Marthe de Florian
Madame Marthe de Florian born as Mathilde Héloïse Beaugiron was a little known French demimondaine during the Belle Époque. She was known for having famous lovers including Georges Clemenceau, Pierre Waldeck-Rousseau, Paul Deschanel, Gaston Doumergue, the Italian artist Giovanni Boldini, her story resurfaced when in 2010 her belongings were discovered in her Parisian apartment, located at 2 square La Bruyère, untouched for decades, like in a time capsule. Marthe de Florian was born in the 18th arrondissement of Paris, eldest daughter of Jean Beaugiron and Henriette Eloïse Bara, who had married in 1864, she had two brothers who did not reach childhood – Jules Louis Beaugiron and Jules Beaugiron - and a sister, Henriette Joséphine Beaugiron. On 12 October 1882, at the age of 18, she gave birth to her first son, Henri Beaugiron, whose paternity was unknown and, born at 69 Rue Condorcet in the 9th arrondissement. Marthe de Florian stated on the birth certificate. Henri died at 3 months. At the age of 19, on 7 April 1884, de Florian gave birth to a second son called Henri Beaugiron, born at 100 Rue Saint-Lazare.
He died on 12 May 1966, while living at 2 Rue La Bruyère. While his paternity was stated as "unknown", it is speculatively possible that his father was the married banker Auguste Albert Gaston Florian Mollard, a lover of Marthe, from whom she took the name "de Florian" Marthe de Florian's last apartment is a 1500 square foot apartment located on the fourth floor at 2, Square La Bruyère in the 9th arrondissement of Paris, not far from Sainte-Trinité, she died in the apartment in 1939. Her son, Henri Beaugiron, who witnessed and signed his mother's death record, was living in the apartment at the time of her death; the apartment was inherited by Solange Beaugiron, Henri's daughter, an aspiring playwright as a teenager. Using the pseudonym, "Solange Beldo," she wrote her first serious manuscript, Miss Mary, at the age of 17. According to some unproven sources, Solange Beaugiron could have been the writer Solange Bellegarde. At some point of World War II Marthe de Florian's granddaughter Solange escaped from the Nazis to the south and settled in the south of France, never to return, or at least never to come back to clear the apartment after her father's death in 1966.
The rent and expenses were paid until her death in June 2010 at the age of 91. As a result, everything the apartment contained, including many paintings and all the usual elements of early 20th-century life remained intact for several decades. According to death records, Henri Beaugiron died in the apartment at 2, Square La Bruyère in 1966. According to Marc Ottavi, the art expert, present when the apartment was opened in 2010, there were papers in the apartment dated as late as 1955; the contents of the apartment, including the Boldini painting, were auctioned on September 28, 2010 Among the many paintings discovered in the apartment was a portrait depicting Marthe de Florian herself in a beautiful pink muslin evening dress, painted by one of her lovers, the artist Giovanni Boldini. The portrait had never been listed, exhibited or published, however a visiting card with a scribbled love note from the painter was found in the apartment, a short reference found in a book from 1951 commissioned by the artist's widow Emilia Cardona confirmed the provenance of the painting.
According to the book, the work was painted in 1888. After its rediscovery and subsequent research into its provenance, the painting was put to auction with a starting price of €300,000, but the sale price rocketed as ten bidders pushed the final price to €3 million, a world record for the artist
A French postcard is a small, postcard-sized piece of cardstock featuring a photograph of a nude or semi-nude woman. Such erotic cards were produced in great volume in France, in the late 19th and early 20th century; the term was adopted in the United States, where such cards were not made. The cards were sold as postcards, but the primary purpose was not for sending by mail, as they would have been banned from delivery; the cards sometimes depicted naked lesbians. French street vendors, tobacco shops and a variety of other vendors bought the photographs for resale to tourists. A number of photographers and studios produced French postcards, with some of them featuring popular models. Many photographers and studios specialized in images with an Orientalist theme. French Postcards: An Album of Vintage Erotica, Martin Stevens. Universe Books/Rizzoli, 2007, ISBN 978-0789315342 P. Hammond French undressing: naughty postcards from 1900 to 1920. London: Jupiter, 1976. W. Oulette, B. Jones Erotic postcards.
