Miguel López de Legazpi
Miguel López de Legazpi known as El Adelantado and El Viejo, was a Spanish navigator and governor who established the first Spanish settlement in the East Indies when his expedition crossed the Pacific Ocean from the Viceroyalty of New Spain in modern-day Mexico, arrived in Cebu of the Philippine Islands, 1565. He was the first Governor-General of the Spanish East Indies which included the Philippines and other Pacific archipelagos, namely Guam and the Marianas Islands. After obtaining peace with various indigenous nations and kingdoms, he made Manila the capital of the Spanish East Indies in 1571; the capital city of the province of Albay bears his name. In 1528, Hernán Cortés established settlements in North America and López de Legazpi traveled to Mexico to start a new life; this was due to the death of his parents and his dissatisfaction with his eldest sibling, who inherited the family fortune. In Tlaxcala, he worked with Isabel Garcés. López de Legazpi would go on to have nine children with her.
Isabel died in the mid-1550s. Between 1528 and 1559 he worked as a leader of the financial department council and as the civil governor of Mexico City. In 1564, López de Legazpi was commissioned by the viceroy, Luis de Velasco, to lead an expedition in the Pacific Ocean, to find the Spice Islands where the earlier explorers Ferdinand Magellan and Ruy López de Villalobos had landed in 1521 and 1543, respectively; the expedition was ordered by King Philip II of Spain, after whom the Philippines had earlier been named by Ruy López de Villalobos. The viceroy died in July 1564, but the Audiencia and López de Legazpi completed the preparations for the expedition. On November 19 or 20, 1564, five ships and 500 soldiers, sailed from the port of Barra de Navidad, New Spain, in what is now Jalisco state, Mexico. Members of the expedition included six Augustinian missionaries, in addition to Fr. Andrés de Urdaneta, who served as navigator and spiritual adviser, Melchor de Legazpi, Felipe de Salcedo, Guido de Lavezarez.
López de Legazpi and his men sailed the Pacific Ocean for 93 days. In 1565, they landed in the Mariana Islands, where they anchored and replenished their supplies. There they burned several huts. A chief of Bohol island named Catunao gave information to Miguel Lopez of Cebu, accompanied Lopez as a guide. López de Legazpi's expedition anchored off the Indianized Rajahnate of Cebu on February 13, 1565, but did not put ashore due to opposition from natives. On February 22, 1565 the expedition reached the island of Samar and made a blood compact with Datu Urrao; the Spaniards proceeded to Limasawa and were received by Datu Bankaw to Bohol, where they befriended Datu Sikatuna and Rajah Sigala. On March 16, Legazpi made a blood compact with Datu Sikatuna. On April 27, 1565, the expedition landed there. Rajah Tupas were overpowered by them; the Spaniards established a colony, naming the settlements "Villa del Santisimo Nombre de Jesús" after an image of Sto. Niño in one of the native houses. In 1569, due to a scarcity of food provisions in Cebu, Legazpi transferred to Panay town on the island of Panay, where they were peacefully welcomed by the people in the Kedatuan of Madja-as.
Subsequently, they founded a second settlement named Capiz and now the city of Roxas in Capiz province, located on the bank of the Panay River. In 1570, Legazpi sent Juan de Salcedo, his grandson who had arrived from Mexico in 1567, to Mindoro to punish the Muslim Moro pirates, plundering Panay villages. Salcedo destroyed forts on the islands of Ilin and Lubang South and Northwest of Mindoro In 1570, having heard of the rich resources in Luzon, Legazpi dispatched Martín de Goiti to explore the northern region. Landing in Batangas with a force of 120 Spaniards, de Goiti explored the Pansipit River, which drains Taal Lake. On May 8, they arrived in Manila Bay. There, they were welcomed by the natives. Goiti's soldiers camped there for a few weeks while forming an alliance with the Muslim leader, Rajah Ache, a vassal under the Sultan of Brunei. Legazpi wanted to use Manila's harbor as a base for trade with China. However, the Rajah's ally in northern shores of Manila Bay known as the young Bambalito of Macabebe, asked Rajah Soliman to revoke his alliance with the Spaniards.
