Botany called plant science, plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, plant scientist or phytologist is a scientist; the term "botany" comes from the Ancient Greek word βοτάνη meaning "pasture", "grass", or "fodder". Traditionally, botany has included the study of fungi and algae by mycologists and phycologists with the study of these three groups of organisms remaining within the sphere of interest of the International Botanical Congress. Nowadays, botanists study 410,000 species of land plants of which some 391,000 species are vascular plants, 20,000 are bryophytes. Botany originated in prehistory as herbalism with the efforts of early humans to identify – and cultivate – edible and poisonous plants, making it one of the oldest branches of science. Medieval physic gardens attached to monasteries, contained plants of medical importance, they were forerunners of the first botanical gardens attached to universities, founded from the 1540s onwards.
One of the earliest was the Padua botanical garden. These gardens facilitated the academic study of plants. Efforts to catalogue and describe their collections were the beginnings of plant taxonomy, led in 1753 to the binomial system of Carl Linnaeus that remains in use to this day. In the 19th and 20th centuries, new techniques were developed for the study of plants, including methods of optical microscopy and live cell imaging, electron microscopy, analysis of chromosome number, plant chemistry and the structure and function of enzymes and other proteins. In the last two decades of the 20th century, botanists exploited the techniques of molecular genetic analysis, including genomics and proteomics and DNA sequences to classify plants more accurately. Modern botany is a broad, multidisciplinary subject with inputs from most other areas of science and technology. Research topics include the study of plant structure and differentiation, reproduction and primary metabolism, chemical products, diseases, evolutionary relationships and plant taxonomy.
Dominant themes in 21st century plant science are molecular genetics and epigenetics, which are the mechanisms and control of gene expression during differentiation of plant cells and tissues. Botanical research has diverse applications in providing staple foods, materials such as timber, rubber and drugs, in modern horticulture and forestry, plant propagation and genetic modification, in the synthesis of chemicals and raw materials for construction and energy production, in environmental management, the maintenance of biodiversity. Botany originated as the study and use of plants for their medicinal properties. Many records of the Holocene period date early botanical knowledge as far back as 10,000 years ago; this early unrecorded knowledge of plants was discovered in ancient sites of human occupation within Tennessee, which make up much of the Cherokee land today. The early recorded history of botany includes many ancient writings and plant classifications. Examples of early botanical works have been found in ancient texts from India dating back to before 1100 BC, in archaic Avestan writings, in works from China before it was unified in 221 BC.
Modern botany traces its roots back to Ancient Greece to Theophrastus, a student of Aristotle who invented and described many of its principles and is regarded in the scientific community as the "Father of Botany". His major works, Enquiry into Plants and On the Causes of Plants, constitute the most important contributions to botanical science until the Middle Ages seventeen centuries later. Another work from Ancient Greece that made an early impact on botany is De Materia Medica, a five-volume encyclopedia about herbal medicine written in the middle of the first century by Greek physician and pharmacologist Pedanius Dioscorides. De Materia Medica was read for more than 1,500 years. Important contributions from the medieval Muslim world include Ibn Wahshiyya's Nabatean Agriculture, Abū Ḥanīfa Dīnawarī's the Book of Plants, Ibn Bassal's The Classification of Soils. In the early 13th century, Abu al-Abbas al-Nabati, Ibn al-Baitar wrote on botany in a systematic and scientific manner. In the mid-16th century, "botanical gardens" were founded in a number of Italian universities – the Padua botanical garden in 1545 is considered to be the first, still in its original location.
