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Fermi paradox

The Fermi paradox, named after Italian-American physicist Enrico Fermi, is the apparent contradiction between the lack of evidence for extraterrestrial civilizations and various high estimates for their probability. Michael H. Hart formalized the basic points of the argument in a 1975 paper, they include the following: There are billions of stars in the Milky Way similar to the Sun. With high probability, some of these stars have Earth-like planets, if the Earth is typical, some may have developed intelligent life; some of these civilizations may have developed interstellar travel, a step the Earth is investigating now. At the slow pace of envisioned interstellar travel, the Milky Way galaxy could be traversed in a few million years, and since many of the stars similar to the Sun are billions of years older, this would seem to provide plenty of time. According to this line of reasoning, the Earth should have been visited by an extraterrestrial civilization, or at least their probes. Although he was not the first to consider this question, Fermi's name is associated with the paradox because of a casual conversation in the summer of 1950 with fellow physicists Edward Teller, Herbert York and Emil Konopinski.

While walking to lunch, the men discussed recent UFO reports and the possibility of faster-than-light travel. The conversation moved on to other topics, until during lunch Fermi said "But where is everybody?". There have been many attempts to explain the Fermi paradox suggesting that intelligent extraterrestrial beings are rare, that the lifetime of such civilizations is short, or that they exist but we see no evidence. Fermi was not the first to ask the question. An earlier implicit mention was by Konstantin Tsiolkovsky in an unpublished manuscript from 1933, he noted "people deny the presence of intelligent beings on the planets of the universe" because " if such beings exist they would have visited Earth, if such civilizations existed they would have given us some sign of their existence." This was not a paradox for others. But it was one for him, since he believed in extraterrestrial life and the possibility of space travel. Therefore, he proposed what is now known as the zoo hypothesis and speculated that mankind is not yet ready for higher beings to contact us.

That Tsiolkovsky himself may not have been the first to discover the paradox is suggested by his above-mentioned reference to other people's reasons for denying the existence of extraterrestrial civilizations. In 1975, Michael H. Hart published a detailed examination of the paradox, which has since become a theoretical reference point for much of the research into what is now sometimes known as the Fermi–Hart paradox. Geoffrey A. Landis prefers that name on the grounds that "while Fermi is credited with first asking the question, Hart was the first to do a rigorous analysis showing that the problem is not trivial, the first to publish his results". Robert H. Gray argues that the term Fermi paradox is a misnomer, since in his view it is neither a paradox nor due to Fermi. Other names related to Fermi's question include the Great Silence, silentium universi, though these only refer to one portion of the Fermi Paradox, that we see no evidence of other civilizations. At Los Alamos National Laboratory in the summer of 1950, Fermi and co-workers Emil Konopinski, Edward Teller, Herbert York had one or several casual lunchtime conversation.

Herb York does not remember a previous conversation, although he says it makes sense given how all three reacted to Fermi's outburst. Teller remembers seven or eight of them at the table, so he may well be remembering a different previous conversation. In one version, the three men discussed a spate of recent UFO reports while walking to lunch. Konopinski remembered mentioning a magazine cartoon which showed aliens stealing New York City trash cans, as he wrote years "More amusing was Fermi's comment, that it was a reasonable theory since it accounted for two separate phenomena."Teller remembered Fermi asking him, "Edward, what do you think. How probable is it that within the next ten years we shall have clear evidence of a material object moving faster than light?" Teller said, "10^-6". Fermi said, "This is much too low; the probability is more like ten percent". At lunch, Fermi exclaimed, "Where are they?", or "Don't you wonder where everybody is?", or "But where is everybody?". Teller wrote, "The result of his question was general laughter because of the strange fact that in spite of Fermi's question coming from the clear blue, everybody around the table seemed to understand at once that he was talking about extraterrestrial life."York wrote, "Somehow... we all knew he meant extra-terrestrials."However, Emil Konopinski was not emphatic that he knew Fermi was referring to possible aliens writing "It was his way of putting it that drew laughs from us."Regarding the continuation of the conversation, York wrote in 1984 that Fermi "followed up with a series of calculations on the probability of earthlike planets, the probability of life given an earth, the probability of humans given life, the rise and duration of high technology, so on.