New York: Excalibur, 1977
Léonard Tsuguharu Foujita was a Japanese–French painter and printmaker born in Tokyo, who applied Japanese ink techniques to Western style paintings. He has been called "the most important Japanese artist working in the West during the 20th century", his Book of Cats, published in New York by Covici Friede, 1930, with 20 etched plate drawings by Foujita, is one of the top 500 rare books sold, is ranked by rare book dealers as "the most popular and desirable book on cats published". After graduating secondary school, Foujita wished to study in France, but on the advice of Mori Ōgai he decided to study western art in Japan first. In 1910, when he was twenty-four years old Foujita graduated from what is now the Tokyo National University of Fine Arts and Music, his paintings during the period before he moved to France were signed "Fujita", rather than the francized "Foujita" which he adopted. Three years he went to Montparnasse in Paris, France; when he arrived there, knowing nobody, he met Amedeo Modigliani, Chaim Soutine, Fernand Léger and became friends with Juan Gris, Pablo Picasso and Henri Matisse.
Foujita claimed in his memoir that he met Picasso less than a week after his arrival, but a recent biographer, relying on letters Foujita sent to his first wife in Japan shows that it was several months until he met Picasso. He took dance lessons from the legendary Isadora Duncan. Foujita had his first studio at no. 5 rue Delambre in Montparnasse where he became the envy of everyone when he made enough money to install a bathtub with hot running water. Many models came over to Foujita's place to enjoy this luxury, among them Man Ray's liberated lover, who boldly posed for Foujita in the nude in the outdoor courtyard. Another portrait of Kiki titled "Reclining Nude with Toile de Jouy," shows her lying naked against an ivory-white background, it was the sensation of Paris at the Salon d'Automne in 1922, selling for more than 8,000 francs. In 2013, the painting sold at Christie's in New York for $1,205,000, his life in Montparnasse is documented in several of his works, including the etching A la Rotonde or Café de la Rotonde of 1925/7, part of the Tableaux de Paris series published in 1929.
Foujita's first marriage was to Tomiko Tokita, a school teacher in a girls' school in Chiba Prefecture. They were married in 1912, the year before Foujita left for Paris, they divorced in 1916. In March 1917 in the Café de la Rotonde, Foujita met a young lady by the name of Fernande Barrey. At first, she ignored Foujita's efforts to engage her in conversation. However, early the next morning, Foujita showed up at Fernande's place with a blue corsage he had made overnight. Intrigued, she offered him a pot of tea and they were married 13 days later. Within a few years after his 1918 exposition, he achieved great fame as a painter of beautiful women and cats in a original technique, he is one of the few Montparnasse artists. By 1925, Tsuguharu Foujita had received the Belgian Order of Leopold and the French government awarded him the Legion of Honor. In 1918, a trip to the south of France was organized by the Polish poet Léopold Zborowski, who had the idea that his artist-friends could sell pictures there to rich tourists.
Foujita and his wife went along as did Modigliani with his lover, Jeanne Hébuterne. The trip was not, however, a success and the group had to survive on the advances that Foujita had obtained from his Paris dealer. By the time the final reckoning arrived those funds had run out, their landlord, ignoring the offers of pieces of art, confiscated all their baggage in lieu of payment. In 1921, he became involved with Lucie Badoul, whom he called Youki, or "Rose Snow". By 1925, Foujita and his wife Fernande led a open relationship, but Foujita did not forgive Fernande's affair with his cousin Koyanagi, a painter. In 1925, they divorced, Lucie Badoul became Foujita's third wife; this relationship ended when she became the lover the wife of the surrealist poet Robert Desnos. After the breakup of his third marriage, his flight to Brazil in 1931, Foujita traveled and painted all over Latin America, giving hugely successful exhibitions along the way. In Buenos Aires, Argentina, 60,000 people attended his exhibition, more than 10,000 queued up for his autograph.
In 1932 he contributed a work to the Pax Mundi, a large folio book produced by the League of Nations calling for a prolonged world peace. However, by 1933 he was welcomed back as a minor celebrity to Japan where he stayed and became a noted producer of militaristic propaganda during the war. For example, in 1938 the Imperial Navy Information Office supported his visit to China as an official war artist. Foujita returned to France after the war. In 1955 he became a French citizen. Today, Foujita's works can be found in the Bridgestone Museum of Art and in the Museum of Contemporary Art in Tokyo, more than 100 in the Hirano Masakichi Art Museum in Akita. After the Second World War, painter Yasuo Kuniyoshi opposed Tsuguharu Foujita's art show at the Kennedy Galleries. Kuniyoshi labelled Foujita a fascist and expansionist. On his return to France, Foujita converted to Catholicism, he was baptised in Reims Cathedral on 14 October 1959, with René Lalou as his godfather and Françoise Taittinger as his godmother.