These gardens continued the practical value of earlier "physic gardens" associated with monasteries, in which plants were cultivated for medical use. They supported the growth of botany as an academic subject. Lectures were given about the plants grown in the gardens and their medical uses demonstrated. Botanical gardens came much to northern Europe. Throughout this period, botany remained subordinate to medicine. German physician Leonhart Fuchs was one of "the three German fathers of botany", along with theologian Otto Brunfels and physician Hieronymus Bock. Fuchs and Brunfels broke away from the tradition of copying earlier works to make original observations of their own. Bock created his own system of plant classification. Physician Valerius Cordus authored a botanically and pharmacologically important herbal Historia Plantarum in 1544 and a pharmacopoeia of lasting importance, the Dispensatorium
Adelaide is the capital city of the state of South Australia, the fifth-most populous city of Australia. In June 2017, Adelaide had an estimated resident population of 1,333,927. Adelaide is home to more than 75 percent of the South Australian population, making it the most centralised population of any state in Australia. Adelaide is north of the Fleurieu Peninsula, on the Adelaide Plains between the Gulf St Vincent and the low-lying Mount Lofty Ranges which surround the city. Adelaide stretches 20 km from the coast to the foothills, 94 to 104 km from Gawler at its northern extent to Sellicks Beach in the south. Named in honour of Adelaide of Saxe-Meiningen, queen consort to King William IV, the city was founded in 1836 as the planned capital for a freely-settled British province in Australia. Colonel William Light, one of Adelaide's founding fathers, designed the city and chose its location close to the River Torrens, in the area inhabited by the Kaurna people. Light's design set out Adelaide in a grid layout, interspaced by wide boulevards and large public squares, surrounded by parklands.
Early Adelaide was shaped by wealth. Until the Second World War, it was Australia's third-largest city and one of the few Australian cities without a convict history, it has been noted for early examples of religious freedom, a commitment to political progressivism and civil liberties. It has been known as the "City of Churches" since the mid-19th century, referring to its diversity of faiths rather than the piety of its denizens; the demonym "Adelaidean" is used in reference to its residents. As South Australia's seat of government and commercial centre, Adelaide is the site of many governmental and financial institutions. Most of these are concentrated in the city centre along the cultural boulevard of North Terrace, King William Street and in various districts of the metropolitan area. Today, Adelaide is noted for its many festivals and sporting events, its food and wine, its long beachfronts, its large defence and manufacturing sectors, it ranks in terms of quality of life, being listed in the world's top 10 most liveable cities, out of 140 cities worldwide by The Economist Intelligence Unit.
It was ranked the most liveable city in Australia by the Property Council of Australia in 2011, 2012 and 2013. Before its proclamation as a British settlement in 1836, the area around Adelaide was inhabited by the indigenous Kaurna Aboriginal nation. Kaurna culture and language were completely destroyed within a few decades of European settlement of South Australia, but extensive documentation by early missionaries and other researchers has enabled a modern revival of both. South Australia was proclaimed a British colony on 28 December 1836, near The Old Gum Tree in what is now the suburb of Glenelg North; the event is commemorated in South Australia as Proclamation Day. The site of the colony's capital was surveyed and laid out by Colonel William Light, the first Surveyor-General of South Australia, through the design made by the architect George Strickland Kingston. Adelaide was established as a planned colony of free immigrants, promising civil liberties and freedom from religious persecution, based upon the ideas of Edward Gibbon Wakefield.
Wakefield had read accounts of Australian settlement while in prison in London for attempting to abduct an heiress, realised that the eastern colonies suffered from a lack of available labour, due to the practice of giving land grants to all arrivals. Wakefield's idea was for the Government to survey and sell the land at a rate that would maintain land values high enough to be unaffordable for labourers and journeymen. Funds raised from the sale of land were to be used to bring out working-class emigrants, who would have to work hard for the monied settlers to afford their own land; as a result of this policy, Adelaide does not share the convict settlement history of other Australian cities like Sydney, Melbourne and Hobart. As it was believed that in a colony of free settlers there would be little crime, no provision was made for a gaol in Colonel Light's 1837 plan, but by mid-1837 the South Australian Register was warning of escaped convicts from New South Wales and tenders for a temporary gaol were sought.
