Fenway Park is a baseball park located in Boston, near Kenmore Square. Since 1912, it has been the home for the Boston Red Sox, the city's American League baseball team, since 1953, its only Major League Baseball franchise. While the stadium was built in 1912, it was rebuilt in 1934, it is the oldest ballpark in MLB. Because of its age and constrained location in Boston's dense Fenway–Kenmore neighborhood, the park has been renovated or expanded many times, resulting in quirky features including "The Triangle," Pesky's Pole, the Green Monster in left field, it is the fourth-smallest among MLB ballparks by seating capacity, second-smallest by total capacity, one of eight that cannot accommodate at least 40,000 spectators. Fenway has hosted the World Series 11 times, with the Red Sox winning six of them and the Boston Braves winning one. Besides baseball games it has been the site of many other sporting and cultural events including professional football games for the Boston Redskins, Boston Yanks, the New England Patriots.
April 20, 2012, marked Fenway Park's centennial. On March 7 of that year, the park was added to the National Register of Historic Places. Former pitcher Bill Lee has called Fenway Park "a shrine", it is a pending Boston Landmark. Today, the park is considered to be one of the most well-known sports venues in the world; the Red Sox moved to Fenway Park from the old Huntington Avenue Grounds. In 1911, owner John I. Taylor purchased the land bordered by Brookline Avenue, Jersey Street, Van Ness Street and Lansdowne Street and developed it into a larger baseball stadium. Taylor claimed the name Fenway Park came from its location in the Fenway neighborhood of Boston, created late in the nineteenth century by filling in marshland or "fens", to create the Back Bay Fens urban park. However, given that Taylor's family owned the Fenway Realty Company, the promotional value of the naming at the time has been cited as well. Like many classic ballparks, Fenway Park was constructed on an asymmetrical block, with consequent asymmetry in its field dimensions.
The park was designed by architect James E. McLaughlin, the General Contractor was the Charles Logue Building Company; the first game was played April 20, 1912, with mayor John F. Fitzgerald throwing out the first pitch and Boston defeating the New York Highlanders, 7–6 in 11 innings. Newspaper coverage of the opening was overshadowed by continuing coverage of the Titanic sinking a few days earlier. In June 1919 a rally supporting Irish Independence turned out nearly 50,000 supporters to see the President of the Irish Republic, Éamon de Valera, it was the largest crowd in the ballpark. Fenway Park had drawn low attendance, its lowest occurring late in the 1965 season with two games having paid attendance under 500 spectators, its attendance has risen since the Red Sox' 1967 "Impossible Dream" season, on September 8, 2008, with a game versus the Tampa Bay Rays, Fenway Park broke the all-time Major League record for consecutive sellouts with 456, surpassing the record held by Jacobs Field in Cleveland.
On Wednesday, June 17, 2009, the park celebrated its 500th consecutive Red Sox sellout. According to WBZ-TV, the team joined three NBA teams; the sellout streak ended on April 11, 2013. The park's address was 24 Jersey Street. In 1977, the section of Jersey Street nearest the park was renamed Yawkey Way in honor of longtime Red Sox owner Tom Yawkey, the park's address was 4 Yawkey Way until 2018, when the street's name was reverted to Jersey Street; the address is now 4 Jersey Street. Some of the changes include: In 1934, a hand-operated scoreboard was added, with what was considered high-technology- lights to indicate balls and strikes; the scoreboard is still updated by hand today from behind the wall. The National League scores were removed in 1976, but restored in 2003 and still require manual updates from on the field. In 1946, upper deck seats were installed. In 1947, arc lights were installed at Fenway Park; the Boston Red Sox were the third-to-last team out of 16 major league teams to have lights in their home park.
