Anna de' Medici, Archduchess of Austria
For the daughter of Francesco I de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany, see Anna de' Medici. Anna de' Medici was a daughter of Cosimo II de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany and his wife Maria Maddalena of Austria. A patron of the arts, she married Ferdinand Charles, Archduke of Further Austria in 1646, they were the parents of Claudia Felicitas of Holy Roman Empress. Princess Anna was born on 21 July 1616 at the Palazzo Pitti in Florence the capital of Tuscany, her father was Cosimo II de' Medici, he had been the reigning Grand Duke of Tuscany since 1609. Anna's mother was Maria Maddalena of Austria, a daughter of Charles II, Archduke of Austria, a sister of Emperor Ferdinand II, her Medici and Habsburg ancestry was a common pairing among seventeenth century marriages in her family. Her father died on 28 February 1621, causing her mother and grandmother Grand Duchess Christina to serve as regents until the majority of Anna's brother was reached, it was said that Anna and her sister Margherita inherited from Maria Maddalena her good qualities and marked abilities.
Following failed plans for Anna to marry Gaston, Duke of Orléans, she was instead engaged to Archduke Ferdinand Charles of Austria. In 1646, Anna left her native Florence for Innsbruck to be married. On 10 June, she was married to her double first cousin Ferdinand Charles, Archduke of Further Austria, he was Archduke of Austria and his wife Claudia de' Medici. Anna was thirty years old; the match was negotiated by Ferdinand Charles' formidable mother, regent of Further Austria and Tyrol since Leopold's death in 1632. Claudia had ruled the duchy well in her regency from 1632 to 1646, was successful in keeping Tyrol out of the Thirty Years War. During the year of their marriage, Ferdinand Charles took over his mother's governatorial duties and became the ruler of Tyrol and Further Austria, as he was now of age. Anna and Ferdinand Charles had three daughters; the couple preferred the attractions of the opulent Tuscan court to the mountains of Tyrol, were more at Florence than at Innsbruck. As a result, their eldest daughter was born in Anna's home court, not Ferdinand Charles'.
In 1662, Ferdinand Charles died. As they had only two surviving daughters, his younger brother Archduke Sigismund Francis inherited his titles as Count of Tyrol and Archduke of Further Austria. On the eve of his marriage to another princess however, Sigismund Francis died in 1665; this meant that the county reverted to direct rule from Vienna, despite the efforts of Anna to preserve some vestige of power for herself as Dowager Countess. Her attempts to persuade Vienna stemmed from the fact that Anna wanted to protect the rights of her two daughters; this dispute would not be remedied until 1673, when her only surviving daughter Claudia Felicitas married Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor, the man responsible for the seizure of the County. Anna not only survived her husband by fourteen years but outlived her eldest daughter, who would die soon after her marriage. On 11 September 1676 in Vienna, Anna died aged sixty. Like many Medicis, Anna was a great patron of the arts. For instance, a collection of monodies by Pietro Antonio Giramo, entitled Hospedale degli Infermi d'amore, was dedicated to Anna in Naples in the mid-seventeenth century.
In the collection, Giramo's dedication to Anna referred to a flirtatious young lady when he mentions "the powerful glances of Anna's eyes which can cure all these infirmities of imaginative madnesses and vain desires of human hearts". Giramo's dedication was not the end of works being devoted to Anna. In 1655, famed composer and singer Barbara Strozzi dedicated one of her works to Anna, as Strozzi devoted all of her music publications to prominent aristocratic patrons, she devoted other works to some of Anna's relatives. Anna richly rewarded Strozzi for this dedication. We know Anna's gifts were notable because a Mantuan resident saw fit to describe them in letter to Charles II, Duke of Mantua and Montferrat, dated 14 April 1655: "I will tell your most Serene Highness some curiosities that are not too serious. Barbara Strozzi dedicated to the Archduchess of Innsbruck some of her music. Archduchess Claudia Felicitas of Austria had issue. Unnamed archduchess died at birth. Archduchess Maria Magdalena of Austria died young.