Following a burglary, a murder, two attempted murders in Adelaide during March 1838, Governor Hindmarsh created the South Australian Police Force in April 1838 under 21-year-old Henry Inman. The first sheriff, Samuel Smart, was wounded during a robbery, on 2 May 1838 one of the offenders, Michael Magee, became the first person to be hanged in South Australia. William Baker Ashton was appointed governor of the temporary gaol in 1839, in 1840 George Strickland Kingston was commissioned to design Adelaide's new gaol. Construction of Adelaide Gaol commenced in 1841. Adelaide's early history was marked by questionable leadership; the first governor of South Australia, John Hindmarsh, clashed with others, in particular the Resident Commissioner, James Hurtle Fisher. The rural area surrounding Adelaide was surveyed by Light in preparation to sell a total of over 405 km2 of land. Adelaide's early economy started to get on its feet in 1838 with the arrival of livestock from Victoria, New South Wales and Tasmania.
Wool production provided an early basis for the South Australian economy. By 1860, wheat farms had been established from Encounter Bay in the south to Clare in the north. George Gawler took over from Hindmarsh in late 1838 and, despite being under orders from the Select Committee on South Australia in Britain not to undertake any public works, promptly oversaw construction of a governo
Rostock is a city in the north German state Mecklenburg-Vorpommern. Rostock is on the Warnow river. Rostock is the largest city in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, as well as its only regiopolis. Rostock is home to one of the oldest universities in the world, the University of Rostock, founded in 1419; the city territory of Rostock stretches for about 20 km along the Warnow to the Baltic Sea. The largest built-up area of Rostock is on the western side of the river; the eastern part of its territory is dominated by the forested Rostock Heath. In the 11th century Polabian Slavs founded; the Danish king Valdemar I set the town on fire in 1161. Afterwards the place was settled by German traders. There were three separate cities: Altstadt around the Alter Markt, which had St. Petri, Mittelstadt around the Neuer Markt, with St. Marien and Neustadt around the Hopfenmarkt, with St. Jakobi. In 1218, Rostock was granted Lübeck law city rights by prince of Mecklenburg. During the first partition of Mecklenburg following the death of Henry Borwin II of Mecklenburg in 1226, Rostock became the seat of the Lordship of Rostock, which survived for a century.
In 1251, the city became a member of the Hanseatic League. In the 14th century it was a powerful seaport town with 12,000 inhabitants and the largest city in Mecklenburg. Ships for cruising the Baltic Sea were constructed in Rostock; the independent fishing village of Warnemünde at the Baltic Sea became a part of Rostock in 1323, to secure the city's access to the sea. In 1419, the University of Rostock was founded, the oldest university in continental northern Europe and the Baltic Sea area. At the end of the 15th century, the dukes of Mecklenburg succeeded in enforcing their rule over the town of Rostock, which had until been only nominally subject to their rule and independent, they took advantage of a riot known as a failed uprising of the impoverished population. Subsequent quarrels with the dukes and persistent plundering led to a loss of the city's economic and political power. In 1565 there were further clashes with Schwerin. Among other things, the nobility introduced a beer excise. John Albert I advanced on the city with 500 horsemen, after Rostock had refused to take the formal oath of allegiance, had the city wall razed in order to have a fortress built.
The conflict did not end until the first Rostock Inheritance Agreement of 21 September 1573, in which the state princes were guaranteed hereditary rule over the city for centuries and recognizing them as the supreme judicial authority. The citizens razed the fortress the following spring. From 1575 to 1577 the city walls were rebuilt, as was the Lagebusch tower and the Stein Gate, in the Dutch Renaissance style; the inscription sit intra te concordia et publica felicitas, can still be read on the gate, refers directly to the conflict with the Duke. In 1584 the Second Rostock Inheritance Agreement was enforced, which resulted in a further loss of former city tax privileges. At the same time, these inheritance contracts put paid to Rostock's ambition of achieving imperial immediacy, as Lübeck had done in 1226; the strategic location of Rostock provoked the envy of its rivals. Danes and Swedes occupied the city twice, first during the Thirty Years' War and again from 1700 to 1721. In the early 19th century, the French, under Napoleon, occupied the town for about a decade until 1813.