Convention Centre Dublin

The Convention Centre Dublin is a convention centre in the Dublin Docklands, Ireland. The Convention centre overlooks the River Liffey at Spencer Dock, it was designed by the Irish-born American architect Kevin Roche. Construction started in 1998 and the building opened in 2010. In 1995, the Irish government planned to build a National Convention Centre but this plan was abandoned. Minister for Tourism Enda Kenny had announced the location of the proposed convention centre to be at the RDS in Ballsbridge – this proved to be a dead-end. In November 1997, with the new Fianna Fáil-led government elected, a new competition to build the conference centre was launched by Tourism Minister James McDaid, with seven consortia entering; the Office of Public Works proposed to build the convention centre at Infirmary Road beside the Phoenix Park. The Ogden/Sonas Centre group headed by Robert White, whose plans for a casino-based scheme at the Phoenix Park had been abandoned by the previous government entered the competition.

The Anna Livia Consortium, comprising Earlsfort Group, Bennett Construction and Kilsarin Concrete, proposed a conference centre complex within Dublin Port across the street from the O2. Treasury Holdings, headed by Johnny Ronan and Richard Barrett, who were the ultimate winners of the competition, entered into an agreement with CIE to locate its project at Spencer Dock. Developer Harry Crosbie was part of the consortium, their plan included plans for two 250-bedroom hotels, at least one of, never built. One hotel had been planned for the rear of the Convention Centre, the site of, used as a park in the interim; the closing date for entries was 31 January 1998. The European Union agreed to provide a maximum grant of £25 million towards the project though this was conditional on the project was completed by the year 2000; the overall cost of the project at the time was projected at £35m to £45m, excluding site acquisition, according to the tender document. Successful bidders would have to hand over £250,000 to Bord Fáilte for costs incurred by them.

The CCD was shortlisted for the Engineers Ireland Excellence Awards – Engineering Project of the Year 2010. Construction work began on the project in 1998, though not finishing until 2010. A legal dispute arose between its promoters, Spencer Dock International, the Dublin Docklands Development Authority and Dublin City Council which delayed the project. Construction of the project was undertaken by Construction Management Partnership, a joint venture between Treasury Holdings Limited and John Sisk & Son Limited. Sisk was awarded the contract to build the "£104 million" centre in March 1999; the building is iconic for a number of architectural innovations the glass frontage and numerous curved walls. The building can hold up to 8,000 people in 22 meeting rooms, which include a 2,000-seat auditorium and a 4,500 square metre exhibition and banqueting space, it is the first carbon-neutral convention centre in the world because of its use of low-carbon cement and the offsetting of unavoidable carbon emissions by purchasing carbon credits in accordance with the Voluntary Carbon Standard.

It features a thermal-wheel heat-recovery system and an ice-storage thermal unit to provide air conditioning for the building. The CCD won silver in'Best Overseas Conference Centre' in the M&IT Industry Awards 2011, second to The Grimaldi Forum in Monaco and beating Bella Center and The Las Vegas Convention Center. Official website Spencer Dock website Dublin Docklands website

General Packet Radio Service

General Packet Radio Service is a packet oriented mobile data standard on the 2G and 3G cellular communication network's global system for mobile communications. GPRS was established by European Telecommunications Standards Institute in response to the earlier CDPD and i-mode packet-switched cellular technologies, it is now maintained by the 3rd Generation Partnership Project. GPRS is sold according to the total volume of data transferred during the billing cycle, in contrast with circuit switched data, billed per minute of connection time, or sometimes by one-third minute increments. Usage above the GPRS bundled data cap may be charged per MB of data, speed disallowed. GPRS is a best-effort service, implying variable throughput and latency that depend on the number of other users sharing the service concurrently, as opposed to circuit switching, where a certain quality of service is guaranteed during the connection. In 2G systems, GPRS provides data rates of 56–114 kbit/sec. 2G cellular technology combined with GPRS is sometimes described as 2.5G, that is, a technology between the second and third generations of mobile telephony.