This is reflected in his last major work,at the age of 80, the design and decoration of the Foujita Chapel in the gardens of the
Brothels in Paris
The authorities of medieval Paris attempted to confine prostitution to a particular district. Louis IX designated nine streets in the Beaubourg Quartier. In the early part of the 19th century, state-controlled legal brothels started to appear in several French cities. By law, they had to be run by a woman and their external appearance had to be discreet; the maisons were required to light a red lantern when they were open and the prostitutes were only permitted to leave the maisons on certain days and only if accompanied by its head. By 1810, Paris alone had 180 approved brothels. During the first half of the 20th century, some Paris brothels, such as le Chabanais and le Sphinx, were internationally known for the luxury they provided. France outlawed brothels after a campaign by Marthe Richard. At that time there were 1,500 of them across the country; the backlash against them was in part due to their wartime collaboration with the Germans during the occupation of France. Twenty-two Paris brothels had been commandeered by the Germans for their exclusive use.
One brothel in the Montmartre District of the French capital was part of an escape network for POWs and shot-down airmen. Le Chabanais was one of the best known and most luxurious brothels in Paris, operating near the Louvre at 12 rue Chabanais from 1878 until 1946, when brothels were outlawed in France, it was founded by the Irish-born Madame Kelly, acquainted with several members at the Jockey-Club de Paris. Among the habitués were Edward VII, Prince of Wales; the brothel, famous enough to warrant mentioning in the 7-volume Nouveau Larousse illustré encyclopaedia of 1904, was founded by the Irish-born Madame Kelly, associated with several members at the prestigious Jockey-Club de Paris. She sold shares in the profitable business to wealthy anonymous investors; the total cost of the establishment was reported to be the exorbitant sum of 1.7 million francs. The entrance hall was designed as a bare stone cave; the Japanese room won a design prize at the 1900 World Fair in Paris. Madame Kelly died in 1899.
La Fleur blanche was a famous maison close in the city of Paris, located at 6 rue des Moulins in the 1st Arrondissement. The property was known as rue des Moulins and was famous for its torture room, it was one of the most luxurious brothels in Paris. Its clientele included kings, crown princes, members of the aristocracy, numerous heads of state; the brothel was known for its lavish bedrooms, each one having its own theme, for example one was in a Moorish style, another was ducal. La Fleur blanche was notably frequented by Toulouse-Lautrec, He was called The Coffee Pot by the girls due to his small size; the artist painted Griserie the beautiful stranger on a wall in the brothel. The brothel gave inspiration for forty paintings and drawings, including Mills Street Fair, The Sofa and Ces dames au réfectoire. L'Étoile de Kléber was a maison close in Paris, it obtained notoriety for continuing to run after the 1946 Loi Marthe Richard ban on brothels. It continued its operations for a while in secret.
It was located at 4 Rue Paul-Valéry in the 16th Arrondissement. It was managed by a Aline Soccodato, known as Madame Billy, its clients included Maurice Chevalier. During the German occupation customers were officers of the German army and of the French Gestapo, whose headquarters were only a short distance away at 93 Rue Lauriston, but this was an advantage inasmuch as they had meat and champagne, transferred to L'Étoile's kitchenAfter the war occupation clientele changed, there were more and more allied officers in the L'Étoile de Kléber; the Soccodatos had hidden escaped British military, resistance fighters and Jews in the war and forwarded encrypted messages to the French Resistance. The One-Two-Two was one of the most luxurious and illustrious brothels of Paris in the 1930s and 1940s; the name was taken from 122 Rue de Provence, 8th arrondissement of Paris. The numbers were translated into English to ensure that foreign tourists would be able to find the brothel and as a password for French people.
