The russet-tailed thrush is a species of bird in the family Turdidae related to the more widespread Bassian thrush. It is found in Papua New Guinea, its natural habitats are temperate forests and subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Jean Louis Cabanis was a German ornithologist. Cabanis was born in Berlin to an old Huguenot family. Little is known of his early life, he studied at the University of Berlin from 1835 to 1839, travelled to North America, returning in 1841 with a large natural history collection. He was assistant and director of the Natural History Museum of Berlin, taking over from Martin Lichtenstein, he founded the Journal für Ornithologie in 1853, editing it for the next forty-one years, when he was succeeded by his son-in-law Anton Reichenow. He died in Friedrichshagen. A number of birds are named after him, including Cabanis's bunting Emberiza cabanisi, Cabanis's spinetail Synallaxis cabanisi, Cabanis's tanager Tangara cabanisi, Cabanis's greenbul Phyllastrephus cabanisi, Cabanis's ground sparrow Melozone cabanisi
Halberstadt is a town in the German state of Saxony-Anhalt, the capital of Harz district. Located north of the Harz mountain range, it is known for its old town centre, damaged in World War II and rebuilt in the following decades. Halberstadt is situated between the Harz in the south and the Huy hills in the north on the Holtemme and Goldbach rivers, both left tributaries of the Bode; the municipal area comprises the villages of Aspenstedt, Langenstein and Ströbeck, all incorporated in 2010. Halberstadt is the base of the Department of Public Management of the Hochschule Harz University of Applied Studies and Research; the town centre retains much of its ancient townscape. Notable places in Halberstadt include Halberstadt Cathedral, the Church of Our Lady and St Martin's, churches built in the 12th and 13th centuries. Halberstadt is the site of the first documented large, permanent pipe organ installation in 1361; the cathedral is notable among those in northern European towns in having retained its medieval treasury in complete condition.
Among its treasures are the oldest surviving tapestries in Europe, dating from the 12th century. The town is a stop on the scenic German Timber-Frame Road The town can be reached via the Bundesstraße 6n, 79, 81, 245 federal highways. Halberstadt station is an important railway hub on the Magdeburg–Thale and Halle–Vienenburg lines served by Transdev Sachsen-Anhalt; the Halberstadt tramway network operates two lines. Germania Halberstadt is a football club. In 814 the Carolingian emperor Louis the Pious made the Christian mission in the German stem duchy of Saxony the episcopal see of the Diocese of Halberstadt, it was vested with market rights by King Otto III in 989. The town became the administrative centre of an important trading location; the Halberstadt bishops had the Church of Our Lady erected from about 1005 onwards. In his fierce conflict with Emperor Frederick Barbarossa, the forces of the Saxon duke Henry the Lion devastated the town in 1179. Upon Henry's downfall, the Halberstadt diocese was elevated to a prince-bishopric about 1180.
Its Cathedral was rebuilt from 1236 and consecrated in 1491. Halberstadt and Aschersleben joined a league of towns in 1326. From 1479, the diocese was administrated by the Archbishops of Magdeburg. While the Halberstadt citizens turned Protestant around 1540, the cathedral chapter elected Prince Henry Julius of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel first Lutheran bishop in 1566. During the Thirty Years' War, the town was occupied by the troops of Albrecht von Wallenstein in 1629 and temporarily re-Catholicized according to the imperial Edict of Restitution. According to the 1648 Peace of Westphalia, the prince-bishopric was secularized to the Principality of Halberstadt held by Brandenburg-Prussia; the first secular governor was Joachim Friedrich von Blumenthal. Halberstadt became part of the newly established Kingdom of Prussia in 1701. From 1747 Johann Wilhelm Ludwig Gleim worked here as a government official and made his home an intellectual centre of the Enlightenment movement. Upon the 1807 Treaty of Tilsit, the town became part of the Kingdom of Westphalia, a Napoleonic client-state, administrative seat of the Westphalian Department of Saale.
On 29 July 1809, a Westphalian regiment was defeated by the Black Brunswickers under Prince Frederick William of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel in the Battle of Halberstadt. After the defeat of Napoleon, the town was restored to Prussia and subsequently administered within the Province of Saxony. From 1815, Halberstadt was home of garrison of the Prussian 7th Cuirassiers "von Seydlitz" regiment, with Otto von Bismarck in the rank of an officer à la suite from 1868; the town's economy was decisively promoted by the opening of the Magdeburg–Halberstadt Railway in 1843. The tramway was inaugurated in 1903. In 1912 the Halberstädter Flugzeugwerke aircraft manufacturer was founded followed by the opening of a military airbase, providing the German Luftstreitkräfte in World War I. After the war it had to close down according to the regulations of the Treaty of Versailles, until in the course of the German re-armament, it opened again in 1935 as a branch of the Junkers company in Dessau; the aircraft factory was the site of a SS forced labourer camp, one of several subcamps of Buchenwald.
