Russian Geographical Society
The Russian Geographical Society is a learned society based in Saint Petersburg, Russia. It promotes exploration and geography with research programs in fields including oceanography and ethnography; the society was founded on 6 August 1845 in Russia. Prior to the Russian Revolution of 1917, it was known as the Imperial Russian Geographical Society; the founding members of the Imperial Russian Geographical Society included: Konstantin Arseniev Friedrich von Berg Karl Ernst von Baer Ferdinand von Wrangel Platon Chikhachov Vladimir Dal Gregor von Helmersen William Herbert Hobbs Peter von Köppen Adam Johann von Krusenstern Alexey Levshin Fyodor Litke Mikhail Muravyov-Vilensky Vladimir Odoyevsky Vasily Alekseevich Perovsky Pyotr Ivanovich Ricord Mikhail Vronchenko Friedrich Georg Wilhelm von StruveThe Society's official presidents were Grand Duke Konstantin Nikolayevich of Russia in 1845-92 and Grand Duke Nicholas Mikhailovich of Russia in 1892-1917, but it was run by the Vice-Presidents: Fyodor Litke, Count Mikhail Muravyov, Pyotr Semyonov-Tyan-Shansky, Yuly Shokalsky.
The filial societies were established at the Caucasus, Vilnius, Kiev and other cities. The Society organized and funded the expeditions of Richard Maack, Pyotr Kropotkin, Semyonov-Tyan-Shansky, Nikolai Przhevalsky, Nikolai Miklukho-Maklai, Pyotr Kozlov, Vladimir Obruchev, Lev Berg, it helped set up the first polar stations in Russia and was one of the first to publish detailed studies of the Russian folklore and Ukrainian fairs. The Society pioneered the systematic exploration of the Northern Urals in 1847-50, of the farthest reaches of the Amur River in 1854-63, of the vast areas of Kashgaria and Mongolia from the 1870s onward. By 1917 the RGO was composed of 1,000 members; the Constantine Medal was a gold medal worth 200 silver roubles and was the highest award of the Imperial Russian Geographical Society. It was established and named after the Society’s first chairman, Great Duke Constantine and was awarded from 1849 to 1929 to explorers who had made a significant geographical discovery or to authors of outstanding publications in geography, ethnography or Russian statistics.
From 1924 to 1929 the Medal was referred to as “The highest award of the Russian Geographical Society”. Recipients of the medal included: 1849 Ernst Reinhold Hofmann, for his excellent work during the first expedition of the Russian Geographical Society to the Northern Urals 1858 Ivan Aksakov, for his research into trade fairs in Ukraine 1859 Ludwig Schwarz 1863 Vladimir Dahl, for the Explanatory Dictionary of the Russian Language 1864 Ivashintsov Nikolay Alekseevich, for his long-term efforts to research the Caspian Sea 1874 Nikolay Przhevalsky, for his pre-eminent scientific research, geographical discoveries and travels to Mongolia and the Tangut land 1878 Adolf Erik Nordensheld, for his voyage and research in the Arctic Ocean along the northern coast of Western and Eastern Siberia 1898 Dr Gustav Radde 1900 Vladimir Obruchev, for his publications on Asian geology 1902 Pyotr Kozlov, for the 1899-1901 expedition to Tibet 1905 Alexander Kolchak, for participation in Baron E. Toll’s expedition, for the journey to Bennett Island in particular 1905 Friedrich Schmidt 1907 Grigoriy Grum-Grzhimailo, for all his works in Asian geography and for his “Description of a journey in Western China.
Volume III” 1907 Fridtjof Nansen, for his remarkable feats, which constitute a whole era in the Arctic Ocean exploration 1914 Boris Vilkitsky, for hydrographic expeditions in the Arctic Sea. The Society changed its name to the State Geographical Society in 1926 and to the Geographical Society of the USSR in 1938. After Shokalsky its presidents were geneticist Nikolai Vavilov, zoologist Lev Berg, parasitologist Evgeny Pavlovsky, glaciologist Stanislav Kalesnik, polar explorer Aleksei Treshnikov; the Society has convened numerous congresses and has awarded four types of medals, Big Gold Medal and three, named after Litke, Semyonov and Semen Dezhnev prize. By 1970, it had published more than 2,000 volumes of geographical literature, including the annual Zapiski and Izvestiya; the society reverted to its original name upon the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991. The main offices of the Society are in St. Petersburg. In September 2010, Albert II, Prince of Monaco was made an honorary member of the Society.