The One-Two-Two was opened in 1924 by Marcel Jamet and his first wife Fernande, who called herself Doriane, a former woman of another brothel in Paris, Le Chabanais. Doriane, through her husband, acquired 122 Rue de Provence. At first, she employed only three women; the building had twenty-two theamed rooms. Forty to sixty-five prostitutes worked for 300 clients per day, it was open from 4:00 pm to 4:00 am. The girls of the establishment had four sex-sessions a day at twenty francs each, excluding tips, two sessions on Sunday. There was a bar, a refectory for girls, a doctor's office Once a luxury brothel, frequented Gainsbourg, at 58 rue de Bassano, it is now a nightclub. Taking its name from the famous mystic Grigori Rasputin, it had a rich Russian-Baroque decorations designed by the artist Erté, who designed some of costumes of the Folies Bergères, it is listed as a Historic Monument. Le Sphinx was a maison close in Paris in the 1940s. Along with the "Le Chabanais" and "One-Two-Two" it was considered one of the most luxurious and f
Eugénie Fougère (demimondaine)
Eugénie Fougère was a French frequenter of the demi-monde. She was notorious for costumes, she should not be confused with the vaudeville actress named Eugénie Fougère, although the two knew each other, mixed in the same circles, lived in the same street in Paris for a while. Fougère was born in 1861 in Chambon-sur-Voueize, a small town in the Limousin region in central France. In 1880, she left Chambon-sur-Voueize at the age of 19 and went to Montluçon where she began to work as a waitress and maid, her beauty was remarked and she received some nicknames, such as Miss chocolate. Soon she became a model of a major fashion house, she started to frequent the demi-monde in Paris, Biarritz and South America. She spent her winters at the casino in her summers in the posh spa Aix-les-Bains, she started using opium and ether. In the morning of September 20, 1903, she was murdered along with one of her housemaids in the luxury guest house Villa Solms in Aix-les-Bains, a fashionable water cure with a casino at the time.
The crime was committed by thieves who wanted to obtain her jewelry. A female servant was murdered, another was "so maltreated that she had lost her reason". Police investigations revealed that the suffering female servant, Victorine Giriat, in fact organised the murder with one Henri Bassot, who acted as the mastermind
Palais Oriental (Reims)
The Palais Oriental, known locally as the PO, was a luxury maison close in Reims, France. It opened in 1926 and closed in 1946, following the introduction of the Loi Marthe Richard, which abolished brothels in France, it was located on the corner of the rue de la rue Bacquenoi. The prestige of the Palais Oriental rivalled that of Paris's most luxurious maison closes, the One-Two-Two and Le Chabanais. Work on the Palais Oriental started in 1924 and the establishment first opened its doors on 15 April 1925. Like many other French brothels of the time it had an Oriental theme; the building itself drew from Moorish architecture, looking like an Arab fortress, the interior was adorned with mosaics and hand-painted frescos. On the ground floor was the main reception room; this was open to the public with no obligation to use the other services of the brothel. Cabaret shows were produced for the entertainment of patrons; the room had a well stocked 25m bar. It is reputed that the patrons consumed more Champagne here than in the rest of the bars and restaurants in Reims combined.
On the ground floor was a Moorish lounge where the 30 or so women, known as petits cœurs à louer, awaited clients. A grand staircase took the women and clients up to the 7 small salons, each one having a different oriental theme. Amongst the clients were politicians, Princes and celebrities of the day. After WW2, following campaigning by ex-prostitute Marthe Richard, a law was passed outlawing brothels in France; as a consequence of this, the Palais Oriental closed on 30 September 1946. The building was demolished and a garage built on the site; the only surviving parts of the brothel building are a small back door. In 2009, researcher Nicole Canet published Maisons closes, 1860-1946: bordels de femmes, bordels d'hommes, of the brothels featured in the book, the Palais Oriental was the only one outside Paris. Historical author Michelle Andrée Roy wrote a book, Chronique d'une maison close: le palais oriental, about the brothel in 2013. Canet, Nicole. Maisons closes, 1860-1946: bordels de femmes, bordels d'hommes.