In 1976, metric distances were added to the conventionally stated distances because it was thought at the time that the United States would adopt the metric system. As of 2019, only Miami's Marlins Park and Toronto's Rogers Centre list metric distances. Fenway Park retained the metric measurements until mid-season 2002. Fenway's first electronic message board was added over the center field bleachers. In 1988, a glass-protected seating area behind home plate named. After Ted Williams' death in 2002, it was renamed the.406 Club in honor of his 1941 season in which he produced a.406 batting average. The section was renamed again in 2006 to the EMC Club. In 1999 the auxiliary press boxes were added on top of the roof boxes along the first and third base sides of the field. In 2000, a new video display from Daktronics, measuring 23 feet high by 30 feet wide, was added in center field. Before the 2003 season, seats were added to the Green Monster. Before the 2004 season, seats were added to the right field roof, above the grandstand, called the Budweiser Right Field Roof.
Herrontown Woods Arboretum is an arboretum located on Snowden Lane near the junction with Herrontown Road, in Princeton, New Jersey. It is open to the public every day at no cost. There are walking trails; this land is preserved in its natural state. It contains a pine forest, wetlands and salamanders, over 30 species of trees and flowers, rare birds, rocks containing magnetite, several miles of walking trails; the first 81 acres of the arboretum were donated to the Mercer County Park Commission in 1957 by internationally renowned mathematician Prof. Oswald Veblen of the Institute for Advanced Study; the gift was valued at $154,000 and was the town of Princeton's first nature preserve. In 1966 the Park Commission approved a 47 acres expansion of the Woods; when Elizabeth Veblen died in 1974, the Veblens' remaining 14 acres were added to the park, including a cottage and house, giving the park its current size. In 1967 Princeton Township and Princeton Borough jointly purchased 72 acres of former hardscrabble farms returned to woodland, north of Herrontown Road, across the street from the arboretum, for preservation as the Autumn Hill Reservation.
This stretch of land is sometimes referred to as the Herrontown Woods extension. The reservation has only a rudimentary trail loop, the work of an Eagle Scout service project by Boy Scout Troop 43. A small parking lot on Herrontown, west of its junction with Snowden, provides access; the woods can be accessed from a parking lot off of Snowden Lane on the east side of the arboretum. In 2010, an adjoining 35 acres tract of land owned by All Saints Episcopal Church was purchased for preservation by the D&R Greenway Land Trust; this enabled trails to be added reaching to the south, accessing both the church and the former Church & Dwight headquarters on Bunn Drive. In October, 2014, trail access was added from Stone Hill Church, on the west side of the woods, off Bunn Drive, through the joint effort of the Friends of Herrontown Woods and the church youth group. Visitors are free to park at the church, apart from Sunday mornings. Herrontown Woods Arboretum List of botanical gardens in the United States
Leonard Cutler known as Leonard S. Cutler, was a pioneer and authority on ultra-precise timekeeping devices and standards, was well known for his work with quantum-mechanical effects, he was the co-inventor of the HP5060A Cesium Beam Clock, its successor the HP 5071A, the two-frequency laser inferometer. He has been praised for his crucial contributions to the design of the Allen Telescope Array. Leonard Cutler was born in Los Angeles in 1928, he attended Stanford University, but after two years returned home to help his family out of financial troubles. While away from academia he served in the U. S. Navy and married his wife, Dorothy. Shortly after getting married, he and his wife started their family of four sons, Greg and Scott. During which time he returned to Stanford University where he earned a BS in 1958, a MS in 1960, a PhD in 1966. On September 5, 2006, at the age of 78, he died of heart failure while camping with his wife in Big Basin Redwoods State Park in California, USA. Cutler worked at Hewlett-Packard Laboratories, where he developed oscillators, atomic frequency standards and designed atomic chronometers.