In nearby Lübeck-Ratekau, Gebhard Leberecht von Blücher, born in Rostock and, one of few generals to fight on after defeat at the Battle of Jena, surrendered to the French in 1806. This was only after furious street fighting in the Battle of Lübeck, in which he led some of the cavalry charges himself. By the time of the surrender, the exhausted Prussians had neither ammunition. In the first half of the 19th century, Rostock regained much of its economic importance, due at first to the wheat trade from the 1850s, to industry its shipyards; the first propeller-driven steamers in Germany were constructed here. The city grew in area and population, with new quarters developing in the south and west of the ancient borders of the city. Two notable developments were added to house the increasing population at around 1900: Steintor-Vorstadt in the south, stretching from the old city wall to the facilities of the new Lloydbahnhof, was designed as a living quarter, it consisted of large single houses, once inhabited by wealthy citizens.
Kröpeliner-Tor-Vorstadt in the west, was designed to house the working population as well as to provide smaller and larger industrial facilities, such as the Mahn & Ohlerich's Brewery. The main shipyard, was nearby at the shore of the river. In the 20th century, important aircraft manufacturing facilities were situated in the city, such as the Arado Flugzeugwerke in Warnemünde and the Heinkel Works with facilities at various places, including their secondary Heinkel-Süd facility in Schwechat, Austria, as the original Heinkel firm's Rostock facilities had been renamed Heinkel-
Duke of Newcastle
Duke of Newcastle upon Tyne is a title, created three times. The related title Duke of Newcastle-under-Lyme has been created once to provide a more remote special remainder; the title first was conferred in 1665. He was a prominent Royalist commander in the Civil War, he had been elevated as Viscount Mansfield in 1620, Baron Cavendish of Bolsover and Earl of Newcastle upon Tyne in 1621 and Marquess of the latter in 1643, was created Earl of Ogle as main subsidiary title to the dukedom to be used as a courtesy style for his heir presumptive. The titles became extinct in 1988, a year that saw the deaths of the distantly related ninth and tenth Dukes of Newcastle under Lyme. Family backgroundCavendish was the son of Sir Charles Cavendish, third son of Sir William Cavendish and his wife Bess of Hardwick. William Cavendish, 1st Earl of Devonshire, was his uncle. Sir Charles Cavendish married as his second wife Catherine Ogle, 8th Baroness Ogle, daughter of Cuthbert Ogle, 7th Baron. Details of first creationIn 1629 their namesake succeeded as ninth Baron Ogle.
He was succeeded by his son, the second Duke a politician. His only son and heir apparent Henry Cavendish, Earl of Ogle, predeceased him. On the latter's death in 1691 all the titles became extinct, except the barony of Ogle which fell into abeyance between his four daughters. Details of second creationOne of these daughters, Lady Margaret, married John Holles, 4th Earl of Clare. In 1694 the dukedom was revived when he was created Marquess of Clare and Duke of Newcastle upon Tyne; the Holles family descended from John Holles, created Baron Haughton, of Haughton in Nottinghamshire, in 1616, Earl of Clare in 1624. His second son was a politician Denzil Holles, 1st Baron Holles. Lord Clare was succeeded by the second Earl, he served as Lord Lieutenant. His son, the third Earl, was MP for Nottinghamshire in 1660, he was succeeded by his son, the aforementioned fourth Earl, raised to Duke in 1694. Third creation and Newcastle-under-Lyne additional title with special remainder The Duke's sister, Lady Grace Holles, married Thomas Pelham, 1st Baron Pelham.
On his uncle's death in 1711 their eldest son succeeded to the substantial Holles estates and assumed by Royal Licence the additional surname and arms of Holles. In 1714 the earldom of Clare was revived when he was created Viscount Haughton, Earl of Clare, with remainder to his younger brother Henry Pelham, the following year the dukedom was revived when he was made Marquess of Clare and Duke of Newcastle upon Tyne, with like special remainder; these titles were in the Peerage of Great Britain. In 1756 when his brother died without male issue and it was evident that the Duke would have no children the Duke of Newcastle-upon-Tyne was additionally created Duke of Newcastle-under-Lyne in Staffordshire with a different special remainder: to his nephew-by-marriage Henry Clinton, 9th Earl of Lincoln who took on the additional surname Pelham. For history of this title from the 1768 inheritance upon the 1st Duke's death, see Earl of Lincoln, his other titles became extinct except for the Pelham baronetcy and the barony of Pelham, which devolved to his first cousin once-removed, Thomas Pelham.