Arias, Enrique Alberto. Essays in Honor of John F. Ohl: a Compendium of American Musicology. Evanston, Illinois: Northwestern University Press. ISBN 0-8101-1536-0. Briscoe, James R.. New Historical Anthology of Music by Women. Indiana University Press. Glixon, Beth L. "New Light on the Life and Career of Barbara Strozzi". The Musical Quarterly: 311–335. Doi:10.1093/mq/81.2.311. Retrieved 4 March 2010. Marrow, Deborah; the art patronage of Maria de' Medici. UMI Research Press. Young, G. F.. The Medici. New York: Charles Boni. Media related to Anna de' Medici at Wikimedia Commons
Cosimo II de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany
Cosimo II de' Medici was Grand Duke of Tuscany from 1609 until his death. He was the elder son of Ferdinando I de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany, Christina of Lorraine. For the majority of his twelve-year reign, he delegated the administration of Tuscany to his ministers, he is best remembered as the patron of his childhood tutor. Cosimo's father Ferdinando. Indeed, Galileo Galilei was Cosimo's tutor between 1605 and 1608. Ferdinando arranged for him to marry Archduchess Maria Maddalena of Austria, daughter of Archduke Charles II, in 1608. Together they had eight children, among whom was Cosimo's eventual successor, Ferdinando II, an Archduchess of Inner Austria, a Duchess of Parma and two cardinals. Ferdinando I died in 1609. Due to his precarious health, Cosimo did not participate in governing his realm, but he was a great patron of science and letters. Just over a year after Cosimo's accession, Galileo dedicated his Sidereus Nuncius, an account of his telescopic discoveries, to the grand duke.
In spite of his lack of interest in governance, the grand duke did assiduously enlarge the navy. He died on 28 February 1621 from tuberculosis and was succeeded by his elder son, Ferdinando II, still a minor at the time of his father's death; the regency for the new grand duke was bestowed upon Cosimo II's mother, as per his wishes. Galileo Galilei was named court mathematician to Cosimo in 1610, a post that freed Galileo from the constraints of teaching mathematics at universities; as court mathematician, Galileo was free to challenge the distinction between disciplines and advance theories of Nicolaus Copernicus by using mathematics to address questions of physics. The famous Galileo had used his telescopic accomplishments in his bid for patronage. Once appointed, Galileo moved to the Florence court and found a resource rich environment where he worked as philosopher and astronomer. Galileo was involved in court life and supported the dynastic rhetoric of the Medici family. Aside from producing intellectual spectacles, Galileo used the Medici court to advance his theoretical claims and discoveries.
The four moons of Jupiter he had discovered were named Medicean Stars in reference to Cosimo and his three brothers. Tuscan ambassadors were used to advance scientific debate in Europe. Ambassadors in Prague, Paris and Madrid received copies of Galileo's Sidereus Nuncius and were sent telescopes constructed by Galileo, paid for by the court treasury. Maria Cristina de' Medici, died unmarried, deformed or mentally retarded Ferdinando II de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany, who married Vittoria della Rovere and had issue Gian Carlo de' Medici, died unmarried Margherita de' Medici married Odoardo Farnese, Duke of Parma, had issue Mattias de' Medici, died unmarried Francesco de' Medici, died unmarried Anna de' Medici, married Ferdinand Charles, Archduke of Austria and had issue Leopoldo de' Medici, died unmarried 12 May 1590 - 17 February 1609 His Highness The Grand Prince of Tuscany 17 February 1609 - 28 February 1621 His Highness The Grand Duke of Tuscany Strathern, Paul The Medici: Godfathers of the Renaissance, Vintage books, London, 2003, ISBN 978-0-09-952297-3 Hale, J.
R. Florence and the Medici, Orion books, London, 1977, ISBN 1-84212-456-0 Liedtke, Walter A.. Flemish paintings in the Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art. ISBN 0870993569. Ferdinando I de' Medici Italian colonization of Americas Media related to Cosimo II, Grand Duke of Tuscany at Wikimedia Commons
The Rhine is one of the major European rivers, which has its sources in Switzerland and flows in an northerly direction through Germany and The Netherlands to the North Sea. The river begins in the Swiss canton of Graubünden in the southeastern Swiss Alps, forms part of the Swiss-Liechtenstein, Swiss-Austrian, Swiss-German and the Franco-German border flows through the German Rhineland and the Netherlands and empties into the North Sea; the largest city on the Rhine is Cologne, with a population of more than 1,050,000 people. It is the second-longest river in Central and Western Europe, at about 1,230 km, with an average discharge of about 2,900 m3/s; the Rhine and the Danube formed most of the northern inland frontier of the Roman Empire and, since those days, the Rhine has been a vital and navigable waterway carrying trade and goods deep inland. Its importance as a waterway in the Holy Roman Empire is supported by the many castles and fortifications built along it. In the modern era, it has become a symbol of German nationalism.
