Swedish Romantic literature
Swedish Romantic literature denotes Swedish literature between 1809 and 1830. In Europe, the period from circa 1805–1840 is known as Romanticism, it was strongly featured in Sweden, based on German influences. During this short period, there were so many great Swedish poets, that the era is referred to as the Golden Age of Swedish poetry; the period started around 1810 when several periodicals were published that contested the literature of the 18th century. An important society was the Gothic Society, their periodical Iduna, a romanticised retrospect to Gothicismus. One significant reason was. Four of the main romantic poets that made significant contributions to the movements were: the professor of history Erik Gustaf Geijer, the loner Erik Johan Stagnelius, professor of Greek language Esaias Tegnér and professor of aesthetics and philosophy P. D. A. Atterbom. Geijer was one of most prominent members of the neo-gothicist Gothic Society; as a professor he published two cultural-historical works: "Svea rikes hävder" and "Svenska folkets historia", where he gave support to the idea of the Viking Age being a cultural height, suppressed during the Middle Ages.
Stagnelius spent his short adult years living as an outsider in Stockholm. Many of his poems deal with the beauty in nature, encompassing the loneliness of the soul, it is both for his beauty and his mysticism that Stagnelius's works were to attain recognition; the fame of Atterbom comes from his flower poetry: Lycksalighetens ö, 1824–1827, a collection of poetry called Blommorna. Esaias Tegnér has been described as the first modern Swedish man, in the sense that much is known about both his life and his person, that he left an extensive correspondence, his great success lies on Frithiof's Saga, a romanticized version of the Icelandic sagas but in a modern dress. The work was translated into several languages, put to music in Sweden, where it had status of a national epos until the realism of the 1880s obsoleted it. Fredrika Bremer was the first writer of realism novel, in the spirit of Jane Austen, her most important contribution is that she introduced the novel in Swedish on a large scale.
Her most important novel was her last: Hertha, in 1856. Hertha is not so much. Viktor Rydberg was a key figure in the Swedish culture between 1855 and the modern breakthrough in 1879. In the spirit of Dickens, Rydberg wrote adventurous novels and stories that in reality were dealing with the poor and exposed people of society. Several works tried to define a world where Christianity became integrated with humanistic ideals of ancient Greece. Rydberg was noted for groundbreaking historical and theological works; when Sweden lost Finland in 1809, Finnish literature moved in its own direction. For the remainder of the 19th century however, it was still the educated Swedish speaking minority in Finland that authored most of Finland's literature. A key figure was the Swedish speaking Johan Ludvig Runeberg, was established himself as Finlands national poet, a distinction he has kept into modern times, his most important work was The Tales of Ensign Stål, an epic poem about the Finnish War, the first verse of which became Finland's national anthem.
After Runeberg, it was to be Zacharius Topelius. Although he wrote both novels and poetry, his most important contributions were children's books, with Läsning för barn. Algulin, Ingemar, A History of Swedish Literature, published by the Swedish Institute, 1989. ISBN 91-520-0239-X Gustafson, Alrik A History of Swedish Literature, 1961. Tigerstedt, E. N. Svensk litteraturhistoria
Karl Eduard von Liphart
Baron Karl Eduard von Liphart or Carl Eduard von Liphart was a noted art expert and collector from Estonia. The family manor was near Dorpat. Liphart was born in Kambja Parish in Tartu County in 1808, he was one of the three children of Annette von Loewenwolde. He came from a noble family based at Raadi Manor who were members of the Estonian intelligentsia and owned a significant art collection. Liphart's father maintained his own string quartet led by Ferdinand David, a gifted violinist and composer. In 1853 Liphart was the founding President of the Estonian Naturalists' Society; the society still claims to be the oldest scientific society in the Baltic states. In 1862 Liphart moved to Florence because of the poor health of Ernst. However, in Florence he was able to amass a collection of paintings, he was financed and supported by Grand Duchess Maria Nikolaevna, the daughter of Tsar Nicholas I. The bas-relief of St Jerome by Desiderio da Settignano now in the National Gallery of Art, was purchased in Florence by an agent of Maria Nikolaevna as a gift for Baron Liphart.