It provides moderate-speed data transfer, by using unused time division multiple access channels in, for example, the GSM system. GPRS is integrated into GSM Release 97 and newer releases; the GPRS core network allows 2G, 3G and WCDMA mobile networks to transmit IP packets to external networks such as the Internet. The GPRS system is an integrated part of the GSM network switching subsystem. GPRS extends the GSM Packet circuit switched data capabilities and makes the following services possible: SMS messaging and broadcasting "Always on" internet access Multimedia messaging service Push-to-talk over cellular Instant messaging and presence—wireless village Internet applications for smart devices through wireless application protocol Point-to-point service: inter-networking with the Internet Point-to-multipoint service: point-to-multipoint multicast and point-to-multipoint group callsIf SMS over GPRS is used, an SMS transmission speed of about 30 SMS messages per minute may be achieved; this is much faster than using the ordinary SMS over GSM, whose SMS transmission speed is about 6 to 10 SMS messages per minute.

GPRS supports the following protocols: Internet Protocol. In practice, built-in mobile browsers use IPv4. Point-to-Point Protocol is not supported by mobile phone operators but if a cellular phone is used as a modem for a connected computer, PPP may be used to tunnel IP to the phone; this allows an IP address to be dynamically assigned to the mobile equipment. X.25 connections are used for applications like wireless payment terminals, although it has been removed from the standard. X.25 can still be supported over PPP, or over IP, but this requires either a network-based router to perform encapsulation or software built into the end-device/terminal. When TCP/IP is used, each phone can have one or more IP addresses allocated. GPRS will store and forward the IP packets to the phone during handover; the TCP restores. Devices supporting GPRS are grouped into three classes: Class A Can be connected to GPRS service and GSM service simultaneously; such devices are now available. Class B Can be connected to GPRS service and GSM service.

During GSM service, GPRS service is suspended and resumed automatically after the GSM service has concluded. Most GPRS mobile devices are Class B. Class C Are connected to either GPRS service or GSM service and must be switched manually between one service and the other; because a Class A device must service GPRS and GSM networks together, it needs two radios. To avoid this hardware requirement, a GPRS mobile device may implement the dual transfer mode feature. A DTM-capable mobile can handle both GSM packets and GPRS packets with network coordination to ensure both types are not transmitted at the same time; such devices are considered pseudo-Class A, sometimes referred to as "simple class A". Some networks have supported DTM since 2007. USB 3G/GPRS modems have a terminal-like interface over USB with V.42bis, RFC 1144 data formats. Some models include an external antenna connector. Modem cards for laptop PCs, or external USB modems are available, similar in shape and size to a computer mouse, or a pendrive.

A GPRS connection is established by reference to its access point name. The APN defines the services such as wireless application protocol access, short message service, multimedia messaging service, for Internet communication services such as email and World Wide Web access. In order to set up a GPRS connection for a wireless modem, a user must specify an APN, optionally a user name and password, rarely an IP address, provided by the network operator. GSM module or GPRS modules are similar to modems, but there's one difference: the modem is an external piece of equipment, whereas the GSM module or GPRS module can be integrated within an electrical or electronic equipment, it is an embedded piece of hardware. A GSM mobile, on the other hand, is a complete embedded system in itself, it comes with embedded processors dedicated to provide a functional interface between the user and the mobile network. The upload and download speeds that can be achieved in GPRS depend on a number of factors such as: the number of BTS TDMA time slots assigned by the operator the channel encoding used.

The maximum capability of the mobile device expressed as a GPRS multislot class

Southgate Mall (Elizabeth City)

Southgate Mall is the sole enclosed shopping center in the sixteen county Historic Albemarle region of northeastern North Carolina. Located on West Ehringhaus Street in Elizabeth City, North Carolina, the mall is anchored by Belk and until its closing in early April 2015. Construction of the mall started in 1967 at a cost of $3 million, opening two years as Southgate Plaza Shopping Center with senior anchors Belk-Tyler and W. T. Grant. Junior anchors Winn-Dixie and Peoples Drug filled positions intermediate to anchors and smaller shops. Belk, 1 floor. Belk remains the sole original anchor, having undisputed domain over Southgate's eastern end since 1969; the Southgate location is notable as one of the first three mall-based prototypes Belk developed in the mid to late 1960s as the company prepared to transition from downtown and strip mall locations to enclosed malls. Boasting preformed concrete arches, these prototypes were among the first mall-based Belk stores to have a distinctive architectural design, one that paved the way for countless facade variations among all future Belk stores.