Since 2002 the society has sponsored an annual seasonal ice base in Camp Barneo. The Imperial Society comprised four departments: Nikolai Nadezhdin was involved in the foundation of this department, when the RGO was set up. During the 1850s and 1860s the ethnographic division gathered and published material such as works of folklore and the byt or "way of life" which they regarded as reflecting the "essence" of the indigenous people of the Russian Empire. In 1909 Dmitry Nikolayevich Anuchin, Vladimir Bogdanov and Vsevolod Miller convened the ethnographic sub-section of the Twelfth Congress of Russian Natural Scientists and Physicians held in Moscow. Here they pushed for more professionalism to distinguish ethnographers from missionaries and amateurs. In 1917 David Zolotarev and Nikolai Mogilyansky of the RGO participated in the Commission for the Study of the Tribal Composition of the Population of the Borderlands of Russia. Pyotr Semyonov-Tyan-Shansky. История полувековой деятельности Императорского Русского географического общества.
Volumes 1-3. SPb, 1896. Lev Berg. Всесоюзное Географическое общество за 1
The German Confederation was an association of 39 German-speaking states in Central Europe, created by the Congress of Vienna in 1815 to coordinate the economies of separate German-speaking countries and to replace the former Holy Roman Empire, dissolved in 1806. The German Confederation excluded German-speaking lands in the eastern portion of the Kingdom of Prussia, the German cantons of Switzerland, Alsace within France, majority German speaking; the Confederation was weakened by rivalry between the Kingdom of Prussia and the Austrian Empire and the inability of the multiple members to compromise. In 1848, revolutions by liberals and nationalists attempted to establish a unified German state with a progressive liberal constitution under the Frankfurt Convention; the ruling body, the Confederate Diet, was dissolved on 12 July 1848, but was re-established in 1850 after failed efforts to replace it. The Confederation was dissolved after the Prussian victory in the Seven Weeks' War over Austria in 1866.
The dispute over which had the inherent right to rule German lands ended in favour of Prussia, leading to the creation of the North German Confederation under Prussian leadership in 1867, to which the eastern portions of the Kingdom of Prussia were added. A number of South German states remained independent until they joined the North German Confederation, renamed and proclaimed as the "German Empire" in 1871 for the now unified Germany with the Prussian king as emperor after the victory over French Emperor Napoleon III in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870. Most historians have judged the Confederation to have been weak and ineffective, as well as an obstacle to the creation of a German nation-state. However, the Confederation was designed to be weak, as it served the interests of the European Great Powers member states Austria and Prussia; the War of the Third Coalition lasted from about 1803 to 1806. Following defeat at the Battle of Austerlitz by the French under Napoleon in December 1805, Holy Roman Emperor Francis II abdicated, the Empire was dissolved on 6 August 1806.
The resulting Treaty of Pressburg established the Confederation of the Rhine in July 1806, joining together sixteen of France's allies among the German states. After the Battle of Jena–Auerstedt of October 1806 in the War of the Fourth Coalition, various other German states, including Saxony and Westphalia joined the Confederation. Only Austria, Danish Holstein, Swedish Pomerania, the French-occupied Principality of Erfurt stayed outside the Confederation of the Rhine; the War of the Sixth Coalition from 1812 to winter 1814 saw the defeat of Napoleon and the liberation of Germany. In June 1814, the famous German patriot Heinrich vom Stein created the Central Managing Authority for Germany in Frankfurt to replace the defunct Confederation of the Rhine. However, plenipotentiaries gathered at the Congress of Vienna were determined to create a weaker union of German states than envisaged by Stein; the German Confederation was created by the 9th Act of the Congress of Vienna on 8 June 1815 after being alluded to in Article 6 of the 1814 Treaty of Paris, ending the War of the Sixth Coalition.