Liphart became an acknowledged expert on the history of art. In 1867, following a theory put forward by Gustav Waagen, Liphart was able to recognise that a painting of the Annunciation newly arrived in the Uffizi Gallery was by Leonardo da Vinci. In 1871 he realised that another painting in the Uffizi was by the seventeenth century artist Hercules Seghers, it was Liphart and his friend the Director of the Berlin State Museums, Wilhelm von Bode, who independently established that this artist was more than just an etcher. He died in Florence in 1891. After his death his art collection was moved to Estonia where it was combined with his family's collection at Raadi Manor. Liphart wrote numerous articles and published brief notes, but never published a book-length monograph, he corresponded with all the major art historians of his time, in Europe, Great Britain and the United States. Liphart's son, Ernst Friedrich von Liphart, was disinherited by his father in 1873 for converting to marry a Roman Catholic.
However his son was an accomplished artist, painting portraits including one of Tsar Nicholas II. He went on to be a curator of the Hermitage Museum; the graphic art, collected by the Liphart family came into the possession of Tartu University in the 1920s. The university still conserves the collection which includes examples of Japanese art as well as noted European printmakers like Albrecht Dürer and William Hogarth
Leipzig is the most populous city in the federal state of Saxony, Germany. With a population of 581,980 inhabitants as of 2017, it is Germany's tenth most populous city. Leipzig is located about 160 kilometres southwest of Berlin at the confluence of the White Elster, Pleiße and Parthe rivers at the southern end of the North German Plain. Leipzig has been a trade city since at least the time of the Holy Roman Empire; the city sits at the intersection of the Via Regia and the Via Imperii, two important medieval trade routes. Leipzig was once one of the major European centers of learning and culture in fields such as music and publishing. Leipzig became a major urban center within the German Democratic Republic after the Second World War, but its cultural and economic importance declined. Events in Leipzig in 1989 played a significant role in precipitating the fall of communism in Central and Eastern Europe through demonstrations starting from St. Nicholas Church. Since the reunification of Germany, Leipzig has undergone significant change with the restoration of some historical buildings, the demolition of others, the development of a modern transport infrastructure.
Leipzig today is an economic centre, the most livable city in Germany, according to the GfK marketing research institution and has the second-best future prospects of all cities in Germany, according to HWWI and Berenberg Bank. Leipzig Zoo is one of the most modern zoos in Europe and ranks first in Germany and second in Europe according to Anthony Sheridan. Since the opening of the Leipzig City Tunnel in 2013, Leipzig forms the centrepiece of the S-Bahn Mitteldeutschland public transit system. Leipzig is listed as a Gamma World City, Germany's "Boomtown" and as the European City of the Year 2019. Leipzig has long been a major center for music, both classical as well as modern "dark alternative music" or darkwave genres; the Oper Leipzig is one of the most prominent opera houses in Germany. It was founded in 1693, making it the third oldest opera venue in Europe after La Fenice and the Hamburg State Opera. Leipzig is home to the University of Music and Theatre "Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy", it was during a stay in this city that Friedrich Schiller wrote his poem "Ode to Joy".
The Leipzig Gewandhaus Orchestra, established in 1743, is one of the oldest symphony orchestras in the world. Johann Sebastian Bach is one among many major composers who lived in Leipzig; the name Leipzig is derived from the Slavic word Lipsk, which means "settlement where the linden trees stand". An older spelling of the name in English is Leipsic; the Latin name Lipsia was used. The name is cognate with Lipetsk in Liepāja in Latvia. In 1937 the Nazi government renamed the city Reichsmessestadt Leipzig. Since 1989 Leipzig has been informally dubbed "Hero City", in recognition of the role that the Monday demonstrations there played in the fall of the East German regime – the name alludes to the honorary title awarded in the former Soviet Union to certain cities that played a key role in the victory of the Allies during the Second World War; the common usage of this nickname for Leipzig up until the present is reflected, for example, in the name of a popular blog for local arts and culture, Heldenstadt.de.
More the city has sometimes been nicknamed the "Boomtown of eastern Germany", "Hypezig" or "The better Berlin" for being celebrated by the media as a hip urban centre for the vital lifestyle and creative scene with many startups. Leipzig was first documented in 1015 in the chronicles of Bishop Thietmar of Merseburg as urbs Libzi and endowed with city and market privileges in 1165 by Otto the Rich. Leipzig Trade Fair, started in the Middle Ages, has become an event of international importance and is the oldest surviving trade fair in the world. There are records of commercial fishing operations on the river Pleiße in Leipzig dating back to 1305, when the Margrave Dietrich the Younger granted the fishing rights to the church and convent of St Thomas. There were a number of monasteries in and around the city, including a Franciscan monastery after which the Barfußgäßchen is named and a monastery of Irish monks near the present day Ranstädter Steinweg; the foundation of the University of Leipzig in 1409 initiated the city's development into a centre of German law and the publishing industry, towards being the location of the Reichsgericht and the German National Library.
