It was repealed in Wales along with the 1947 Act. 1999: Greater London Authority Act 1999 This act was necessary to allow for the formation of the Greater London Authority and in turn the London Fire and Emergency Planning Authority. In 2002, there was a series of national fire strikes, with much of the discontent caused by the aforementioned report into the fire service conducted by Prof Sir George Bain. In December 2002, the Independent Review of the Fire Service was published with the industrial action still ongoing. Bain's report led to a change in the laws relating to firefighting. 2002: Independent Review of the Fire Service published 2004: Fire and Rescue Services Act 2004 only applying to England and Wales. 2006: The Regulatory Reform Order 2005 This piece of secondary legislation or statutory instrument replaces several other acts that dealt with fire precautions and fire safety in premises, including the now defunct process of issuing fire certificates.
It came into force on 1 October 2006. The DfCLG has published a set of guides for non-domestic premises: 2006: The Government of Wales Act 2006 gave the National Assembly for Wales powers to pass laws on "Fire and rescue services. Promotion of fire safety otherwise than by prohibition or regulation." But does not prevent future legislation being passed by the UK government which applies to two or more constituent countries. There are further plans to modernise the fire service according to the Local Government Association, its website outlines future changes, specific projects: "The aim of the Fire Modernisation Programme is to adopt modern work practices within the Fire & Rescue Service to become more efficient and effective, while strengthening the contingency and resilience of the Service to react to incidents. " The fire service in England and Wales is scrutinised by a House of Commons select committee. In June 2006, the fire and rescue service select committee, under the auspices of the Communities and Local Government Committee, published its latest report.
Committee report The committee's brief is described on its website: The Communities and Local Government Committee is appointed by the House of Commons to examine the expenditure and policy of the Department for Communities and Local Government and its associated bodies. Government response This document, the subsequent government response in September 2006, are important as they outlined progress on the FiReControl, efforts to address diversity and the planned closure of HMFSI in 2007 among many issues. Both documents are interesting as they refer back to Professor Bain's report and the many recommendations it made and continue to put forward the notion that there is an ongoing need to modernise FRSs. For example, where FRSs were inspected by HMFSI, much of this work is now carried out by the National Audit Office. Fire Control On 8 February 2010 the House of Commons Communities and Local Governm
Coton in the Elms
Coton in the Elms is a village and parish in the English county of Derbyshire. At 70 miles from the coast, it is the furthest place in the United Kingdom from coastal waters; the population of the civil parish as of the 2011 census was 896. It is located 5 miles southwest of Swadlincote and 6 miles south of Burton upon Trent. Less than a mile southeast of the village is Church Flatts Farm, defined by the Ordnance Survey as the furthest point from the sea in Great Britain. Coton is mentioned over a thousand years ago when land was transferred to Wulfrige the Black in AD942, it is on the salt route known as Walton Way, which starts in nearby Walton-on-Trent. Coton in the Elms is mentioned in the Domesday book where it is spelt Cotes; the book says under the title of “The lands of the Abbey of Burton". "In Coton in the Elms Ælfgar had two carucates of land to the geld. There is land for three ploughs. Now the abbot has it of the king. There are now one plough in six villans and three bordars having two ploughs.
TRE worth 40 shillings now 30 shillings." Coton is situated on the Walton Way and is first mentioned in 942 in a charter giving land in the area to Wulfrige the Black. This formed part of a much larger estate covering many of the villages in the area. Coton would seem to have been in the centre of this estate, it would appear that it was a crossroads as there is an old lane which runs all the way from Tamworth through Coton and on northwards towards Burton on Trent. At the time of Domesday Burton Abbey held land at Coton - however this had been seized by King William - no doubt in part due to the rebellion led by Earl Morcar. However, by the time of Domesday this land had been restored to Burton; the village itself forms a diamond of roads around a small village green. The original route of the Walton Way may have been the south west corner of this diamond as this runs past the Church and Church Farm. To the north east of the village coal mining became important and this is reflected in the lane name Coalpit Lane.
The present church of St Mary was built in 1844-7 by Henry Isaac Stevens but not on the site of the original church, behind the Shoulder of Mutton pub. It has a narrow west tower with a recessed spire, it is believed that when the original church fell into disrepair, the bells were taken to the neighbouring Lullington village, so the inhabitants of Coton can still hear the old bells when the wind is in the right direction. There is a Methodist chapel, built in 1922 to replace a smaller building in Chapel Street; the old building became known as the band room, where for many years a good band was run by a Mr Coates, the village post master. It has been used as a village hall; the main occupations of the village inhabitants in the past has been mining and farming, though the pits are now all closed. For many of today's population it is a commuter base for the larger towns such as Burton-on-Trent and Tamworth. Coton in the Elms has 2 pubs; the Black Horse was refurbished in 2009. The Queen's Head Inn dates back to the 17th century, part of the premises was once a shop.