Among the biggest and most important cities on the Rhine are Cologne, Düsseldorf, Rotterdam and Basel. The variants of the name of the Rhine in modern languages are all derived from the Gaulish name Rēnos, adapted in Roman-era geography as Greek Ῥῆνος, Latin Rhenus; the spelling with Rh- in English Rhine as well as in German Rhein and French Rhin is due to the influence of Greek orthography, while the vocalisation -i- is due to the Proto-Germanic adoption of the Gaulish name as *Rīnaz, via Old Frankish giving Old English Rín,Old High German Rīn, early Middle Dutch Rijn. The diphthong in modern German Rhein is a Central German development of the early modern period, the Alemannic name Rī retaining the older vocalism, as does Ripuarian Rhing, while Palatine has diphthongized Rhei, Rhoi. Spanish is with French in adopting the Germanic vocalism Rin-, while Italian and Portuguese retain the Latin Ren-; the Gaulish name Rēnos belongs to a class of river names built from the PIE root *rei- "to move, run" found in other names such as the Reno in Italy.
The grammatical gender of the Celtic name is masculine, the name remains masculine in German and French. The Old English river name was variously inflected as feminine; the length of the Rhine is conventionally measured in "Rhine-kilometers", a scale introduced in 1939 which runs from the Old Rhine Bridge at Constance to Hoek van Holland. The river is shortened from its natural course due to a number of canalisation projects completed in the 19th and 20th century; the "total length of the Rhine", to the inclusion of Lake Constance and the Alpine Rhine is more difficult to measure objectively. Its course is conventionally divided as follows: The Rhine carries its name without distinctive accessories only from the confluence of the Rein Anteriur/Vorderrhein and Rein Posteriur/Hinterrhein next to Reichenau in Tamins. Above this point is the extensive catchment of the headwaters of the Rhine, it belongs exclusively to the Swiss canton of Graubünden, ranging from Saint-Gotthard Massif in the west via one valley lying in Ticino and Italy in the south to the Flüela Pass in the east.
Traditionally, Lake Toma near the Oberalp Pass in the Gotthard region is seen as the source of the Anterior Rhine and the Rhine as a whole. The Posterior Rhine rises in the Rheinwald below the Rheinwaldhorn; the source of the river is considered north of Lai da Tuma/Tomasee on Rein Anteriur/Vorderrhein, although its southern tributary Rein da Medel is longer before its confluence with the Anterior Rhine near Disentis. The Anterior Rhine springs from Lai da Tuma/Tomasee, near the Oberalp Pass and passes the impressive Ruinaulta formed by the largest visible rock slide in the alps, the Flims Rockslide; the Posterior Rhine starts near the Rheinwaldhorn. One of its tributaries, the Reno di Lei, drains the Valle di Lei on politically Italian territory. After three main valleys separated by the two gorges and Viamala, it reaches Reichenau in Tamins; the Anterior Rhine arises from numerous source streams in the upper Surselva and flows in an easterly direction. One source is Lai da Tuma with the Rein da Tuma, indicated as source of the Rhine, flowing through it.
Into it flow tributaries from the south, some longer, some equal in length, such as the Rein da Medel, the Rein da Maighels, the Rein da Curnera. The Cadlimo Valley in the canton of Ticino is drained by the Reno di Medel, which crosses the geomorphologic Alpine main ridge from the south. All streams in the source area are sometimes captured and sent to storage reservoirs for the local hydro-electric power plants; the culminating point of the Anterior Rhine's drainage basin is the Piz Russein of the Tödi massif of the Glarus Alps at 3,613 metres above sea level. It starts with the creek Aua da Russein. In its lower course the Anterior Rhine flows through a gorge named Ruinaulta; the whole stretch of the Anterior Rhine to the Alpine Rhine confluence next to Reichen
Cosimo I de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany
Cosimo I de' Medici was the second Duke of Florence from 1537 until 1569, when he became the first Grand Duke of Tuscany, a title he held until his death. Cosimo was born in Florence on 12 June 1519, the son of the famous condottiere Ludovico de' Medici and his wife Maria Salviati, herself a granddaughter of Lorenzo the Magnificent, he was the Countess of Forlì and Lady of Imola. Cosimo came to power in 1537 at age 17, just after the 26-year-old Duke of Florence, Alessandro de' Medici, was assassinated. Cosimo was from a different branch of the Medici family, descended from Giovanni il Popolano, the great-grandson of Giovanni di Bicci de' Medici, founder of the Medici Bank, it was necessary to search for a successor outside of the "senior" branch of the Medici family descended from Cosimo di Giovanni de' Medici, since the only male child of Alessandro, the last lineal descendant of the senior branch, was born out-of-wedlock and was only four years' old at the time of his father's death. Up to the time of his accession, Cosimo had lived only in Mugello and was unknown in Florence.