During the Thirty Years' War, two battles took place in Breitenfeld, about 8 kilometres outside Leipzig city walls. The first Battle of Breitenfeld took place in 1631 and the second in 1642. Both battles resulted in victories for the Swedish-led side. On 24 December 1701, an oil-fueled street lighting system was introduced; the city employed light guards who had to follow a specific schedule to ensure the punctual lighting of the 700 lanterns. The Leipzig region was the arena of the 1813 Battle of Leipzig between Napoleonic France and an allied coalition of Prussia, Russia and Sweden, it was the largest battle in Europe before the First World War and the coalition victory ended Napoleon's presence in Germany and would lead to his first exile on Elba. The Monument to the Battle of the Nations celebrating the centenary of this event was completed in 1913. In addition to stimulating German nationalism, the war had a major impact in mobilizing a civic spirit in numerous volunteer activities. Many volunteer militi
Breitkopf & Härtel
Breitkopf & Härtel is the world's oldest music publishing house. The firm was founded in 1719 in Leipzig by Bernhard Christoph Breitkopf; the catalogue contains over 1,000 composers, 8,000 works and 15,000 music editions or books on music. The name "Härtel" was added when Gottfried Christoph Härtel took over the company in 1795. In 1807, Härtel began to manufacture pianos, an endeavour which lasted until 1870; the Breitkopf pianos were esteemed in the 19th century by pianists like Franz Liszt and Clara Schumann. In the 19th century the company was for many years the publisher of the Allgemeine musikalische Zeitung, an influential music journal; the company has supported contemporary composers and had close editorial collaboration with Beethoven, Mendelssohn, Chopin, Liszt and Brahms. They published the first complete works editions, for instance the Bach-Gesellschaft edition with the works of Johann Sebastian Bach, the Alte Mozart-Ausgabe with Mozart's works, Schubert's Franz Schubert's Werke.
This tradition continues today with prominent contemporary composers. The firm was on the board of directors of the Händel-Gesellschaft in 1858. Archival materials of the publishing house form the fonds 21081 Breitkopf & Härtel, Leipzig, in the Sächsisches Staatsarchiv, Staatsarchiv Leipzig. Johann Gottlob Immanuel Breitkopf Breitkopf Fraktur Media related to Breitkopf & Härtel at Wikimedia Commons Official website Music for the Eyes - From the Music Catalogue of Breitkopf & Härtel "A Dictionary of Music and Musicians/Breitkopf and Härtel" Breitkopf und Härtel: Scores at the International Music Score Library Project Bach-Gesellschaft Ausgabe: Scores at the International Music Score Library Project Breitkopf & Härtel Grand Piano - The Piano in Polish Collections NAMM Oral History Interview with Head of Sales, Annekathrin Mascus May 1, 2014 NAMM Oral History Interview with Vice President, Dr. Frank Reinisch March 30, 2006 NAMM Oral History Interview with President, Lieselotte Sievers March 14, 2008
Gewandhaus is a concert hall in Leipzig, the home of the Leipzig Gewandhaus Orchestra. Today's hall is the third to bear this name; the first concert hall was constructed in 1781 by architect Johann Carl Friedrich Dauthe inside the Gewandhaus, a building used by cloth merchants. The second Gewandhaus was designed by Martin Gropius, it opened on 11 December 1884, had a main concert hall and a chamber music hall. It was destroyed in the fire-bombings of World War II between 1943 and 1944; the third Gewandhaus on Augustusplatz opened on 8 October 1981, two hundred years after the Leipzig Gewandhaus Orchestra moved into the original hall. The hall contains a concert organ: Schuke, Potsdam IV-92-6638. List of concert halls Leo Beranek, Concert Halls and Opera Houses: Musics and Architecture, Springer, 2004, page 280. ISBN 0-387-95524-0. History of the Gewandhaus from the official site
Johann Sebastian Bach
Johann Sebastian Bach was a German composer and musician of the Baroque period. He is known for instrumental compositions such as the Art of Fugue, the Brandenburg Concertos, the Goldberg Variations as well as for vocal music such as the St Matthew Passion and the Mass in B minor. Since the 19th-century Bach Revival he has been regarded as one of the greatest composers of all time; the Bach family counted several composers when Johann Sebastian was born as the last child of a city musician in Eisenach. After becoming an orphan at age 10, he lived for five years with his eldest brother Johann Christoph Bach, after which he continued his musical development in Lüneburg. From 1703 he was back in Thuringia, working as a musician for Protestant churches in Arnstadt and Mühlhausen and, for longer stretches of time, at courts in Weimar—where he expanded his repertoire for the organ—and Köthen—where he was engaged with chamber music. From 1723 he was employed as Thomaskantor in Leipzig, he composed music for the principal Lutheran churches of the city, for its university's student ensemble Collegium Musicum.