In 1999, he went on to work at Agilent Technologies, a spin-off from H-P, where he developed quartz oscillators, atomic clocks, used the Global Positioning System to synchronize clocks worldwide. Towards the end of his time there, he concentrated on designs related to the chip scale atomic clock. In 1964, Leonard Cutler and his colleague Al Bagley invented the first all-solid-state cesium-beam chronometer known as the HP5060A Cesium Beam Clock; the clock measured international time within a microsecond and increased the accuracy of time tracking from a millisecond held by its predecessors. Shortly after the clock's invention, its frequency standard was adopted by the US National Institute of Standards and technology and scientific centers around the world. In 1967, his cesium "flying clock" was used in flights around the world to bring timekeeping accuracy down to about 0.1 microseconds. In 1972 and 1976, these same clocks were used in flight tests verifying Albert Einstein's theories of special and general relativity, showing that time does slow down the faster you move or the closer you are to a source of gravity, such as the Earth.
In 1991, Cutler invented the HP 5071A, twice as accurate as its 1964 counterpart. Losing only a second of accuracy every 1.6 million years, it remains the most accurate commercial clock in the world, accounts for 82% of the data used to keep the International Atomic Time Standard. Leonard and his colleagues invented and held patents for quartz oscillators and the two-frequency laser inferometer, used in fiber optics, integrated circuit manufacturing and many other scientific fields of study today. Known worldwide as an authority on atomic timekeeping and quantum-mechanical effects, Cutler received many awards and honors throughout his career. 2004 – Named Agilent Technologies’ first Distinguished Fellow 2000 – Named Inventor of the Week by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology as part of the Lemelson-MIT National Program in Invention and Creativity 2000 – IEEE Third Millennium Medal 1999 – Distinguished PTTI Service Award for outstanding contributions related to the management of PTTI systems.
1997 – Front-page profile written about him in The Wall Street Journal 1996 – Elected a Fellow of the American Physical Society 1993 – American Institute of Physics Prize for Industrial Application of Physics 1990 – Named H-P’s first Distinguished Contributor 1989 – Rabi Award from the IEEE Ultrasonics and Frequency Control Society, for "consistent technical and managerial contributions to the development of atomic cesium and mercury ion frequency standards." 1987 – Elected to the National Academy of Engineering 1984 – IEEE Morris E. Leeds Award for outstanding contributions to the development of advanced time standards 1984 – IEEE’s Centennial Award 1978 – Elected an IEEE Fellow for contributions to the design of atomic frequency standards and to the theory and measurement of frequency stability 1974 – Served on the Technical Program Committee of the IEEE Frequency Control Symposium for 32 years, until his death in 2006. References October 21, 2008 – Patent No. 7440113 - Littrow interferometerMarch 18, 2008 - Patent No. 7345553 - Method and apparatus for reducing errors due to line asymmetry in devices utilizing coherent population trappingApril 10, 2007 - Patent No. 7202751 - Optically pumped frequency standard with reduces AC stark shiftMarch 26, 2002 - Patent No. 6363091 - Coherent population trapping-based method for generating a frequency standard having a reduced magnitude of total a.c. stark shiftMarch 19, 2002 - Patent No. 6359917 - Detection method and detector for generating a detection signal that quantifies a resonant interaction between a quantum absorber and incident electro-magnetic radiationMarch 13, 2001 - Patent No. 6201821 - Coherent population trapping-based frequency standard having a reduced magnitude of total a.c. stark shiftMarch 17, 1998 - Patent No. 5729181 - High thermal gain oven with reduced probability of temperature gradient formation for the operation of a thermally stable oscillatorOctober 15, 1996 - Patent No. 5566180 - Method for recognizing events and synchronizing clocksSeptember 8, 1992 - Patent No. 5146184 - Atomic clock system with improved servo systemNovember 15, 1988 - Patent No. 4784489 - Fiber-optic based remote receiver for laser interferometer systemsJanuary 10, 1984 - Patent No. 4425653 - Atomic beam device using optical pumpingApril 27, 1976 - Patent No. 3953840 - Magneto resistive bubble detection deviceAugust 26, 1975 - Patent No. 3901468 - Logic backup for a train detection system in an automati