Ferdinand Christian Baur was a German Protestant theologian and founder and leader of the Tübingen School of theology. Following Hegel's theory of dialectic, Baur argued that second century Christianity represented the synthesis of two opposing theses: Jewish Christianity and Gentile Christianity; this and the rest of Baur's work had a profound impact upon higher criticism of biblical and related texts. Adolf Hilgenfeld followed Baur's lead and edited the Tübingen School's journal, though he was less radical than Baur. A patristic scholar and philosopher at Tübingen, Albert Schwegler, gave the School's theories their most vigorous expression; the School's influence was waning by the early twentieth century. Baur's views were revolutionary, but "one thing is certain: New Testament study, since his time, has had a different colour", he had a number of followers, who in many cases modified his positions, the groundwork laid by Baur continues to be built upon in the twenty-first century. Baur was born near Cannstatt.
After training at the theological seminary of Blaubeuren, he went in 1809 to the University of Tübingen. Here he studied for a time under Ernst Bengel, grandson of the eminent New Testament critic, Johann Albrecht Bengel, at this early stage in his career he seems to have been under the influence of the old Tübingen School, but at the same time the philosophers Johann Gottlieb Fichte and Friedrich Schelling were creating a wide and deep impression. In 1817 Baur returned to the theological seminary at Blaubeuren as professor; this move marked a turning-point in his life, for he now set to work on the investigations on which his reputation rests. He had in 1817, written a review of G. Kaiser's Biblische Theologie for Bengel's Archiv für Theologie. When, a few years after his appointment at Blaubeuren, he published his first important work, Symbolik und Mythologie oder die Naturreligion des Altertums, it became evident that he had made a deeper study of philosophy, had come under the influence of Schelling and more of Friedrich Schleiermacher.
The learning of the work was recognized, in 1826 the author was called to Tübingen as professor of theology. It is with Tübingen, his earlier publications here treated of the history of dogma. Das manichäische Religionssystem appeared in 1831, Apollonius von Tyana in 1832, Die christliche Gnosis in 1835, Über das Christliche im Platonismus oder Socrates und Christus in 1837; as Otto Pfleiderer observes, "the choice not less than the treatment of these subjects is indicative of the large breadth of view and the insight of the historian into the comparative history of religion." Baur rested his ideas about the New Testament on the Clementines, his ideas about the Clementines on St. Epiphanius, who found the writings used by an Ebionite sect in the 4th century; this Judeo-Christian sect at that date rejected St. Paul as an apostate, it was assumed. The Clementine literature had its first origin in the Apostolic Age, belonged to the original Jewish, legal Church, it is directed wholly against his sect.
Simon Magus never existed. The Acts of the Apostles, compiled in the 2nd century, have borrowed their mention of Simon from the earliest form of the Clementines. Catholicism under the presidency of Rome was the result of the adjustment between the Petrine and Pauline sections of the Church in the second half of the 2nd century; the Fourth Gospel is a monument of this reconciliation, in which Rome took a leading part, having invented the fiction that both Peter and Paul were the founders of her Church, both having been martyred at Rome, on the same day, in perfect union. Throughout the middle of the 19th century this theory, in many forms, was dominant in Germany; the demonstration by English scholars, of the impossibility of the late dates ascribed to the New Testament documents, the proofs of the authenticity of the Apostolic Fathers and of the use of St. John's Gospel by Justin and Ignatius brought Baur's theories into discredit. Of the original school, Adolf Hilgenfeld may be considered the last survivor.
He was induced to admit that Simon Magus was a real personage, though he persisted that in the Clementines he is meant for St. Paul. In 1847 Hilgenfeld dated the original nucleus of the Clementine literature soon after the Jewish war of 70. Baur placed the completed form, ‘‘H’’, soon after the middle of the 2nd century, Schliemann agreed, placing ‘‘R’’, as a revision, between 211 and 230. Other writers dated both ‘‘H’’ and ‘‘R’’ to between the 2nd and 4th centuries: R. 2nd century: Sixtus Senensis, David Blondel (Davi
The Aero A.20 was a biplane fighter aircraft built in Czechoslovakia in 1923. It was evaluated for Czechoslovak Air Force service against Aero's competing A.18 and A.19 designs, a competition that the A.18 won, meaning that this aircraft never entered production, only a single prototype was built. General characteristics Crew: 1 Length: 6.6 m Wingspan: 9.7 m Wing area: 23.3 m2 Empty weight: 784 kg Max takeoff weight: 1,080 kg Powerplant: 1 × Skoda-built Hispano-Suiza 8Fb V-8 water-cooled piston engine, 220 kW Performance Maximum speed: 225 km/h Service ceiling: 7,500 m Rate of climb: 5.88 m/s Armament Guns: 2× 7.7 mm Vickers machine guns Related development Aero A.18 Aero A.19 Related lists List of fighter aircraft
Lewis Charles Crofts, is an English author and journalist. He studied Medieval Languages at St Catherine's College, Oxford University, he has lived in Hanover, France and Brussels, working as a journalist and translator. His first book, The Pornographer of Vienna, is a novel based on the life of Austrian painter Egon Schiele, famous for his sexually explicit depictions of the Viennese underworld, it was published in June 2007 in July 2008 in North America. The novel was published in Italy in September 2008 by Marco Tropea under the title Il pornografo di Vienna. Other fiction writing has appeared in the Prague Revue, Notes from the Underground and Ether Magazine. In an interview with 3:AM Magazine, he confirmed work on a second novel. Crofts is a correspondent for MLex Market Intelligence, a news agency focusing on competition law and regulatory risk; the Pornographer of Vienna The Best Day of My Life Madwoman on a Pilgrimage by Johann Wolfgang von Goethe And So They Came "Exploding the Marat myth" November 2007, The Bulletin Karl Marx, Das Kapital: erster Band Guardian review 9 June 2007 Il Venerdì 22 July 2008, Morte e Segreti del "pornografo" Schiele Il Mattino 3 July 2008, Schiele pornografia ed erotismo Financial Times review 8 June 2007 "Art of Darkness La Repubblica 4 September 2008 Here Is The City Official Website of Lewis Crofts Lewis Crofts at MySpace Author page at Old Street Publishing