From 1726 he published some of his organ music. In Leipzig, as had happened in some of his earlier positions, he had a difficult relation with his employer, a situation, little remedied when he was granted the title of court composer by King Augustus III of Poland in 1736. In the last decades of his life he extended many of his earlier compositions, he died of complications after eye surgery in 1750 at the age of 65. Bach enriched established German styles through his mastery of counterpoint and motivic organisation, his adaptation of rhythms and textures from abroad from Italy and France. Bach's compositions include hundreds of both sacred and secular, he composed Latin church music, Passions and motets. He adopted Lutheran hymns, not only in his larger vocal works, but for instance in his four-part chorales and his sacred songs, he wrote extensively for other keyboard instruments. He composed concertos, for instance for violin and for harpsichord, suites, as chamber music as well as for orchestra.
Many of his works employ the genres of fugue. Throughout the 18th century Bach was renowned as an organist, while his keyboard music, such as The Well-Tempered Clavier, was appreciated for its didactic qualities; the 19th century saw the publication of some major Bach biographies, by the end of that century all of his known music had been printed. Dissemination of scholarship on the composer continued through periodicals and websites devoted to him, other publications such as the Bach-Werke-Verzeichnis and new critical editions of his compositions, his music was further popularised through a multitude of arrangements, including for instance the Air on the G String, of recordings, for instance three different box sets with complete performances of the composer's works marking the 250th anniversary of his death. Bach was born in the duchy of Saxe-Eisenach, into a great musical family, his father, Johann Ambrosius Bach, was the director of the town musicians, all of his uncles were professional musicians.
His father taught him to play the violin and harpsichord, his brother Johann Christoph Bach taught him the clavichord and exposed him to much contemporary music. At his own initiative, Bach attended St. Michael's School in Lüneburg for two years. After graduating he held several musical posts across Germany: he served as Kapellmeister to Leopold, Prince of Anhalt-Köthen, as Thomaskantor in Leipzig, a position of music director at the main Lutheran churches and educator at the Thomasschule, he received the title of "Royal Court Composer" from Augustus III in 1736. Bach's health and vision declined in 1749, he died on 28 July 1750. Johann Sebastian Bach was born in Eisenach, the capital of the duchy of Saxe-Eisenach, in present-day Germany, on 21 March 1685 O. S.. He was the son of Johann Ambrosius Bach, the director of the town musicians, Maria Elisabeth Lämmerhirt, he was the eighth and youngest child of Johann Ambrosius, who taught him violin and basic music theory. His uncles were all professional musicians, whose posts included church organists, court chamber musicians, composers.
One uncle, Johann Christoph Bach, introduced him to the organ, an older second cousin, Johann Ludwig Bach, was a well-known composer and violinist. Bach's mother died in 1694, his father died eight months later; the 10-year-old Bach moved in with his eldest brother, Johann Christoph Bach, the organist at St. Michael's Church in Ohrdruf, Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg. There he studied and copied music, including his own brother's, despite being forbidden to do so because scores were so valuable and private, blank ledger paper of that type was costly, he received valuable teaching from his brother. J. C. Bach exposed him to the works of great composers of the day, including South German composers such as Johann Pachelbel and Johann Jakob Froberger. During this time, he was taught theology, Greek and Italian at the local gymnasium. By 3 April 1700, Bach and his schoolfriend Georg Erdmann—who was two years Bach's elder—were enrolled in the prestigious St. Michael's School in Lüneburg, some two weeks' travel north of Ohrdruf
Clara Schumann was a German musician and composer, considered one of the most distinguished composers and pianists of the Romantic era. She exerted her influence over a 61-year concert career, changing the format and repertoire of the piano recital, while having composed a body of work including various piano concertos, chamber works, choral pieces, she was married to composer Robert Schumann, together they encouraged and maintained a close relationship with Johannes Brahms. She was the first to perform publicly any work by Brahms, notably the Variations and Fugue on a Theme by Handel, she was an influential piano educator at the Hoch Conservatory in Frankfurt. Clara Josephine Wieck was born in Leipzig on 13 September 1819 to Friedrich Wieck and Marianne Wieck. Marianne Tromlitz was a famous singer in Leipzig at the time and was singing solos on a weekly basis at the well-known Gewandhaus in Leipzig; the differences between her parents were irreconcilable, in large part due to her father's unyielding nature.
