Ferdinand Magellan was a Portuguese explorer who organised the Spanish expedition to the East Indies from 1519 to 1522, resulting in the first circumnavigation of the Earth, completed by Juan Sebastián Elcano. Born around 1480 into a family of minor Portuguese nobility, Magellan became a skilled sailor and naval officer and was in service of the Portuguese crown in Asia. After King Manuel I of Portugal refused to support his plan to reach India by a new route, by sailing around the southern end of the South American continent, he was selected by King Charles I of Spain to search for a westward route to the Maluku Islands. Commanding a fleet of five vessels, he headed south through the Atlantic Ocean to Patagonia. Despite a series of storms and mutinies, they made it through the Strait of Magellan into a body of water he named the "peaceful sea"; the expedition reached the Philippine islands, where Magellan was killed during the Battle of Mactan. The expedition reached the Spice Islands in 1521 and one of the surviving ships returned home via the Indian Ocean, completing the first circuit of the globe.
Magellan had reached the Malay Archipelago in Southeast Asia on previous voyages traveling east. By visiting this area again but now travelling west, Magellan achieved a nearly complete personal circumnavigation of the globe for the first time in history. Magellan was born in the Portuguese town of Sabrosa in or around 1480, his father, Pedro de Magalhães, was a minor member of Portuguese mayor of the town. His mother was Alda de Mezquita. Magellan's siblings included Isabel Magellan, he was brought up as a page of Queen Eleanor, consort of King John II. In 1495 he entered the service of John's successor. In March 1505 at the age of 25, Magellan enlisted in the fleet of 22 ships sent to host Francisco de Almeida as the first viceroy of Portuguese India. Although his name does not appear in the chronicles, it is known that he remained there eight years, in Goa and Quilon, he participated including the battle of Cannanore in 1506, where he was wounded. In 1509 he fought in the battle of Diu, he sailed under Diogo Lopes de Sequeira in the first Portuguese embassy to Malacca, with Francisco Serrão, his friend and cousin.
In September, after arriving at Malacca, the expedition fell victim to a conspiracy ending in retreat. Magellan had a crucial role, warning Sequeira and risking his life to rescue Francisco Serrão and others who had landed. In 1511, under the new governor Afonso de Albuquerque and Serrão participated in the conquest of Malacca. After the conquest their ways parted: Magellan was promoted, with a rich plunder and, in the company of a Malay he had indentured and baptized, Enrique of Malacca, he returned to Portugal in 1512 or 1513. Serrão departed in the first expedition sent to find the "Spice Islands" in the Moluccas, where he remained, he married a woman from Amboina and became a military advisor to the Sultan of Ternate, Bayan Sirrullah. His letters to Magellan would prove decisive, giving information about the spice-producing territories. After taking a leave without permission, Magellan fell out of favour. Serving in Morocco, he was wounded, he was accused of trading illegally with the Moors.
The accusations were proven false, but he received no further offers of employment after 15 May 1514. On in 1515, he got an employment offer as a crew member on a Portuguese ship, but rejected this. In 1517 after a quarrel with King Manuel I, who denied his persistent demands to lead an expedition to reach the spice islands from the east, he was allowed to leave for Spain. In Seville he befriended his countryman Diogo Barbosa and soon married the daughter of Diogo's second wife, Maria Caldera Beatriz Barbosa, they had two children: Rodrigo de Magalhães and Carlos de Magalhães, both of whom died at a young age. His wife died in Seville around 1521. Meanwhile, Magellan devoted himself to studying the most recent charts, investigating, in partnership with cosmographer Rui Faleiro, a gateway from the Atlantic to the South Pacific and the possibility of the Moluccas being Spanish according to the demarcation of the Treaty of Tordesillas. After having his proposed expeditions to the Spice Islands rejected by King Manuel of Portugal, Magellan turned to Charles I, the young King of Spain.
Under the 1494 Treaty of Tordesillas, Portugal controlled the eastern routes to Asia that went around Africa. Magellan instead proposed reaching the Spice Islands by a western route, a feat which had never been accomplished. Hoping that this would yield a commercially useful trade route for Spain, Charles approved the expedition, provided most of the funding. Magellan's fleet consisted of five ships; the crew consisted of about 270 men. Most were Spanish; the fleet left Spain on 20 September 1519. In December, they made landfall at Rio de Janeiro. From there, they sailed south along the coast, searching for a way around the continent. After three months of searching, weather conditions forced the fleet to stop their search to wait out the winter, they found a sheltered natural harbor at the port of Saint Julian, remained there for five months. Shortly after landing at St
SPORTbible is a sports focused social media publisher with headquarters on Dale Street in Manchester's Northern Quarter, United Kingdom. SPORTbible is part of LADbible group and describes itself as "one of the largest communities for sports fans across the world". SPORTbible Limited was incorporated on 3 October 2013 by co-founders Alexander “Solly” Solomou and Arian Kalantari. In 2015, SPORTbible was part of 65twenty group, one of the fastest-growing social media publishers in the UK. Solomou developed the idea for a digital media business while studying at Leeds University between 2009 and 2013. On 3 April 2012 Solomou founded SPORTbible's parent company The Lad Bible Limited and subsequently launched a sport focused social publishing brand, SPORTbible in October 2013; the SPORTbible Facebook page now has in excess of 11 million followers making them one of the largest sports communities on Facebook. The parent company of SPORTbible has changed its name several times over the years. On 18 November 2013 it changed from The Lad Bible Limited to The Global Social Media Group Limited.