In the last days of World War II, in April 1945, US forces approached Halberstadt as they attacked remaining Nazi troops in the short-lived Harz pocket. They dropped leaflets instructing Halberstadt's Nazi ruler to fly a white flag on the town hall as a token of surrender, he refused, no white flag was raised and on 8 April 1945, 218 Flying Fortresses of the 8th Air Force, accompanied by 239 escort fighters, dropped 595 tons of bombs on the centre of Halberstadt. This killed about 2,500 people and converted most of the old town into some 1.5 million cubic metres of rubble, which American troops occupied three days later. By June 1945, the town and its garrison was handed over to the 3rd Shock Army of the Soviet Red Army forces. Halberstadt was part of newly established Saxony-Anhalt from 1945–1952, after which it was within Bezirk Magdeburg in East Germany. During the Peaceful Revolution in Autumn 1989, St Martin's Church was a centre of the Swords to ploughshares movement. After the reunification of Germany, Halberstadt became part of the restored state of Saxony-Anhalt.
In the 17th century, Halberstadt had one of the largest Je
Friedrich Hermann Otto Finsch was a German ethnographer and colonial explorer. Finsch was born at Warmbrunn in Silesia to Mathilde née Leder, his father was in the glass trade and he too trained as a glass painter. An interest in birds led him to use his artistic skills for the purpose and an offer from the Austrian Consul led him to visit Bulgaria in 1859. Here he produced a work on the regional birdlife and published his first paper in the Journal fur Ornithologie on the birds of Bulgaria; this experience helped him obtain a curator position at the Reichsmuseum of Natural History in Leiden. In 1864 he became curator of the museum in Bremen and became the director in 1876, he obtained an honorary doctorate from the University of Bonn in 1868 for ornithology but he took an interest in ethnology. In 1876 he accompanied the zoologist Alfred Brehm on an expedition to northwest China, he became interested in the creation of German colonies in the Pacific and he became a member of the South Sea Plotters, an influential group led by a banker named Adolph von Hansemann.
Finsch resigned as curator of the museum in 1878 in order. In 1886, he married Elisabeth Hoffman. Between spring 1879 and 1885 he made several visits to the Polynesian Islands, New Zealand and New Guinea, he returned to Germany in 1882. In 1884 he returned to New Guinea as Bismarck's Imperial Commissioner and negotiated for the north-eastern portion of that island, together with New Britain and New Ireland, to become a German protectorate, it was renamed the Bismarck Archipelago. The capital of the colony was named Finschhafen in his honour. In 1885 he was the first European to discover the Sepik river, he named it after Kaiserin Augusta, the German Empress. After returning to Berlin Finsch spent two years as advisor to the Neuguinea-Kompagnie. In 1898 he became curator of the bird collections at the Rijksmuseum in Leiden, in 1904 head of the ethnographical department of the Municipal Museum in Brunswick, where he died. One of his major works was on the parrots of the world; this was not without its critics, since he tried to rename genera and so as to obtain authorship.
Some species of parrot bear his name, including the lilac-crowned parrot, Amazona finschi, the grey-headed parakeet, Psittacula finschii. A species of monitor lizard, Varanus finschi, is named after him, as he collected what would become the holotype for this species; the crater Finsch on the Moon is named in his honor. Otto Finsch, Catalog der Ausstellung ethnographisher und naturwissenschaftlicher Sammlungen. Otto Finsch, Anthropologische Ergebnisse einer Reise in der Sudsee und dem Malayischen Archipel in den Jahren, 1879-1882. Otto Finsch, Masks of Faces of Races of Men from the South Sea Islands and the Malay Archipelago, taken from Living Originals in the Years 1879-82. Otto Finsch, Ethnologische Erfahrungen und Belegstucke aus der beschreibender Katalog einer Sammlung in K. K. Naturahistorischen Hofmuseum in Wien. Finsch, O. 1867-68. Die Papageien / monographisch bearbeitet von Otto Finsch Leiden: Brill with Gustav Hartlaub Die Vögel der Palau-Gruppe. Über neue und weniger gekannte Vögel von den Viti-, Samoa- und Carolinen-Inseln.
Journal des Museum Godeffroy, Heft 8, 1875 and Heft 12, 1876. Herbert Abel, Otto Finsch: Ein Lebensbild Zur 50. Wiederkehr des Todestages am 31. Januar 1967. Jahrbuch der Schlesischen Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität zu Breslau. Band XII. Wuerzburg: Holzner-Verlag. Howes, Hilary, 2018. « A “Perceptive Observer” in the Pacific: Life and Work of Otto Finsch » in Bérose - Encyclopédie internationale des histoires de l’anthropologie Australian Dictionary of Biography AMNH anthropology collection Digitised works by Otto Finsch at Biodiversity Heritage Library
The black-capped tanager is a species of bird in the family Thraupidae. It is found in Colombia and Ecuador, its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical moist montane forests and degraded former forest
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012