After an affair between Clara's mother and Adolph Bargiel, her father's friend, the Wiecks divorced in 1824 and Marianne married Bargiel. Five-year-old Clara remained with her father while Marianne and Bargiel moved to Berlin, limiting contact between Clara and her mother to written letters and an occasional visit. From an early age, Clara's career and life were planned down to the smallest detail by her father, she received daily one-hour lessons and had to practice for two hours, using the teaching methods her father had developed at the expense of her broader general education, although she still studied religion and languages under her father's control. In 1828, at the age of nine, Clara Wieck performed at the Leipzig home of Dr. Ernst Carus, director of the mental hospital at Colditz Castle. There, she met another gifted young pianist, invited to the musical evening, Robert Schumann, nine years older. Schumann admired Clara's playing so much that he asked permission from his mother to stop studying law, which had never interested him much, take music lessons with Clara's father.
While taking lessons, he rented a room in the Wieck household. He would sometimes dress up as a ghost and scare Clara, this created a bond. In 1830, at the age of eleven, Clara left on a concert tour to Paris via other European cities, accompanied by her father, she gave her first solo concert at the Leipzig Gewandhaus. In Weimar, she performed a bravura piece by Henri Herz for Goethe, who presented her with a medal with his portrait and a written note saying: "For the gifted artist Clara Wieck". During that tour, Niccolò Paganini was in Paris, he offered to appear with her. However, her Paris recital was poorly attended, as many people had fled the city due to an outbreak of cholera. An anonymous music critic, writing of Clara Wieck's 1837–1838 Vienna recitals, said: "The appearance of this artist can be regarded as epoch-making... In her creative hands, the most ordinary passage, the most routine motive acquires a significant meaning, a colour, which only those with the most consummate artistry can give."From December 1837 to April 1838, Clara Wieck performed a series of recitals in Vienna when she was 18.
Franz Grillparzer, Austria's leading dramatic poet, wrote a poem entitled "Clara Wieck and Beethoven" after hearing Wieck perform the Appassionata sonata during one of these recitals. Wieck performed to laudatory critical reviews. Frédéric Chopin described her playing to Franz Liszt, who came to hear one of Wieck's concerts and subsequently "praised her extravagantly in a letter, published in the Parisian Revue et Gazette Musicale and in translation, in the Leipzig journal Neue Zeitschrift für Musik." On 15 March, Wieck was named a Königliche und Kaiserliche Kammervirtuosin, Austria's highest musical honor. Robert was a little more, he moved into the Wieck household as a piano student of Friedrich's by the end of 1830 when she was only 11 and he was 20. In 1837 when she was 18, he proposed to her and she accepted. Robert asked Friedrich for Clara's hand in marriage. Wieck was opposed to the marriage, as he did not much approve of Robert, refused his permission. Robert and Clara had to sue Friedrich.
The judge's decision was to allow the marriage, which notably took place on September 12, 1840, the day before Clara's 21st birthday, when she would have attained what would come to be known as majority status. They maintained a joint musical diary. See "Family Life" section for specific detail, she and Robert first met violinist Joseph Joachim in November 1844. A year she wrote in her diary that in a concert on November 11, 1845 "little Joachim was much liked, he played a new violin concerto of Mendelssohn's, said to be wonderful". In May 1853 they heard. Clara wrote that he played "with a finish, a depth of poetic feeling, his whole soul in every note, so ideally, that I have never heard violin-playing like it, I can say that I have never received so indelible an impression from any virtuoso." From that time there was a friendship between Clara and Joachim, which "for more than forty years never failed Clara in things great or small, never wavered in its loyalty."Over her career, Clara gave "over 238" concerts with Joachim in Germany and Britain