Extensive personal and estate papers of the Dukes are held in the Portland and Newcastle collections at the University of Nottingham's Department of Manuscripts and Special Collections. Also Marquess of Newcastle upon Tyne, Earl of Newcastle upon Tyne, Viscount Mansfield and Baron Ogle William Cavendish, 1st Duke of Newcastle was a Cavalier commander in the English Civil War Henry Cavendish, 2nd Duke of Newcastle, only surviving son of the 1st Duke, died without surviving male issue Baron Haughton John Holles, 1st Earl of Clare was Comptroller of the Household to Henry Frederick, Prince of Wales John Holles, 2nd Earl of Clare, eldest son of the 1st Earl Gilbert Holles, 3rd Earl of Clare, second son of the 2nd Earl John Holles, 4th Earl of Clare, eldest son of the 3rd Earl, was created Duke in 1694 married Lady Margaret Cavendish, daughter of Henry Cavendish, 2nd Duke of the first creation Earl of Clare and Baron Haughton John Holles, 1st Duke of Newcastle died without male issue, his titles became extinct Earl of Clare, Baron Pelham of Laughton, Baron Pelham of Stanmer and Pelham Baronet, of Laughton Thomas Pelham-Holles, 1st Duke of Newcastle, Prime Minister twice, a nephew of John Holles, 1st Duke of the second creation, died without male issue.
At this point his father's baronetcy and barony of 1706, his own earldom and dukedom of 1715 became extinct. 1st Duke: Duke of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, Earl of Clare, Baron Pelham of Laughton, Baron Pelham of Stanmer and Pelham Baronet, of Laughton Thomas Pelham-Holles, 1st Duke of Newcastle-under-Lyme was granted this second Newcastle dukedom, with remainder to his nephew Henry Fiennes Pelham-Clinton, 9th Earl of Lincoln, 2nd Duke of Newcastle-under-Lyme, nephew of the 1st Duke Geo
Charles La Trobe
Charles Joseph La Trobe, CB was appointed in 1839 superintendent of the Port Phillip District of New South Wales and, after the establishment in 1851 of the colony of Victoria, he became its first lieutenant-governor. La Trobe was a strong supporter of religious and educational institutions. During his time as superintendent and lieutenant-governor he oversaw the establishment of the Botanical Gardens, provided leadership and support to the formation of entities such as the Mechanic's Institute, the Royal Melbourne Hospital, the Royal Philharmonic, the Melbourne Cricket Ground and the University of Melbourne. La Trobe was the nephew of British architect Benjamin Henry Latrobe. Charles La Trobe was born in London, the son of Christian Ignatius Latrobe, a leader of the Moravian Church, from a family of French Huguenot descent, whose mother was a member of the Moravian Church born in the United States, he was educated in England and spent time in Switzerland and was active in mountaineering. La Trobe wrote several travel books describing his experiences: The Alpenstock: Or Sketches of Swiss Scenery and Manners and The Pedestrian: A Summer's Ramble in the Tyrol.
In 1832 he visited the United States along with Count Albert Pourtales, in 1834 travelled from New Orleans to Mexico with Washington Irving. He wrote The Rambler in North America and The Rambler in Mexico. On 16 September 1835 he married Sophie de Montmollin in Switzerland, their first child, Agnes Louisa de La Trobe, was born on 2 April 1837 in Switzerland. In 1837 La Trobe was entrusted with a government commission in the West Indies and reported on the future education of the emancipated slaves. On the 4th of February 1839 he was appointed superintendent of the Port Phillip District of New South Wales though he had little managerial and administrative experience. La Trobe sailed into Sydney on 26 July 1839, with his wife and 2-year-old daughter, for training on procedures; the La Trobes went on to Melbourne on 1 October. La Trobe bought 12½ acres of land on the fringe of the city, now called Jolimont, at auction at the upset price of £20 an acre. Governor Gipps was disturbed. La Trobe, convinced him that he had acted innocently.