Rajah Matanda refused because of the "word of honor" of the Spaniards. Rajah Soliman had his conditions for Bambalito that if they were able to kill as least 50 Spaniards, he would revoke his alliance with Legazpi, the old ache would help to expel the conquerors. Bambalito rode back to Macabebe and formed a fleet of two thousand five hundred moros consisting of soldiers from the villages along Manila Bay from Macabebe and Hagonoy. On May 30, 1570, Bambalito sailed to Tondo with Caracoas and encountered the Spaniards at Bangkusay Channel, headed by Martin de Goiti on June 3, 1571. Bambalito and his fleet had lost the battle, after disputes and hostility had erupted between the two groups, the Spaniards occupied the Islamized states of Tondo and Maynila. Manila was prepared by Goiti for Legazpi. In the same year, more reinforcements arrived in the Philippines, prompting López de Legazpi to leave Cebu for Panay and for Luzon, he recruited 250 Spanish soldiers and 600 native warriors to e
Order of the Golden Fleece
The Distinguished Order of the Golden Fleece is a Roman Catholic order of chivalry founded in Bruges by the Burgundian duke Philip the Good in 1430, to celebrate his marriage to the Portuguese princess Isabella. Today, two branches of the Order exist, the Austrian Fleece; the chaplain of the Austrian branch is Archbishop of Vienna. Having had only 1,200 recipients since its establishment, the Spanish Order of the Golden Fleece has been referred to as the most prestigious and exclusive order of chivalry in the world and contemporaneously. Unlike any other distinction, the Golden Fleece is only granted for life, meaning it must be returned to the Spanish Monarch whenever the recipient deceases; each collar is coated in gold, is estimated to be worth around $60,000 USD, making it the most expensive chivalrous order. The Order of the Golden Fleece was established on 10 January 1430, by Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy, in celebration of the prosperous and wealthy domains united in his person that ran from Flanders to Switzerland.
The jester and dwarf Madame d'Or performed at the creation of the Order of the Golden Fleece in Bruges. It is restricted to a limited number of knights 24 but increased to 30 in 1433, 50 in 1516, plus the sovereign; the Order's first King of Arms was Jean Le Fèvre de Saint-Remy. It received further privileges unusual to any order of knighthood: the sovereign undertook to consult the order before going to war; the order, conceived in an ecclesiastical spirit in which mass and obsequies were prominent and the knights were seated in choirstalls like canons, was explicitly denied to heretics, so became an Catholic honour during the Reformation. The officers of the order were the chancellor, the treasurer, the registrar, the King of Arms, or herald, Toison d'Or; the Duke's stated reason for founding this institution had been given in a proclamation issued following his marriage, in which he wrote that he had done so "for the reverence of God and the maintenance of our Christian Faith, to honor and exalt the noble order of knighthood, also...to do honor to old knights.
So that those knights and gentlemen who shall see worn the order... should honor those who wear it, be encouraged to employ themselves in noble deeds...". The Order of the Golden Fleece was defended from possible accusations of prideful pomp by the Burgundian court poet Michault Taillevent, who asserted that it was instituted: Translated into English: The choice of the Golden Fleece of Colchis as the symbol of a Christian order caused some controversy, not so much because of its pagan context, which could be incorporated in chivalric ideals, as in the Nine Worthies, but because the feats of Jason, familiar to all, were not without causes of reproach, expressed in anti-Burgundian terms by Alain Chartier in his Ballade de Fougères referring to Jason as "Who, to carry off the fleece of Colchis, was willing to commit perjury." The bishop of Châlons, chancellor of the Order, rescued the fleece's reputation by identifying it instead with the fleece of Gideon that received the dew of Heaven. The badge of the Order, in the form of a sheepskin, was suspended from a jewelled collar of firesteels in the shape of the letter B, for Burgundy, linked by flints.