The Confederation was formally created by a second treaty, the Final Act of the Ministerial Conference to Complete and Consolidate the Organization of the German Confederation. This treaty was not concluded and signed by the parties until 15 May 1820. States joined the German Confederation by becoming parties to the second treaty; the states designated for inclusion in the Confederation were: Anhalt-Bernburg Anhalt-Dessau Anhalt-Köthen Austrian Empire Baden Bavaria Brunswick Hanover Electorate of Hesse Grand Duchy of Hesse Hohenzollern-Hechingen Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen Holstein and Lauenburg, held by Denmark Holstein-Oldenburg Liechtenstein Lippe-Detmold Luxembourg, held by the Netherlands Mecklenburg-Schwerin Mecklenburg-Strelitz Nassau Prussia Reuss, elder line Reuss, younger line Saxony Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach Saxe-Coburg Saxe-Gotha Saxe-Hildburghausen Saxe-Meiningen Schaumburg-Lippe Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt Schwarzburg-Sondershausen Waldeck Württemberg Hesse-Homburg Lübeck Frankfurt Bremen Hamburg In 1839, as compensation for the loss of the province of Luxemburg to Belgium, the Duchy of Limburg was created and it was a member of the German Confederation until its dissolution in 1866.
The cities of Maastricht and Venlo were not included in the Confederation. The Austrian Empire and the Kingdom of Prussia were the largest and by far the most powerful members of the Confederation. Large parts of both countries were not included in the Confederation, because they had not been part of the former Holy Roman Empire, nor had the greater parts of their armed forces been incorporated in the federal army. Austria and Prussia each had one vote in the Federal Assembly. Six other major states had one vote each in the Federal Ass
Wrangel is a Baltic German noble family, included in Swedish, Russian and Prussian nobility. Its earliest known ancestor is the knight Eilardus. Herman Wrangel, a Swedish Governor-General of Livonia, Field Marshal, Privy Councillor Carl Henrik Wrangel, a Swedish Field Marshal Carl Gustaf Wrangel, a Swedish soldier and Privy Councillor Heinrich Johann Freiherr Wrangell from Addinal, Russian General-Lieutenant Ferdinand von Wrangel, Imperial Russian Navy admiral, Arctic explorer, Governor of Russian Alaska Ferdinand Georg Friedrich von Wrangel Pyotr Nikolayevich Wrangel, a leader of the White Army during the Russian Civil War Alexander von Wrangel, Russian infantry general Alexander Egorovich Wrangell, Russian diplomat Wilhelm Bernhard Friedrich von Wrangel, Imperial Russian Navy admiral Vasily Georgiyevich Wrangel Georg Gustav Ludwig von Wrangel Karl Michael von Wrangel, Baron Russian cavalry general Reinhold Otto Fabian von Wrangel, Russian General of Artillery Karl Karlovich Wrangel, Russian infantry general Hans Georg Hermann von Wrangel Karl Gustav von Wrangel, Russian infantry general.
Georg von Wrangel, Russian senator Baroness Helene Von Wrangel Russian painter Michael von Wrangel, Russian General-Lieutenant, Governor of Livland Vasily Georgiyevich Wrangel, composer Margarethe Mathilde von Wrangell, the first female full professor at a German university Nikolaus von Wrangel, author of memoirs, "From Serfdom to Bolshevism" Herman Wrangel, Swedish Count, Minister for Foreign Affairs Nikolai Nikolayevich Wrangel Hans Olaf von Wrangel, German parliamentarian Friedrich Heinrich Ernst Graf von Wrangel, Prussian Generalfeldmarschall Baensch, Henry von. Geschichte der Familie von Wrangel vom Jahre 1250 bis auf die Gegenwart. Adamant Media Corporation. ISBN 1-4212-4594-9. Retrieved 2008-08-25
The Russian-American Company Under the Supreme Patronage of His Imperial Majesty was a state-sponsored chartered company formed on the basis of the United American Company. The company was chartered by Tsar Paul I in the Ukase of 1799, its mission was to establish new settlements in Russian America, conduct trade with natives, carry out an expanded colonization program. This was Russia's first joint-stock company, it came under the direct authority of the Ministry of Commerce of Imperial Russia; the Minister of Commerce Nikolai Petrovich Rumyantsev was a pivotal influence upon the early Company's affairs. In 1801, the company's headquarters were moved from Irkutsk to Saint Petersburg, the merchants who were the major stockholders were soon replaced by Russia's nobility and aristocracy. Count Rumyantsev funded Russia's first naval circumnavigation under the joint command of Adam Johann von Krusenstern and Nikolai Rezanov in 1803–1806, he funded and directed the voyage of the Ryurik's circumnavigation of 1814–1816, which provided substantial scientific information on Alaska's and California's flora and fauna, important ethnographic information on Alaskan and Californian natives.