On the land he erected his home, preserved and is called LaTrobe's Cottage, which he had transported in sections from London. Melbourne had a population of around 3,000 at the time and was expanding. La Trobe commenced works to improve sanitation and streets; as Port Phillip District was a dependency of New South Wales at the time, all land sales, building plans and officer appointments had to be approved by Governor of New South Wales George Gipps, with whom La Trobe had a good personal and working relationship. A Separation Association had been formed in 1840 wanting Port Phillip District to become a separate colony. In 1841 La Trobe wrote to Gipps, asking him to visit Melbourne to form his own opinion on the separation question. La Trobe did not campaign for separation, content that Earl Grey had included separation in the reorganisation plan for the colonies. La Trobe acted as lieutenant-governor of Van Diemen's Land for four months in 1846-47. By 1851, Port Phillip district had gained separation from New South Wales, becoming the colony of Victoria, La Trobe was lieutenant-governor for three years - a position he held until 1854.
Soon after separation gold was discovered at several locations in Victoria and La Trobe had to deal with the mass exodus of the population of Melbourne to the gold fields. He was referred to as "Charley Joe", by extension, any government officials or policemen were called "joes". La Trobe, who had suffered self-doubt and criticisms due to his inexperience, had submitted his resignation in December 1852 but had to wait until a replacement, Charles Hotham, could take his place. Towards the end of his governorship, La Trobe's wife Sophie became ill and returned to Europe with their four children. Sophia died on 30 January 1854. On his return to Europe after his term, La Trobe in 1855 married Sophie's sister, Rose Isabelle de Meuron, a marriage, illegal in English law as incestuous at the time; the couple had two daughters in Switzerland and moved to England in 1861. He did not get any further British government appointments, his eyesight was deteriorating, he was blind for the last years of his life.
He died in 1875. La Trobe is linked to the discovery of a minor piece of evidence suggesting early European exploration of Australia. In 1847, at Limeburners' Point near Geelong, Charles La Trobe, a keen amateur geologist, was examining the shells from a lime kiln when a worker showed him a set of five keys that he claimed to have found, subsequently named the Geelong Keys. La Trobe concluded that, based on their appearance, the keys were dropped onto the beach around 100 to 150 years beforehand. In 1977, Kenneth McIntyre hypothesized they were dropped by Portuguese sailors under the command of Cristóvão de Mendonça. Since the keys have long been lost their exact origin cannot be verified. However, research by Geologists Edmund Gill and P. F. B. Alsop showed the deposit they were found in was 2330–2800 years old, making La Trobe's dating impossible. Much of Melbourne's substantial inner-ring parks and gardens can be attributed to La Trobe's foresight in reserving this land. Melbourne and Victoria are dotted with things named in honour of La Trobe
Royal Botanic Gardens Victoria
Royal Botanic Gardens Victoria are botanic gardens across two sites - Melbourne and Cranbourne. Melbourne Gardens was founded in 1846 when land was reserved on the south side of the Yarra River for a new botanic garden, it extends across 36 hectares that slope to the river with trees, garden beds and lawns. It displays 50,000 individual plants representing 8,500 different species; these are displayed in 30 living plant collections. Cranbourne Gardens was established in 1970 when land was acquired by the Gardens on Melbourne’s south-eastern urban fringe for the purpose of establishing a garden dedicated to Australian plants. A wild site, significant for biodiversity conservation, it opened to the public in 1989. Royal Botanic Gardens Victoria is home to the State Botanical Collection, housed in the National Herbarium of Victoria, including 1.5 million preserved plants and fungi, Australia’s most comprehensive botanical library. The gardens are governed under the Royal Botanic Gardens Act 1991 by the Royal Botanic Gardens Board, who are responsible to the Minister for Environment.