Alas, the other two prototypes located in Vernon Park Mall, Kinston, NC and Oglethorpe Mall, Savannah, GA, have since had their exteriors modified beyond original resemblance. The Elizabeth City store is the last prototype to retain its original arched architecture, albeit as of October 2012 having beige paint obscure the once-bare concrete arches. Another innovation was the circular arrangement of drywall-partitioned departments surrounding a central jewelry department, now standard among modern department stores, but unique for the 1960s where many stores retained open floor plans. However, extensive renovations in 1988 and October 2013 have since radically altered the decor and layout removing outmoded features such as the garden center, catalog/bill paying area, tailoring room and various specialized display alcoves, all of which were converted into additional storage. All of these spaces returned to the sales floor during the store's $1.8 million 2013 renovation, eliminating most remaining alcoves and angular walls in favor of 90 degree corners and straight walls along the store's perimeter.

Vacant, 1 floor. The original West-end anchor W. T. Grant complemented the mall's one-stop shop appeal with auto repair bays and a garden center, persisting at Southgate until 1974; the space was acquired by Rose's, which remained until corporate downsizing in 1994. The space was unoccupied for two years before JCPenney relocated in 1996 from the former Winn-Dixie space it had inhabited since the supermarket's departure in 1985 for an off-mall location. JCPenney declined the full volume of the Roses space, partitioning extra square footage into additional small shop spaces, two of which became home to an enlarged Hibbett Sports as well as an extension of the Goodys/Burke's Outlet store. Additionally, the garden center and auto bays were leased to a Merchant's Tire location. Considerable square footage was relinquished to form a sizable extension of the mall corridor. A basic small-town Penney, the Elizabeth City location contained fewer frills than its cross-mall rival, with apparel, bath and kitchenware selections more sparse, its only advantage an in-store salon.

The location joined 39 other under-performing JCPenney locations slated for closure by April 2015 and has since been demolished. Burke's 1 floor. Junior anchor Winn-Dixie occupied this space from the mall's 1969 inception, filling a crucial grocery niche, a then-common'well-rounded' approach in many early malls complemented by a variety chain as Woolworth's; the supermarket departed the mall in 1985 for an off-site location, was replaced by JCPenney which relocated from downtown Elizabeth City. In 1996 JCPenney moved a second time to the 1993-vacated Rose's location, leaving the location vacant until 2002 when a short-lived Rose's Express store was established which vacated the following year in 2003; the space was again unoccupied for two years until 2005 when Goody's moved in, occupying the location until the chain's bankrupt demise in 2009. The space has since been occupied by Burke's Outlet since February 2011. Dragon Buffet, 1 floor; the other original junior anchor, People's Drug was acquired by and converted to Revco in 1994.

Acquisition of Revco by CVS in 1998 led to retention of the location until relocation in 2003 to a free-standing off-mall location, leaving the mall without a drug store for the first time since its opening. The store was most notable for retaining its original 1960's layout and high ceilings throughout the People's Drug-Revco-CVS reign with only minimal maintenance, such as repainting. In some cases, some features such as departmental signage were never updated. A locally owned Chinese restaurant and existing mall tenant, Dragon Buffet relocated from the former Roses cafeteria location adjacent to JCPenney. Extensive conversion of the former drug store to an operational restaurant was completed in late 2003. Aside from the main buffet, the restaurant has three au