During the Russian-California period when they operated Fort Ross, the Russians named present-day Bodega Bay, California as "Rumyantsev Bay" in his honor. In 1799 the Russian government appointed an official, with the title'Correspondent', to maintain oversight of company affairs, the first being Nikolai Rezanov; this role was soon expanded to a three-seat board of directors, with two elected by the stockholders and one appointed by the government. Additionally the directors had to send reports of the company's activities directly to the tsar, they appointed a Chief Manager of the company, stationed in North America to directly administer the forts, trade stations and outposts. Alexander Andreyevich Baranov was appointed as the first Chief Manager. During his tenure, he founded both Pavlovskaya and New Archangel, settlements that became operating bases for the company, he was replaced in 1818 by an officer appointed from the Imperial Russian Navy. The position of Chief Manager was thereafter reserved for Imperial Naval officers.
The Ukase of 1799 granted the company a monopoly over trade in Russian America, defined with a southern border of 55° N latitude. Tsar Alexander I in the Ukase of 1821 asserted its domain to 45°50′ N latitude, revised by 1822 to 51° N latitude; this border was challenged by both Great Britain and the United States, which resulted in the Russo-American Treaty of 1824 and the Russo-British Treaty of 1825. These established 54°40′ as the ostensible southward limit of Russian interests; the only attempt by the Russians to enforce the ukase of 1821 was the seizure of the U. S. brig Pearl in 1822, by the Russian sloop Apollon. The Pearl, a vessel of the maritime fur trade, was sailing from Boston, Massachusetts to New Archangel/Sitka; when the U. S. government protested, the Russians paid compensation. Due to treaty violations in 1833 with the British by the company's governor, Baron Ferdinand von Wrangel, the Russians leased the southeastern sector of what is now the Alaska Panhandle, to the Hudson's Bay Company in 1838 as part of a damages settlement.
The lease gave the HBC authority as far north as 56° 30' N. Under Baranov, who governed the region between 1790 and 1818, a permanent settlement was established in 1804 at "Novo-Arkhangelsk", a thriving maritime trade was organized. Alutiiq and Aleut men from the Kodiak and the Aleutian Islands were forcibly conscripted to work for the company for three-year periods because they were "among the most sophisticated and effective sea otter hunters in the world." During its initial years, the company had problems in maintaining a pool of skilled crewmen for its ships. The limited number of Russian men proficient in naval craft in the Empire sought employment in the Imperial Russian Navy; the RAC had difficulty recruiting men for naval training, in part due to the continued practise of serfdom in the Empire, which kept most peasants tied to the land. In 1802 the Imperial government directed the Imperial Navy to send officers for employment in the RAC, with half of their pay to come from the company.
Russian merchants were excluded from the port of Guangzhou and its valuable markets, something the RAC endeavoured to change. The company funded a circumnavigation that lasted from 1803 to 1806, with the goals of expanding Russian navigational knowledge, supplying the RAC stations, opening commercial relations with the Qing Empire. While the expedition did sell its wares at the Chinese port, "no noticeable progress" towards securing Russian trading rights was made during the next half century. Due to the closed Chinese ports, the RAC had to ship its furs to the Russian port of Okhotsk. From there caravans took more than a year to reach Ayan and the Siberian Route; the majority of the pelts were traded in Kyakhta, where Chinese trade goods, principally cotton and tea, were traded. Fort Elizabeth was built in Hawaii by Georg Anton Schäffer, an agent of the RAC, his actions to attempt to overthrow the Kingdom of Hawaii is known as the Schäffer affair. Over the course of the RAC's first decade of enterprise, its officials became concerned about American ships trading in adjacent coastal regions their sale of firearms to natives.
Throughout 1808 to 1810
Chukchi Sea, sometimes referred to as the Chukotsk Sea or the Sea of Chukotsk, is a marginal sea of the Arctic Ocean. It is bounded on the west by the Long Strait, off Wrangel Island, in the east by Point Barrow, beyond which lies the Beaufort Sea; the Bering Strait forms its southernmost limit and connects it to the Bering Sea and the Pacific Ocean. The principal port on the Chukchi Sea is Uelen in Russia; the International Date Line crosses the Chukchi Sea from northwest to southeast. It is displaced eastwards to avoid Wrangel Island as well as the Chukotka Autonomous Okrug on the Russian mainland; the sea is only navigable about four months of the year. The main geological feature of the Chukchi Sea bottom is the 700-kilometre-long Hope Basin, bound to the northeast by the Herald Arch. Depths less than 50 meters occupy 56% of the total area; the Chukchi Sea has few islands compared to other seas of the Arctic. Wrangel Island lies at the northwestern limit of the sea, Herald Island is located near its northern limit, a few small islands lie along the Siberian and Alaskan coasts.