However, many of the influential men in the city favoured him as the new duke. Several hoped to rule through him. However, as the Florentine literatus Benedetto Varchi famously put it, "The innkeeper's reckoning was different from the glutton's." Cosimo proved strong-willed and ambitious and soon rejected the clause he had signed that entrusted much of the power of the Florentine duchy to a Council of Forty-Eight. When the Florentine exiles heard of the death of Alessandro, they marshalled their forces with support from France and from disgruntled neighbors of Florence. During this time, Cosimo had an illegitimate daughter, portrayed shortly before her premature death in a marvelous painting by Bronzino. Toward the end of July 1537, the exiles marched into Tuscany under the leadership of Bernardo Salviati and Piero Strozzi; when Cosimo heard of their approach, he sent his best troops under Alessandro Vitelli to engage the enemy, which they did at Montemurlo. After defeating the exiles' army, Vitelli stormed the fortress, where Strozzi and a few of his companions had retreated to safety.
It fell after only a few hours, Cosimo celebrated his first victory. The prominent prisoners were subsequently beheaded in the Bargello. Filippo Strozzi's body was found with a bloody sword next to it and a note quoting Virgil, but many believe that his suicide was faked. In 1537, Cosimo sent Bernardo Antonio de' Medici to Holy Roman Emperor Charles V to gain recognition for his position as head of the Florentine state; that recognition came in June 1537 in exchange for help against France in the course of the Italian Wars. With this move, Cosimo restored the power of the Medici, who thereafter ruled Florence until the death of the last of the Medici ruler, Gian Gastone de' Medici, in 1737; the help granted to Charles V allowed him to free Tuscany from the Imperial garrisons and to increase as much as possible its independence from the overwhelming Spanish influence in Italy. Cosimo next turned his attention to Siena. With the support of Charles V, he defeated the Sienese at the Battle of Marciano in 1554 and laid siege to their city.
Despite the inhabitants' desperate resistance, the city fell on 17 April 1555 after a 15-month siege, its population diminished from forty thousand to eight thousand. In 1559, the last redoubt of Sienese independence, was annexed to Cosimo's territories. In 1569, Pope Pius V elevated him to the rank of Grand Duke of Tuscany. In the last 10 years of his reign, struck by the death of two of his sons by malaria, Cosimo gave up active rule of the Florentine state to his son and successor Francesco I, he retreated to live in the Villa di Castello, outside Florence. Cosimo was an authoritarian ruler and secured his position by employing a guard of Swiss mercenaries. In 1548, he managed to have his relative Lorenzino, the last Medici claimant to Florence who had earlier arranged the assassination of Cosimo's predecessor Alessandro, assassinated himself in Venice. Cosimo was an active builder of military structures, as a part of his attempt to save the Florentine state from the frequent passage of foreign armies.
Examples include the new fortresses of Siena, Sansepolcro, the new walls of Pisa and Fivizzano and the strongholds of Portoferraio on the island of Elba and Terra del Sole. He laid heavy tax burdens on his subjects. Despite his economic difficulties, Cosimo was a lavish patron of the arts and developed the Florentine navy, which took part in the Battle of Lepanto, which he entrusted to his new creation, the Knights of St. Stephen. Cosimo is best known today for the creation of the Uffizi. Intended as a means of consolidating his administrative control of the various committees and guilds established in Florence's Republican past, it now houses one of the world's most important collections of art, much of it commissioned and/or owned by various members of the Medici family, his gardens at Villa di Castello, designed by Niccolò Tribolo when Cosimo was only seventeen years old, were designed to announce a new golden age for Florence and to demonstrate the magnificence and virtues of the Medici.