In 1846 Charles La Trobe selected the site for the Royal Botanic Gardens from swamp. In 1857 the first director was Ferdinand von Mueller, who created the National Herbarium of Victoria and brought in many plants. In 1873 William Guilfoyle became Director and changed the style of the Gardens to something more like the picturesque gardens that were around at that time, he added temperate plants. In 1877 Sir Edmund Barton, Australia's first Prime Minister and Jane Ross were married at the Royal Botanic Gardens. In 1924 a shooting massacre occurred at the Gardens resulting in the death of four people. In June 2015 the Gardens brought together the elements of the organisation under the name Royal Botanic Gardens Victoria, incorporating Melbourne Gardens, Cranbourne Gardens, the National Herbarium of Victoria and the Australian Research Centre for Urban Ecology Living collections at the Botanic Gardens include Australian Forest Walk, California Garden and Succulents, Camellia Collection, Cycad Collection, Fern Gully, Grey Garden, Herb Garden, Long Island, New Caledonia Collection, New Zealand Collection, Oak Lawn, Perennial Border, Southern China Collection, Tropical Display-Glasshouse, Viburnum Collection and Water Conservation Garden.
The gardens include a mixture of native and non-native vegetation which invariably hosts a diverse range of both native and non-native fauna. The gardens host over 10,000 floral species, the majority being non-native species; the gardens were the origin from which many introduced species spread throughout south-eastern Australia as seeds were traded between early European botanists in the mid-19th century, studying the Australian flora. From the gardens establishment in 1846, much of the native vegetation was removed as botanists such as Baron Von Mueller planted a range of species from around the world. While much of the native wetlands and swamplands in the gardens were left, around the turn of the 20th century these were re-landscaped to create the Ornamental Lake. Despite this however, there are some large eucalypts remaining including the prominent Separation Tree, a 300-year-old River Red Gum, under which Victoria was declared a separate colony. In August 2010 the Separation Tree was attacked by vandals and attacked again in 2013, by 2015 it was dead and removal of the canopy and branches commenced.
The Royal Botanic Gardens, Cranbourne focus on Australian native plants. The Royal Botanic Gardens Melbourne were intended to be a horticultural exhibition for the public to enjoy, many seeds were traded between early European botanists such as Arthur and Von Mueller, who planted non-native species; the Queen and her grandfather, Dame Nellie Melba and Paderewski contributed plantings on occasions throughout the gardens history. Since its earliest days, the Royal Botanic Gardens is involved in plant identification; this is done through the National Herbarium of Victoria, based at the Gardens. The Herbarium is home to the State Botanical Collection, which includes over 1.2 million dried plant specimens, an extensive collection of books and artworks. Research findings are published in the journal Mulleria, a scientific representation of the work done in the Gardens in any one year. More the Australian Research Centre for Urban Ecology has been established to look at plants which grow in urban environments specifically.
The 5,000 square metre Ian Potter Foundation Children's Garden is designed as a discovery area for children of all ages and abilities. The Ian Potter Children's Garden is based off the main site; this area is closed for two months of the year from the end of the Victorian July school holidays for rest and maintenance. RBG website
Mount Buffalo National Park
The Mount Buffalo National Park is a national park located in the alpine region of Victoria, Australia. The 31,000-hectare national park is located 350 kilometres northeast of Melbourne in the Australian Alps. Within the national park is Mount Buffalo, a moderately tall mountain plateau, with an elevation of 1,723 metres above sea level. On 4 November 1898 an area of 1,166 hectares was reserved around the plateau and Eurobin Falls as Mount Buffalo National Park, making it one of the oldest national parks in Australia. In 1908 a road was opened to the plateau and the park was expanded to 10,406 hectares. On 7 November 2008, the park was added to the Australian National Heritage List as one of eleven areas constituting the Australian Alps National Parks and Reserves. Mount Buffalo is a moderately tall mountain plateau on the west side of the Victorian Alpine region; the top of the mountain has striking granite boulders and rock formations. From the north, the mountain is quite remarkable, with the highest accessible point being a prominent peak called The Horn.