Lochearn, Maryland

Lochearn is an unincorporated community and census-designated place in Baltimore County, United States, located to the west of the City of Baltimore. The population was 25,333 at the 2010 census. Lochearn is bordered on the east by the Baltimore City line, on the south by Gwynn Oak Avenue, Woodlawn Drive, Dogwood Road, on the west by the Baltimore Beltway, on the northeast by the Baltimore Metro transit line, including the Milford Mill station. Woodmoor shopping center is located on Liberty roads. Lochearn is located at 39°21′02″N 76°43′47″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 5.6 square miles, of which 0.04 square miles, or 0.36%, is water. Essex Road Liberty Road to Liberty Heights Avenue starting after Kelox Road and Northern Parkway in Baltimore City. Milford Mill Road Patterson Avenue starting in Baltimore County in Lochearn to the Baltimore City line at Alter Street to Wabash Avenue Reisterstown Road. Brighton Milford Villa Nova Campfield Gardens Lochearn Forest Gardens Sudbrook Park Willow Glen Williamsburg/ Park Hill The climate in this area is characterized by hot, humid summers and mild to cool winters.

According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Lochearn has a humid subtropical climate, abbreviated "Cfa" on climate maps. The main road that runs through Lochearn is Liberty Road. Smaller roads serving individual communities include Buckingham Road, Croydon Road, Elba Drive, Essex Road, Lugine Avenue, Patterson Avenue, St. Lukes Lane; the Maryland Transit Administration's CityLink Lime Bus runs along Liberty Road through Lochearn. As of the census of 2000, there were 25,269 people, 9,771 households, 6,732 families residing in the CDP; the population density was 4,537.1 people per square mile. There were 10,229 housing units at an average density of 1,836.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the CDP was 18.50% White, 78.40% African American, 0.30% Native American, 0.81% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 0.49% from other races, 1.46% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.50% of the population. 5% of Lochearn's residents were German, 4% Irish, 3% West Indian, 2% Sub-Saharan African, 2% English, 2% Jamaican, 2% African.

There were 9,771 households out of which 29.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 42.9% were married couples living together, 21.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 31.1% were non-families. 26.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.55 and the average family size was 3.06. In the CDP, the population was spread out with 25.1% under the age of 18, 7.8% from 18 to 24, 27.2% from 25 to 44, 26.1% from 45 to 64, 13.7% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females, there were 84.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 78.9 males. The median income for a household in the CDP was $49,517, the median income for a family was $54,994. Males had a median income of $35,459 versus $30,339 for females; the per capita income for the CDP was $21,652. About 4.7% of families and 7.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 9.3% of those under age 18 and 7.3% of those age 65 or over.

Kevin B. Kamenetz, 11th County Executive of Baltimore County and County Councilman

2019 AFF U-22 Youth Championship

The 2019 AFF U-22 Youth Championship or AFF U-22 LG Cup 2019 was the 2nd edition of the AFF U-22 Youth Championship, organised by ASEAN Football Federation. The tournament was sponsored by Korean LG Corporation as the "social marketing experiment" campaign since 2003 by the ASEAN Club Championship. Indonesia won the tournament after beating Thailand 2–1 in the final; the tournament was held from 17 to 26 February in Cambodia. This was its first with the previous edition an under-23 tournament. 2005 AFF U-23 Youth Championship winners Thailand were the defending champions, as there was no competition from 2006 to 2018, as the 2011 edition has been cancelled. The 2003 ASEAN Club Championship invited the Indian club, East Bengal, till they become a champions, but this tournament not invited Australian National U-22 Team to participated here as the outside-Southeast Asia participant. There was no qualification, all entrants advanced to the final tournament; the following teams from member associations of the AFF entered the tournament.

Singapore withdrew from the tournament in order to focus on the 2020 AFC U-23 Championship qualification tournament in March. Brunei and Laos withdrew from the tournament; the top six teams from the 2005 AFF U-22 Championship were seeded in Pot 1, the remaining teams were in Pot 2. Cambodia were assigned to position B1 as hosts. NotesTeam in bold is the defending champion. Team in italic is the host.: Did not enter.: Withdrew after draw. A final squad of 23 players must be registered one day before the first match of the tournament. In the knockout stage, the penalty shoot-out was used to decide the winner. 3 goals 2 goals 1 goal All 16 matches are broadcast live and free to access in Cambodia, some ASEAN countries, internationally via Football Federation of Cambodia official Facebook page, in Khmer language. Host nation AFF website