They were decorated with fountains, a labyrinth, a grotto and ingenious ornamental water features, were a prototype for the Italian Renaissance garden. They had a profound influence on Italian and French gardens through the eighteenth century. Cosimo finished the Pitti Palace as a home for the Medici and created the ma
Albert V, Duke of Bavaria
Albert V was Duke of Bavaria from 1550 until his death. He was born in Munich to Maria Jacobäa of Baden. Albert was educated at Ingolstadt by Catholic teachers. On 4 July 1546 he married Anna of Austria, a daughter of Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor and Anna of Bohemia and Hungary, daughter of King Ladislaus II of Bohemia and Hungary and his wife Anne de Foix; the union was designed to end the political rivalry between Bavaria. In 1550, Albert succeeded his father as duke of Bavaria. Albert was now free to devote himself to the task of establishing Catholic conformity in his dominions. A strict Catholic by upbringing, Albert was a leader of the German Counter-Reformation. Incapable by nature of passionate adherence to any religious principle, given rather to a life of idleness and pleasure, he pursued the work of repression because he was convinced that the cause of Catholicism was inseparably connected with the fortunes of the house of Wittelsbach, he took little direct share in the affairs of government and lent himself to the plans of his advisers, among whom during the early part of his reign were two sincere Catholics, Georg Stockhammer and Wiguleus Hundt.
The latter took an important part in the events leading up to the Peace of Passau and the Peace of Augsburg. Duke Albert made strenuous efforts to procure for his son, Ernest of Bavaria, election as Archbishop-elector of Cologne; these efforts would not pay off until after Albert's death. As successor of his uncle Ernest of Salzburg, Duke Albert was since 1560 administrator and owner of the mortgage of the county of Glatz, before he returned the redeemed county to Emperor Maximilian II in 1567. In 1546, Albert and his father William IV ordered the construction of Dachau Palace, a Renaissance style four-winged palace with a court garden which become the preferred dwelling of the rulers of Bavaria. In 1552, Albert commissioned an inventory of the jewelry which his wife Anna owned; the resulting manuscript, still held by the Bavarian State Library, was the Jewel Book of the Duchess Anna of Bavaria, contains 110 drawings by Hans Muelich. Albert was a patron of the arts and a collector whose personal accumulations are the basis of the Wittelsbach antique collection of Greek and Roman antiquities, the coin collection, the Wittelsbach treasury in the Munich Residenz founded by him to house the jewels of the Wittelsbach dynasty.
His personal library founded in 1558 has come to the Bavarian State Library in Munich, inheritor of the Wittelsbach court library. In 1559 Albert founded the Paedagogium in Munich. Albert bought whole collections in Venice. At the same time, squabbles among the heirs of Gabriele Vendramin thwarted him in his attempt to purchase the single most important collection in Venice and paintings and antiquities, drawings by the masters and ancient coins. To house his extensive collection of antiquities he commissioned the Antiquarium in the Munich Residenz, the largest Renaissance hall north of the Alps. Albert appointed Orlando di Lasso to patronized many other artists. Albert was succeeded by his son William, he is buried in the Frauenkirche in Munich. With Archduchess Anna of Austria he had seven children: Charles and died in 1547 William V, Duke of Bavaria Ferdinand Maria Anna Maximiliana Maria Friedrich Ernest of Bavaria and prince-elector of Cologne 1583–1612Albert is buried in the Frauenkirche in Munich.
Hofkleiderbuch des Herzogs Wilhelm IV. und Albrecht V. 1508–1551. At the Bavarian State Library This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Jackson, Samuel Macauley, ed.. "article name needed". New Schaff–Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge. London and New York: Funk and Wagnalls
Sundgau is a geographical territory in the southern Alsace region, on the eastern edge of France. The name is derived from Alemannic German Sunt-gowe, denoting an Alemannic county in the Old High German period; the principal city and historical capital is Altkirch. The smaller French pays of Sundgau, implemented by the 1999 Loi Voynet corresponds to the arrondissement of Altkirch, comprising four cantons and 112 communes in the south of the larger Sundgau region; the hilly region is bounded on the south by the Swiss border and the foothills of the Jura, in the east by the valley of the Rhine in the vicinity of Basel, to the north by Mulhouse and the potassium-rich basin of Alsace, to the west by the Belfort Gap. It comprises parts of the modern Department of Haut-Rhin and the Territory of Belfort in the regions of Alsace and the Franche-Comté; the fertile loess soil has traditionally favoured a non-specialised agriculture, with crop production being organised into strips. The main crops are maize and colza.