The sea is named after the Chukchi people, who reside on the Chukotka Peninsula. The coastal Chukchi traditionally engaged in fishing and the hunting of walrus in this cold sea. In Siberia places along the coast are: Cape Billings, Cape Schmidt, Amguyema River, Cape Vankarem, the large Kolyuchinskaya Bay, Neskynpil'gyn Lagoon, Cape Serdtse-Kamen, Chegitun River, Inchoun and Cape Dezhnev. In Alaska, the rivers flowing into the Chukchi Sea are the Kivalina, the Kobuk, the Kokolik, the Kukpowruk, the Kukpuk, the Noatak, the Utukok, the Pitmegea, the Wulik, among others. Of rivers flowing in from its Siberian side, the Amguyema and the Chegitun are the most important; the International Hydrographic Organization defines the limits of the "Chuckchi Sea" as follows: On the West. The Eastern limit of East Siberian Sea. On the North. A line from Point Barrow, Alaska to the Northernmost point of Wrangel Island. On the South; the Arctic Circle between Siberia and Alaska. Common usage is that the southern extent is further south, at the narrowest part of the Bering Strait, on the 66th parallel north.
The Chukchi Sea Shelf is the westernmost part of the continental shelf of the United States and the easternmost part of the continental shelf of Russia. Within this shelf, the 50-mile Chukchi Corridor acts as a passageway for one of the largest marine mammal migrations in the world. Species that have been documented migrating through this corridor include the bowhead whale, beluga whale, Pacific walrus, bearded seals In 1648, Semyon Dezhnyov sailed from the Kolyma River on the Arctic to the Anadyr River on the Pacific, but his route was not practical and was not used for the next 200 years. In 1728, Vitus Bering and in 1779, Captain James Cook entered the sea from the Pacific. On 28 September 1878, during Adolf Erik Nordenskiöld's expedition that made the whole length of the Northeast passage for the first time in history, the steamship Vega got stuck in fast ice in the Chukchi Sea. Since further progress for that year was impossible, the ship was secured in winter quarters. So, members of the expedition and the crew were aware only a few miles of ice-blocked sea lay between them and the open waters.
The following year, two days after Vega was released, she passed the Bering Strait and steamed towards the Pacific Ocean. In 1913, abandoned by expedition leader Vilhjalmur Stefansson, drifted in the ice along the northern expanses of the Chukchi Sea and sank, crushed by ice near Herald Island; the survivors made it to Wrangel Island. Captain Robert Bartlett walked hundreds of kilometers with Kataktovik, an Inuit man, on the ice of the Chukchi Sea in order to look for help, they reached Cape Vankarem on the Chukotka coast, on April 15, 1914. Twelve survivors of the ill-fated expedition were found on Wrangel island nine months by the King & Winge, a newly built Arctic fishing schooner. In 1933, the steamer Chelyuskin sailed from Murmansk, east bound to attempt a transit of the Northern Sea Route to the Pacific, in order to demonstrate such a transit could be achieved in one season; the vessel became beset in heavy ice in the Chukchi Sea, after drifting with the ice for over two months, was crushed and sank on 13 February 1934 near Kolyuchin Island.