The name changed again on 19 June 2014 to 65TWENTY LTD more on 16 November 2015 to The LADbible Group Limited. In May 2017, SPORTbible announced an exclusive media partnership with F1 team Sahara Force India; the partnership lasted one year, during which the SPORTbible logo featured on the nose of the F1 car. In November 2018, SPORTbible joined up with Ultimate Boxxer to stream the boxing tournament live to millions of fans on Facebook; this partnership provided a "transformed boxing experience for the next generation of boxing fans". LADbible Official website
James Griffiths was a Welsh Labour politician, trade union leader and the first Secretary of State for Wales. He was born near Ammanford in Carmarthenshire; the youngest of ten children. He spoke no English. Educated at Betws Board School, he left at the age of 13 to work at Ammanford No. 1 colliery, where he became Lodge Secretary. Griffiths was a pacifist and while campaigning against the Great War met Winifred Rutley, whom he married in 1918, his brother was a notable Welsh poet. Griffiths became an active socialist, he helped establish a branch of the Independent Labour Party in Ammanford in 1908 and soon became its secretary. He occupied the powerful post of secretary of the newly formed Ammanford Trades Council. At the age of 29, he left the colliery on a miner's scholarship to the Central Labour College, where at the same time Aneurin Bevan and Morgan Phillips were studying. On returning home, Griffiths worked as Llanelli Labour Party agent, before becoming an agent for the Anthracite Miners' Association, President of the powerful South Wales Miners' Federation – known locally as the Fed – in the Anthracite district of West Wales.
In 1936, he was elected Labour Member of Parliament for what was safe seat of Llanelli. Three years he continued his rise through the Labour movement by getting elected to the party's National Executive Committee. Following Labour's victory at the 1945 general election, he was made a Privy Counsellor and Minister for National Insurance by Prime Minister Clement Attlee. In this role he was responsible for creating the modern state benefit system, he introduced the Family Allowances Act 1945, the National Insurance Act 1946 and the National Assistance and Industrial Injuries Act 1948. Along with Bevan, he was one of the chief architects of the Welfare State, he served as Chairman of the Labour Party, in 1950 he became Secretary of State for the Colonies. Within two years, the Labour Party was out of office. During the long period in opposition, Griffiths became deputy leader of the Labour Party, spokesman on Welsh affairs, he used his good relationship with Hugh Gaitskell to commit the Labour Party to a measure of devolution.
Amid the Suez Crisis of 1956, he made an important speech opposing the underhanded tactics of the Prime Minister Anthony Eden in which he stated "This is for our country a black and tragic week... an unjustifiable and wicked war". This was said to sum up the mood of many at the time. Given Griffiths' determination in having campaigned for a Secretariat of State for Wales since the 1930s, Harold Wilson persuaded him to delay retirement and serve as the first Secretary of State for Wales following Labour's 1964 general election victory. At Wilson's instigation, Griffiths established the Welsh Office and laid the foundations for the role until the 1966 general election, whereupon he returned to the backbenches, he was appointed a Companion of Honour. Though by now suffering from ill-health, Griffiths avoided resigning from the House of Commons, because he feared that if he did so, Labour would lose a by-election in Llanelli. Plaid Cymru had captured the neighbouring seat of Carmarthen in 1966, he remained in Parliament until 1970 and was succeeded in Llanelli by Denzil Davies, who fended off the Plaid Cymru challenge.
The previous year, Griffiths had published his autobiography, Pages From Memory. He died in Greater London, aged 84, leaving two sons and two daughters, he is buried at the Christian Temple chapel in Ammanford. In a memorial address Jim Callaghan, the future prime minister, described him as "one of the greatest sons of Wales. We honour the memory of Jim Griffiths of Ammanford. I mention his birth place because, despite all his honours and journeyings, it was the place of his birth, deep in the heart of Wales, that shaped his life and actions." Plan for Britain: A Collection of Essays prepared for the Fabian Society by G D H Cole, Aneurin Bevan, Jim Griffiths, L F Easterbrook, Sir William Beveridge, Harold J Laski. Griffiths, James. Pages from Memory. London: J. M. Dent & Sons, 1969. Griffiths, Winifred. One Woman's Story Election leaflet held by the national Library of Wales Selection of his writings Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by Jim Griffiths Biography of James Griffiths, Labour politician and cabinet minister.
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