The Ill, the most important river in Alsace, crosses Sundgau from south to north before flowing into the Rhine. Its source is at Winkel in the foothills of the Jura. Other rivers define the region's valleys, such as the Largue, which rises near Courtavon, passes through Dannemarie, meets the Ill at Illfurth. In medieval times, monks raised carp in the small valley ponds and carpe frite remains a regional speciality; the images of two carp appear in the coat of arms of Sundgau. Archaeological digs have revealed vestiges of Neolithic settlements. Traces of Bronze Age cremation pyres have been found. Excavations at Illfurth date from the Iron Age. In the 1st century BC, the Sequani tribe, centered around Besançon, settled in Sundgau. From 70 BC, they waged perpetual warfare with their neighbours, the Aedui, calling upon German mercenaries, led by Ariovistus; when the conflict finished, the Germans settled into the region, the Sequani, to remove them appealed to the Romans. Julius Caesar defeated Ariovistus in 58 BC near Cernay, a long domination by the Romans commenced.
This ended in 405, when the Alamani crossed the Rhine and occupied Sundgau. They, in turn, were followed by the Franks following their victory at the Battle of Tolbiac in 496. Sundgau was incorporated into the kingdom of Austrasia and Christianity was introduced under the Merovingians. About 750, the Duchy of Alsace was divided into two counties and Sundgau, the latter being mentioned in the Treaty of Mersen in 870. Sundgau coincides with the lands of the counts of Ferrette and Habsburg, excepting the town of Mulhouse and its territories of Illzach and Modenheim. Geographically, Sundgau denotes a more restricted area comprising the hilly country to the south of Mulhouse and reaching to the valley of Lucelle. During the 9th century and the 10th century Sundgau was administered by the Lieutfried family. Following the breakup of Charlemagne's empire, the region entered a period of instability, culminating in the emergence of feudalism. From 925 on, the Sundgau belonged to the Duchy of Swabia. In 1125, son of Theodoric I of Montbéliard, inherited the south of Alsace and became count of Ferrette.
So, from 1125 to 1324, a large part of the Sundgau was administered by the counts of Ferrette. Ulrich III died with no male issue, his daughter Jeanne married Albert II, Duke of Austria in 1324, the County of Ferrette fell to Austria and was integrated with the other Habsburg possessions in the area. The Landgraviate of Sundgau, the successor of the Carolingian county, had been administered by the counts of Habsburg since 1135, they had owned the adjacent County of Sundgau earlier. The Habsburgs enlarged their possessions in the area with numerous acquisitions in the following centuries, until by the mid-14th century all of the former Carolingian county was in the possession of Habsburg, their consolidated territories in the area became known as the Sundgau, belonged to the Austrian Circle of the Empire after 1512. The Habsburgian Sundgau was administered from Ensisheim by a bailli and divided into four bailiwicks. Enguerrand VII, Lord of Coucy tried unsuccessfully to claim the Sundgau during the Gugler War of 1375.
As of 1500, the Austrian Sundgau encompassed most of the southern Alsace and was bordered by the following states: Imperial City of Colmar, County of Württemberg, the Austrian Breisgau, the Margraviate of Baden, the Imperial City of Basel, the Bishopric of Basel, the County of Württemberg, the Duchy of Lorraine, the Abbacy of Murbach, the Bishopric of Strasbourg. The Imperial City of Mulhouse formed an enclave surrounded by the Sundgau; the Reformation did not trouble Sundgau, despite the proximity of Mulhouse. The country maintained its fidelity to the religion of the Catholicism. Commencing in 1632, the Thirty Years' War broke upon Sundgau, with a violence unprecedented in the history of the region; the Swedish, supported by France, invaded the country and burning all in their path. In reaction, the inhabitants of the countryside revolted, but the rebellion was subdued, the Swedes hanged the ringleaders from roadside trees. From 1634, the Swedes ceded their fortresses to the French, in 1648 the war ended with th
Breisach is a town with 16,500 inhabitants, situated along the Rhine in the Rhine Valley, in the district Breisgau-Hochschwarzwald, Baden-Württemberg, about halfway between Freiburg and Colmar — 20 kilometres away from each — and about 60 kilometres north of Basel near the Kaiserstuhl. A bridge leads over the Rhine to Alsace, its name means breakwater. The root Breis can be found in the French word briser meaning to break; the hill, on which Breisach came into existence was — at least when there was a flood — in the middle of the Rhine, until the Rhine was straightened by the engineer Johann Gottfried Tulla in the 19th century, thus breaking its surge. The seat of a Celtic prince was at the hill; the Romans maintained an auxiliary castle on Mons Brisiacus The Staufer founded Breisach as a city in today's sense. But there had been a settlement with a church at the time. An 11th-century coin from Breisach was found in the Sandur hoard. In the early 13th century, construction on the St Stephansmünster, the cathedral in Breisach, started.