Eds. Nicole Canet. ISBN 9782953235104. Dupouy, Alexandre. City of Pleasure: Paris Between the Wars. Korero Press. ISBN 9781912740055. Maginn, Paul J.. Urban Sexscapes: Geographies and Regulation of the Sex Industry. Routledge. ISBN 9781135008321. Mankoff, Allan H.. Mankoff's lusty Europe: the first all-purpose European guide to sex and romance. Viking Press. Roy, Michelle Andrée. Chronique d'une maison close: le palais oriental: roman. Thélès. ISBN 9782303005128
École nationale supérieure des Beaux-Arts
The École nationale supérieure des Beaux-Arts is a fine arts grand school of PSL Research University in Paris, France. The École des Beaux-Arts is made up of a complex of buildings located at 14 rue Bonaparte, between the quai Malaquais and the rue Bonaparte; this is in the heart of Saint-Germain-des-Prés, just across the Seine from the Louvre museum. The school was founded in 1648 by Charles Le Brun as the famed French academy Académie de peinture et de sculpture. In 1793, at the height of the French Revolution, the institutes were suppressed. However, in 1816, following the Bourbon Restoration, it was revived under a changed name after merging with the Académie d'architecture. Held under the King's tutelage until 1863, an imperial decree on November 13, 1863 named the school's director, who serves for a five-year term. Long supervised by the Ministry of Public Instruction, the École des Beaux-Arts is now a public establishment; the École nationale supérieure des Beaux-Arts in Paris is the original of a series of Écoles des Beaux-Arts in French regional centers.
Since its founding in 1648, the Académie royale de peinture et de sculpture has had a school, France's elite institution of instruction in the arts. Its program was structured around a series of anonymous competitions that culminated in the grand prix de l'Académie Royale, more familiar as the Grand Prix de Rome, for its winner was awarded a bourse and a place at the French Academy in Rome. During his stay in Rome, a pensionnaire was expected to send regular envois of his developing work back to Paris. Contestants for the Prix were assigned a theme from the literature of Classical Antiquity. With his final admission into the Académie, the new member had to present his fellow academicians a morceau de réception, a painting or sculpture that demonstrated his learning and proficiency in his art. Jacques-Louis David's Andromache Mourning Hector was his reception offering in 1783. In 1793, during the French Revolution, the Académie Royale and the grand prix de l'Académie Royale were abolished, but only a few years in 1797, the Prix de Rome was re-established.
Each year throughout the nineteenth century, the winner of the Prix de Rome was granted five years of study at the Villa Medici, after which the painter or sculptor could expect to embark on a successful official career. The program resulted in the accumulation of some great collections at the Académie, one of the finest collections of French drawings, many of them sent as envoies from Rome, as well as the paintings and sculptures the winners, of the competitions, or salons. Lesser competitions, known as the petits concours, took themes like history composition, expressions of the emotions, full and half-figure painting. In its role as a teaching institution, the École assembled a large collection of Italian and French etchings and engravings, dating from the 16th through the 18th century; such prints published the composition of paintings to a wide audience. The print collection was first made available to students outside the Académie in 1864. Today, studies include: painting, graphic arts, sculpture, digital media and video.
ENSBA provides the highest level of training in contemporary art production. Throughout history, many world-renowned artists have either studied at this institution; the faculty is made up of recognized international artists. Theoretical courses permitting diverse approaches to the history of the arts complement studio work, supported by technical training and access to technical bases; the ENSBA media center provides students with rich documentation on art, organizes conferences and debates throughout the year. The School buildings have architectural interest and house prestigious historical collections and an extensive fine arts library; the school publishes a dozen texts per year on different collections, holds exhibitions ranging from the school's excellent collection of old-master drawings to the most up to date contemporary works, in the Quai Malaquais space and the Chapel throughout the year. The school owns circa 450,000 items divided between artworks and historical books, making it one of the largest public art collections in France.
The collection encompasses many types of artistic productions, from painting and sculpture to etching, furniture or decorated books and from all the periods of art history. Many pieces of the collection are artworks created by students of the School throughout its history but former students and scholars contributed to enlarge the holdings with many gifts and donations to the institution; the collection consists in approximatively 2,000 paintings, 600 pieces of decorative arts, 600 architectural elements, nearly 15,000 medals, 3,700 sculptures, 20,000 drawings including works by Paolo Veronese, Jacques Bellange, Charles Le Brun, Nicolas Poussin, Claude Gellée, Dürer, Ingres, François Boucher or Pierre Alechinsky, 45,000 architectural drawings, 100,000 etchings and engravings, 70,000 photographs, 65,000 books dating from the 15th to the 20th century, 1,000 handwritten pieces of archive and 390 important fragments or complete illuminated manuscripts. The physical setting of the school stands on about two hectares in the Saint-Germain-des-Prés section of Paris.
The main entrance at 14 Rue Bonaparte is flanked by co