A walking track leads to The Horn and visitors can enjoy a 360 degree view from the top. Visitor accommodation was available at the historic guest house, the Mount Buffalo Chalet, built in 1910, until January 2007. Parks Victoria and the Victorian Government undertook restoration work on the exterior and gardens of the Chalet in 2017 and 2018; the chalet overlooks large sheets of granite and has views of the Ovens Valley and Buckland Valley below. Tatra Inn, a lodge located at the west end of the plateau near the Cathedral, was destroyed in 2006 by an escaped fuel reduction burn; this is a rock climbing and hang-gliding site, there is adventure caving at Mount Buffalo. The camping ground at Lake Catani is open from November to April. During the winter season, Mount Buffalo is a destination for cross-country skiing. There are a number of cross-country ski trails near the Cathedral, toboggan runs at Dingo Dell and Cresta Valley, both of which are used by beginners. Cross-country lessons and many cross-country trails for more experienced skiers are available.
Visitors stay in the nearby towns of Bright. Mitambuta and Taugaurong Aboriginal people climbed Mount buffalo in summer to feast on protein-rich bogong moths, to meet and hold ceremonies. Explorers Hume and Hovell named the mountain in 1824 because of its supposed resemblance to a reclining buffalo. Gold miners and botanists visited the area. With the beginning of tourism in the 1880s, an area around the Gorge was reserved as a national park in 1898; the park has been enlarged several times since and now takes in all the plateau and surrounding slopes. The Mount Buffalo Chalet was built in 1910, soon after the first road to the plateau was constructed, replacing some earlier more "rustic" accommodation; the park became a holiday destination for succeeding generations and a place for early skiing and ice skating ventures. Mount Buffalo had the first ski tow in Australia; when the Mount Buffalo Chalet was run by the Victorian Railways the restaurant was known as an official "Railways Refreshment Room".
Staff blew whistles and imposed curfews for guests. Railway tickets were issued for equipment and activities such as "Motor to Wangaratta" and "Skis, steel edged with cane stocks and boots 2nd Grade 8/6-". Due to the range in altitude in the park, there are a variety of fauna habitats; the foothill forests contain kangaroos and several species of possums and sugar gliders. Smaller mammals such as native rats and mice inhabit the plateau. Wombats occur in all habitats; the alpine silver xenica is a species of butterfly found only on the plateau of Mount buffalo. Bogong moths shelter in rock crevices at the horn and it is common to see birds darting in and out of the cracks to feed on them during the day and bats doing the same at night. Peregrine falcons sometimes nest in the granite rock faces. Crimson rosellas are abundant throughout the park. Over 550 native species occur; the lower slopes have communities of mixed peppermint, including the bogong gum. These grade into pure stands of alpine ash around 1100 metres elevation, subalpine woodland of snow gum, above 1300 metres.
The majority of the plateau is at an elevation of 1500 metres, where inverted treelines in valley bottoms give rise to grasslands, with bog and fen communities of Sphagnum and Empodisma in watercourses. The endemic eucalypt Eucalyptus mitchelliana, the Buffalo sallee, is found on higher granite outcrops. Other endemic plants are Grevillea alpivaga, Acacia phlebophylla, Babingtonia crenulata; the rare Pratia gelida, snow pratia, occurs in a small area on Hospice Plain. Grazing was excluded from the park in 1957, one of the earliest exclusions of this activity in any alpine park. Weed species Himalayan honeysuckle and blackberries, pose a continuing management challenge. Mount Buffalo National Park is home to an enormous diversity of fungi. Fungi are ecologically important and megadiverse, yet their significance in underpinning the terrestrial ecology of the park is little recognised; the park contains a great variety of lichens, many of which are important pioneer species, some of which are restricted to alpine habitats.
Although the Management Plan for Mount Buffalo National Park makes no reference to fungi, the park h