In the early 16th century, Breisach was a significant stronghold of the Holy Roman Empire. On December 7, 1638, Bernhard of Saxe-Weimar, subsidized by France, conquered the city, which Ferdinand II and General Hans Heinrich IX. von Reinach had defended well, tried to make the centre of a new territory. After Bernhard's death in 1639, his general gave the territory to France, which saw it as its own conquest. In the Peace of Westphalia in 1648, Breisach was de jure given to France. From 1670, Breisach was integrated into the French state in the course of the politics of Reunions. In the Treaty of Ryswick in 1697, Breisach was returned to the Holy Roman Empire, but reconquered on September 7, 1703 by Marshal Tallard at the beginning of the War of the Spanish Succession. At the Treaty of Rastatt on March 7, 1714, Breisach became once again part of the Empire. Meanwhile, France founded Neuf-Brisach, on the left shore of the Rhine. In 1790, Breisach was part of Further Austria. In the revolutionary wars in 1793, Breisach sustained heavy damage and in 1805, was annexed to the de facto re-established state of Baden.
During World War II, 85% of Breisach was destroyed by Allied artillery as the Allies crossed the Rhine. The St. Stephansmünster was heavily damaged. In 1969, Breisach was considered as the construction site for a nuclear power plant, but Wyhl was chosen instead, where the construction project was abandoned in the face of heavy opposition; the nearby cities of Hochstetten, Gündlingen and Oberrimsingen along with Grezhausen, incorporated into Oberrimsingen in 1936, were all incorporated into Breisach. After the municipal elections on June 13, 2004, the seats in the municipal council were distributed as follows: Breisach was, until 1945, the frontier station on the Freiburg–Colmar international railway line. Since the railway bridge across the Rhine was destroyed during the Second World War, railway services have been restricted to the German side of the river; the Breisgau S-Bahn connects Breisach to Freiburg via Gottenheim over the remaining section of the Freiburg–Colmar line, whilst the Kaiserstuhlbahn connects Breisach to Riegel via Vogtsburg and Endingen.
The federal road B 31 leads to Lindau and the N 415 on the French side connects Breisach to Colmar. One of Europe's largest wine cellars called. Viticulture is important for the economy of both Breisach and the Kaiserstuhl; the museum for municipal history has an impressive collection dating from the Stone Age to the present. The Romanesque St. Stephansmünster, the cathedral in Breisach, has a late Gothic altar by an unknown craftsman and paintings by Martin Schongauer, the eponym of the Gymnasium in the city; the first documentation of Jews in town dates to 1301. During the Black Death in 1349, the community was annihilated after a false blood libel, accusing the town Jews of poisoning the town wells. After the pogrom, Jews got back to the town until 1424. In 1550, the community reopened with a cemetery. In 1750, a Jew owned a textile factory in town; the Synagogue, built in 1758, was destroyed on Kristallnacht. In 1825, 14% of the town population was Jewish, though in 1933 this number had declined to 231.
On October 22, 1940, the town's last 34 Jews who did not flee to nearby France or other places, were deported to Gurs internment camp, a transit camp in the South of France. In 1967, the town's sole Jewish survivor was a woman. A website, dedicated to the town's Jewish history, commemorates the names of Jewish victims during World War II who used to live in town, as personal stories of survivors and their children. A Jewish survivor who lived in town named Louis Dreyfuss, gave a report on his biography on some cases; the Jewish community of pre-war Breisach maintains a documentary website. Breisach is twinned with: Breisach is partnered with the following cities: Saint-Louis, since 1960 Pürgg-Trautenfels, since 1994 partnered with the borough of Niederrimsingen Neuf-Brisach, since 2000 Oswiecim, since 2009 Küstriner Vorland Ernst Adolf Birkenmayer and member of the German Reichstag Felix Brückmann, ice hockey goalkeeper Oliver Baumann, football goalkeeper Pascal Krauss, mixed martial art fighter Blaues Haus Official website (in Ge