SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Euboean League

The Euboean League was a federal league of the cities of Euboea in ancient Greece, extant from the 3rd century BC to the 2nd or 3rd century AD. The League is first attested during the reign of Demetrios Poliorketes, but is not mentioned again until from 194 BC on. Based on its coinage, it survived until well into the Roman Empire as late as the provincial reorganization under Diocletian, it was a full federation of city-states, with its own boule and ecclesia, federal laws, common coinage, the right to grant proxenia. The League was headed by an official called hegemon. Schwahn, Walther. "Sympoliteia". Realencyclopädie der Classischen Altertumswissenschaft. Band IV, Halbband 7, Stoa-Symposion. Col. 1171–1266. Wallace, W. P.. The Euboian League and its Coinage. Numismatic Notes and Monographs, No. 134. New York: American Numismatic Society

Waverley (passenger train)

The Waverley called the Thames Forth Express, is the name of an express passenger train which operated on the Midland Main Line from London St Pancras to Edinburgh Waverley and which ceased in 1968. The original name was given to the morning departure from London by the London Midland & Scottish Railway in September 1927, its sister train to Glasgow, which departed an hour was named the Thames–Clyde Express. The Waverley travelled by the scenic Settle–Carlisle route, but could not compete on speed to Scotland with the trains travelling on the East Coast Main Line via York, its route was longer and steeper, Midland expresses could not ignore major population centres en route. As a result, after the 1920s few passengers travelled the full length of the route; the Thames–Forth lost its title at the outbreak of World War II in common with all named trains in the UK. It was not restored—this time as The Waverley—until June 1957; however the effect of regional division, mining subsidence along part of the route, underpowered locomotives meant that its performance was inferior in time to that achieved in 1939.

In 1962, the train left London at 09:15. It used what is now a freight, Leicester avoiding route and stopped first at Nottingham Midland at 11:13. After calling at Chesterfield it reached Sheffield Midland at 12:18 and Leeds City 13:26—so a journey of 39 miles took over an hour as a result of subsidence-induced speed restrictions. Came stops at Skipton, Hellifield and Appleby West before Carlisle was reached at 15:31. Five more stops in the border country were made at Newcastleton, Hawick, St Boswells and Galashiels before final arrival at Edinburgh Waverley at 18:34; this was a journey of nine hours 15 minutes—the Flying Scotsman left London at 10:00 and took only six hours. However the Waverley provided a useful service from the East Midlands and Yorkshire to Edinburgh, provided a direct London service to the small towns on the Settle-Carlisle route, in the Scottish borders between Carlisle and Edinburgh. However, by this time the train had acquired a bad reputation for slowness and unpunctuality The Waverley ceased to run during the winter after 1964, but continued to operate during the summer until September 1968