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Ferdinand III of Castile

Ferdinand III, 1199/1201 – 30 May 1252, called the Saint, was King of Castile from 1217 and King of León from 1230 as well as King of Galicia from 1231. He was the son of Alfonso IX of Berenguela of Castile. Through his second marriage he was Count of Aumale. Ferdinand III was one of the most successful kings of Castile, securing not only the permanent union of the crowns of Castile and León, but masterminding the most expansive campaign of Reconquista yet. By military and diplomatic efforts, Ferdinand expanded the dominions of Castile into southern Spain, annexing many of the great old cities of al-Andalus, including the old Andalusian capitals of Córdoba and Seville, establishing the boundaries of the Castilian state for the next two centuries. Ferdinand was canonized in 1671 by Pope Clement X and, in Spanish, he is known as Fernando el Santo, San Fernando or San Fernando Rey. Places such as the cities of San Fernando and San Fernando, La Union; the exact date of Ferdinand's birth was unclear.

It has been proposed to have been as early as 1199 or 1198, although more recent researchers date Ferdinand's birth in the summer of 1201. Ferdinand was born at the Monastery of Valparaíso; as the son of Alfonso IX of León and his second wife Berengaria of Castile, Ferdinand descended from Alfonso VII of Leon and Castile on both sides. Ferdinand had other royal ancestors from his paternal grandmother Urraca of Portugal and his maternal grandmother Eleanor of England a daughter of Henry II of England and Eleanor of Aquitaine. From his birth to 1204 Ferdinand was designated heir to his father's kingdom of Leon with the support of his mother and the kingdom of Castile despite the fact that he was Alfonso IX's second son. Alfonso IX had a son and two daughters from his first, dissolved marriage to Teresa of Portugal but at the time he never acknowledged his first son as his heir. However, the Castilians saw the elder Ferdinand as threat to Berengaria's son; the marriage of Ferdinand's parents was annulled by order of Pope Innocent III in 1204, due to consanguinity, but the legitimacy of the children was recognized.

Berengaria took their children, including Ferdinand, to the court of her father, King Alfonso VIII of Castile. In 1217, her younger brother, Henry I, died and she succeeded him on the Castilian throne with Ferdinand as her heir, but she surrendered it to her son. Alphonso of Leon considered himself tricked, the young king had to begin his reign by a war against his father and a faction of the Castilian nobles, his and his mother's abilities proved too much for the king of his Castilian allies. Berengaria continued to be a key influence on Ferdinand, following her advice in prosecuting wars and in the choice of a wife, Elisabeth of Swabia; when Ferdinand's father died in 1230, his will delivered the kingdom to his older daughters Sancha and Dulce, from his first marriage to Teresa of Portugal. But Ferdinand contested the will, claimed the inheritance for himself. At length, an agreement was reached, negotiated between their mothers and Teresa, signed at Benavente on 11 December 1230, by which Ferdinand would receive the Kingdom of León, in return for a substantial compensation in cash and lands for his half-sisters and Dulce.

Ferdinand thus became the first sovereign of both kingdoms since the death of Alfonso VII in 1157. Early in his reign, Ferdinand had to deal with a rebellion of the House of Lara. Since the Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa in 1212 halted the advance of the Almohads in Spain, a series of truces had kept Castile and the Almohad dominions of al-Andalus more-or-less at peace. However, a crisis of succession in the Almohad Caliphate after the death of Yusuf II in 1224 opened to Ferdinand III an opportunity for intervention; the Andalusian-based claimant, Abdallah al-Adil, began to ship the bulk of Almohad arms and men across the straits to Morocco to contest the succession with his rival there, leaving al-Andalus undefended. Al-Adil's rebellious cousin, Abdallah al-Bayyasi, appealed to Ferdinand III for military assistance against the usurper. In 1225, a Castilian army accompanied al-Bayyasi in a campaign, ravaging the regions of Jaén, vega de Granada and, before the end of the year, had installed al-Bayyasi in Córdoba.

In payment, al-Bayyasi gave Ferdinand the strategic frontier strongholds of Baños de la Encina and Capilla. When al-Bayyasi was rejected and killed by a popular uprising in Cordoba shortly after, the Castilians remained in occupation of al-Bayyasi's holdings in Andújar and Martos; the crisis in the Almohad Caliphate, remained unresolved. In 1228, a new Almohad pretender, Abd al-Ala Idris I'al-Ma'mun', decided to abandon Spain, left with the last remnant of the Almohad forces for Morocco. Al-Andalus was left fragmented in the hands of local strongmen, only loosely led by Muhammad ibn Yusuf ibn Hud al-Judhami. Seeing the opportunity, the Christian kings of the north - Ferdinand III of Castile, Alfonso IX of León, James I of Aragon and Sancho II of Portugal - launched a series of raids on al-Andalus

Testosterone enantate benzilic acid hydrazone

Testosterone enantate benzilic acid hydrazone, or testosterone 17β-enantate 3-benzilic acid hydrazone, is a synthetic, injected androgen/anabolic steroid and an androgen ester – the C17β enantate ester and C3 benzilic acid hydrazone of testosterone. It was marketed in combination with estradiol benzoate and estradiol dienantate under the brand names Climacteron and Lactostat. Clinical studies have assessed this formulation. TEBH was first described in the scientific literature in 1959, it is a long-lasting prodrug of testosterone when administered in oil via intramuscular injection. Chemical synthesis of TEBH has been described. List of androgen esters § Testosterone esters Hydroxyprogesterone heptanoate benzilic acid hydrazone

Parabalani

The Parabalani or Parabolani were the members of a brotherhood who in early Christianity voluntarily undertook the care of the sick and the burial of the dead knowing they could die. Drawn from the lower strata of society, they functioned as attendants to local bishops and were sometimes used by them as bodyguards and in violent clashes with their opponents; the parabalani had neither orders nor vows, but were enumerated among the clergy and enjoyed clerical privileges and immunities. In addition to performing works of mercy they constituted a bodyguard for the bishop, their presence at public gatherings or in the theaters was forbidden by law. At times they took a active part in ecclesiastical controversies, as at the Second Council of Ephesus, they received their name from the fact that they were hospital attendants, although the alternative name parabolani became current, because they risked their lives in exposing themselves to contagious diseases. It has been asserted, though without sufficient proof, that the brotherhood was first organized during the great plague in Alexandria in the episcopate of Pope Dionysius of Alexandria.

Though they were chosen by the bishop and always remained under his control, the Codex Theodosianus placed them under the supervision of the praefectus augustalis, the imperial governor of Roman Egypt. The parabalani were believed to have helped murder the Alexandrian philosopher-scientist Hypatia in 415; because their fanaticism resulted in riots, successive laws limited their numbers: thus a law issued in 416 restricted the enrollment in Alexandria to 500, a number increased two years to 600. In Constantinople, the number was reduced from 1100 to 950; the parabolani are not mentioned after Justinian I's time. In the 2009 film Agora, focusing on the life of Hypatia, the parabolani start out as Christian volunteers who distribute bread to the poor, but turn into fanatical death squads who murder pagans and Christians opposing their intolerant bishop, Cyril of Alexandria; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Herbermann, Charles, ed.. "Parabolani". Catholic Encyclopedia.

New York: Robert Appleton