Apart from one fatality, her entire complement of 104 was able to establish a camp on the sea ice. The Soviet government organised an impressive aerial evacuation. Captain Vladimir Voronin and expedition leader Otto Schmidt became heroes. Following several unsuccessful attempts, the wreck was located on the bed of the Chukchi Sea by a Russian expedition, Chelyuskin-70, in mid-September 2006. Two small components of the ship's superstructure were recovered by divers and were sent to the ship's builders, Burmeister & Wain of Copenhagen, for identification. In July 2009, a large mass of organic material was found floating in the sea off the northwest Alaskan coast. Analysis by the U. S. Coast Guard has identified it as a large body of algal bloom. On 15 October 2010, Russian scientists opened a floating polar research station in the Chukchi Sea at the margin of the Arctic Ocean; the name of the station was Severny Polyus-38 and it was home to 15 researchers for a year. They conducted polar studies and gat
The Yakuts or the Sakha are a Turkic ethnic group who live in the Republic of Sakha in the Russian Federation, with some extending to the Amur, Sakhalin regions, the Taymyr and Evenk Autonomous Districts. The Yakut language belongs to the Siberian branch of the Turkic languages; the Yakuts engage in animal husbandry focusing on cattle. The ancestors of Yakuts were Kurykans who migrated from Yenisey river to Lake Baikal and were subject to a certain Mongolian admixture prior to migration in the 7th century; the Yakuts lived around Olkhon and the region of Lake Baikal. Beginning in the 13th century they migrated to the basins of the Middle Lena, the Aldan and Vilyuy rivers under the pressure of the rising Mongols; the northern Yakuts were hunters and reindeer herders, while the southern Yakuts raised cattle and horses. In the 1620s the Tsardom of Muscovy began to move into their territory and annexed or settled down on it, imposed a fur tax and managed to suppress several Yakut rebellions between 1634 and 1642.
The tsarist brutality in collection of the pelt tax sparked a rebellion and aggression among the Yakuts and Tungusic-speaking tribes along the River Lena in 1642. The voivode Peter Golovin, leader of the tsarist forces, responded with a reign of terror: native settlements were torched and hundreds of people were killed; the Yakut population alone is estimated to have fallen by 70 percent between 1642 and 1682 because of the Muscovite expeditions. In the 18th century the Russians reduced the pressure, gave Yakut chiefs some privileges, granted freedom for all habitats, gave them all their lands, sent Eastern Orthodox missions, educated the Yakut people regarding agriculture; the discovery of gold and the building of the Trans-Siberian Railway, brought ever-increasing numbers of Russians into the region. By the 1820s all the Yakuts claimed to have converted to the Russian Orthodox church, but they retained a number of shamanist practices. Yakut literature began to rise in the late 19th century, a national revival occurred in the early 20th century.
In 1922, the new Soviet government named the area the Yakut Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic. The last conflict of the Russian Civil War, known as the Yakut Revolt, occurred here when Cornet Mikhail Korobeinikov, a White Russian officer, led an uprising and a last stand against the Red Army. In the late 1920s through the late 1930s, Yakut people were systematically persecuted, when Joseph Stalin launched his collectivization campaign. It's possible that hunger and malnutrition during this period resulted in a decline in the Yakut total population from 240,500 in 1926 to 236,700 in 1959. By 1972, the population began to recover; the majority of Yakut males belong to Haplogroup N3a. Yakuts form a large plurality of the total population within the vast Sakha Republic. According to the 2010 Russian census, there were a total of 466,492 Yakuts residing in the Sakha Republic during that year, or 49.9% of the total population of the Republic. According to the 2010 census, some 87% of the Yakuts in the Sakha Republic are fluent in the Yakut language, while 90% are fluent in Russian.
The Sakha/Yakut language belongs to the North Siberian of the Siberian Turkic languages. It is most related to the Dolgan language, to a lesser extent related to Tuvan and Shor; the cuisine of Sakha prominently features the traditional drink kumis, dairy products of cow and reindeer milk, sliced frozen salted fish stroganina, loaf meat dishes, frozen fish, thick pancakes, salamat — a millet porridge with butter and horse fat. Kuerchekh or kierchekh, a popular dessert, is made of cow cream with various berries. Indigirka is a traditional fish salad; this cuisine is only used in Yakutia. Aisyt, the name of the mythic mother goddess of the Sakha people Music in the Sakha Republic Yakutian cattle Yakutian horse Yakutian knife Conolly, Violet. "The Yakuts," Problems of Communism, vol. 16, no. 5, pp. 81–91. Sakha Yakut Republic Regional Investment and Business Guide. International Business Publications, 2001. Recipes for traditional Yakut cuisine Yakut language site with lyrics, mp3 and video Yakut newspaper site A good brief description of Yakut Society Russian translations of Yakut texts A multi-language dictionary: Yakut – Classical Mongolian – Khalkha – Russian – German – English Historical and administrative background Korolenko, Vladimir Galaktionovich "Sibirskie rasskazy i ocherki" Hudozhestvennaya literatura, Moscow in Russian Ethnic groups -Yakuts North-Eastern Federal University in Yakutsk Yakut People and Their Culture Trannie Mystics Yakut History of America