Another pub, the Shoulder of Mutton, closed in 2010 and is being converted to a house. Southeast of the village – at grid reference SK253144 – is Church Flatts Farm, calculated by the Ordnance Survey to be the farthest point from the sea in Great Britain; the location is Latitude: 52° 43.6' N Longitude: 1° 37.2' W. This place in Coton was chosen as equidistant from Fosdyke Wash in Lincolnshire; the nearest high tide point is on the River Trent at Cromwell Lock, north of Newark-on-Trent, in Nottinghamshire, 72 kilometres away. Nigel Sims, goalkeeper for Wolverhampton Wanderers, Aston Villa and'England B'. Centre points of the United Kingdom Coastline of the United Kingdom Fenny Drayton - Centre of England, 24 kilometres south. Illustrated details GENUKI page
Leicestershire Fire and Rescue Service
Leicestershire Fire and Rescue Service is the fire and rescue service which covers Leicestershire and Rutland including the unitary authority of Leicester. The Leicestershire and Rutland Fire Brigade and the separate City of Leicester Fire Brigade were created in 1948 by the Fire Services Act 1947. In 1974 the City of Leicester brigade was merged with the Leicestershire and Rutland brigade to form the present fire service. Since Rutland and the City of Leicester became unitary authorities in the 1990s, the fire authority which administers the service is a joint-board made up of representatives from Leicester City Council, Leicestershire County Council and Rutland County Council. At the meeting of the Combined Fire Authority on 11 February 2015, Richard Chandler, the current Deputy Chief Fire and Rescue Officer, was confirmed as the successor to the retiring Dave Webb, Chief since 2002; the current team of Directors and Area Managers Chief Fire and Rescue Officer - Rick Taylor Assistant Chief Fire and Rescue Officer and Director of Service Delivery - Andrew Brodie Assistant Chief Fire and Rescue Officer and Director of Service Support - Richard Hall Area Manager Operational Response - Paul Weston Area Manager Community Risk - Alan Fawkner Area Manager Tri Service Fire Control - Richard Calder Area Manager - Head of Finance and ICT - Adam Stretton Area Manager - Head of People and Organisational Development - Caroline Deane Rescue Pump Ladder: P2 Water Ladder: P1 Tactical Response Vehicle: P3 Fire Fogging Unit: W1 Water Carrier: W1 Hose Layer Unit: W2 Aerial Ladder Platform: A1 Incident Command & Control Unit: C1 Environmental Protection Unit: H1 Fire & Emergency Support Unit: S1 Incident Support Unit: S1 Welfare Unit: S1 General Purpose Vehicle: T2 Co-Responder Vehicle: T1 hydrant Testing Vehicle Specialist Rescue Team: Heavy Rescue Unit R1 Heavy Rescue Support Unit: R1 Rope Rescue Unit: R2 General Purpose Vehicle: T1 Inshore Rescue Boat: B1 Water Rescue 4x4: R2Urban Search & Rescue: Search & Rescue Dog Unit: R9 Personnel Carrier: T5 Prime Mover: T6/T7/T8/T9Pods: Module 1 - Technical Search Equipment Module 2 - Heavy Transport, Confined Space & Hot Cutting Module 3 - Breaching & Breaking Equipment Module 4 - Multi Purpose Vehicle Module 5 - Shoring OperationsCBRN Response: Detection, Identification & Monitoring: H8 Incident Response Unit: H9 List of British firefighters killed in the line of duty Official website
Centre points of the United Kingdom
There has long been debate over the exact location of the geographical centre of the United Kingdom, its constituent countries, due to the complexity and method of the calculation, such as whether to include offshore islands, the fact that erosion will cause the position to change over time. There are two main methods of calculating this "centre": either as the centroid of the two-dimensional shape made by the country, or as the point farthest from the boundary of the country; these two methods give quite different answers. The town of Haltwhistle in Northumberland has banners stating that it is the "Centre of Britain". By another calculation the centre can be said to be Dunsop Bridge, Lancashire, 71 miles to the south. However, in 2002 the Ordnance Survey conducted studies that pinpointed the respective centres more and it is their results that are quoted below. Put the centroid is the point at which a cardboard cut-out of the area could be balanced on the tip of a pencil. Islands are assumed fixed to the mainland in their precise position by invisible rigid weightless wires.
A mathematical method is used to do the balancing to a much greater accuracy than the practical method could achieve. Unless stated, positions are the centroids of the two-dimensional shapes made by the countries. Calculations include offshore islands. Great Britain Whitendale Hanging Stones, near Brennand Farm, outside Dunsop Bridge, Lancashire in the Forest of Bowland. Great Britain A field south of Calderstones Partnership NHS Foundation Trust, near Whalley, Lancashire England Lindley Hall Farm, Leicestershire A plaque denoting this point, disputing the "traditional" centre of England as being at Meriden in the West Midlands, was erected by Ordnance Survey on 14 June 2013 Northern Ireland Annaghone, near Cookstown, County Tyrone Irish grid ref H 84494 74047. Scotland Between Blair Atholl and Dalwhinnie, Perthshire Wales Near Cwmystwyth, Devil's Bridge, Ceredigion United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland A position "in the middle of Morecambe Bay" 1.5 miles off the coast at Morecambe, Lancashire, at Ordnance Survey grid reference SD4157566760.
Point farthest from the sea Church Flatts Farm, Coton in the Elms, Derbyshire Point farthest from high tide mark Between Hammerwich and Wall, south-west of Lichfield, Staffordshire Mid point of the longest north–south axis Haltwhistle, Northumberland. The midpoint of the longest north–south meridian. Centre of population This calculation depends on the method used. A calculation by Danny Dorling using the mean method based on local authority district data from the 1990s gave the population centre of Great Britain at Appleby Parva, just south of Derby. Since the population centre will have moved south and east. Centre of a rectangle enclosing all of England and Wales Near Woodseaves, south of Market Drayton, ShropshireCentre of England For centuries the parish of Meriden to the west of Coventry has claimed to be the geographical centre of England, there has been a stone cross there commemorating the claim for at least 500 years; the justification is. Morton, Derbyshire claims to be the centre of England as it is not only midway along England's longest north-south axis, but midway between the east coast and the Welsh border.
Claims are made for a tree, the Midland Oak, in Leamington Spa, although the basis for these claims is not clear. Centre of Scotland Extreme points of the United Kingdom Geography of the United Kingdom Geographical centre of Ireland Drainage divide John Michell. Sacred Center: the Ancient Art of Locating Sanctuaries. Inner Traditions. ISBN 1594772843