With the absorption of the Burgundian lands into the Spanish Habsburg empire, the sovereignty of the Order passed to the Habsburg kings of Spain, where it remained until the death of the last of the Spanish Habsburgs, Charles II, in 1700. He was succeeded as king by a Bourbon; the dispute between Philip and the Habsburg pretender to the Spanish throne, the Archduke Charles, led to the War of the Spanish Succession, resulted in the division of the Order into Spanish and Austrian branches. In either case the sovereign, as Duke of Burgundy, writes the letter of appointment in French; the controversial conferral of the Fleece on Napoleon and his brother Joseph, while Spain was occupied by French troops, angered the exiled King of France, Louis XVIII, caused him to return his collar in protest. These, other awards by Joseph, were revoked by King Ferdinand on the restoration of Bourbon rule in 1813. Napoleon created by Order of 15 August 1809 the Order of the Three Golden Fleeces, in view of his sovereignty over Austria and Burgundy.
This was opposed by Joseph I of Spain and appointments to the new order were never made. In 1812, the acting government of Spain conferred the Fleece upon the Duke of Wellin
Seville is the capital and largest city of the autonomous community of Andalusia and the province of Seville, Spain. It is situated on the plain of the river Guadalquivir; the inhabitants of the city are known as sevillanos or hispalenses, after the Roman name of the city, Hispalis. Seville has a municipal population of about 690,000 as of 2016, a metropolitan population of about 1.5 million, making it the fourth-largest city in Spain and the 30th most populous municipality in the European Union. Its Old Town, with an area of 4 square kilometres, contains three UNESCO World Heritage Sites: the Alcázar palace complex, the Cathedral and the General Archive of the Indies; the Seville harbour, located about 80 kilometres from the Atlantic Ocean, is the only river port in Spain. Seville is the hottest major metropolitan area in the geographical Southwestern Europe, with summer average high temperatures of above 35 °C. Seville was founded as the Roman city of Hispalis, it became known as Ishbiliyya after the Muslim conquest in 712.
During the Muslim rule in Spain, Seville came under the jurisdiction of the Caliphate of Córdoba before becoming the independent Taifa of Seville. After the discovery of the Americas, Seville became one of the economic centres of the Spanish Empire as its port monopolised the trans-oceanic trade and the Casa de Contratación wielded its power, opening a Golden Age of arts and literature. In 1519, Ferdinand Magellan departed from Seville for the first circumnavigation of the Earth. Coinciding with the Baroque period of European history, the 17th century in Seville represented the most brilliant flowering of the city's culture; the 20th century in Seville saw the tribulations of the Spanish Civil War, decisive cultural milestones such as the Ibero-American Exposition of 1929 and Expo'92, the city's election as the capital of the Autonomous Community of Andalusia. Hisbaal is the oldest name for Seville, it appears to have originated during the Phoenician colonisation of the Tartessian culture in south-western Iberia and it refers to the God Baal.
According to Manuel Pellicer Catalán, the ancient name was Spal, it meant "lowland" in the Phoenician language. During Roman rule, the name was Latinised as Hispal and as Hispalis. After the Umayyad invasion, this name was adapted into Arabic as Ishbiliyya: since p does not exist in Arabic, it was replaced by b. NO8DO is the official motto of Seville, popularly believed to be a rebus signifying the Spanish No me ha dejado, meaning "She has not abandoned me"; the phrase, pronounced with synalepha as, is spelled with an eight in the middle representing the word madeja "skein ". Legend states that the title was given by King Alfonso X, resident in the city's Alcázar and supported by the citizens when his son Sancho IV of Castile, tried to usurp the throne from him; the emblem is present on Seville's municipal flag, features on city property such as manhole covers, Christopher Columbus's tomb in the Cathedral. Seville is 2,200 years old; the passage of the various civilizations instrumental in its growth has left the city with a distinct personality, a large and well-preserved historical centre.
The mythological founder of the city is Hercules identified with the Phoenician god Melqart, who the myth says sailed through the Strait of Gibraltar to the Atlantic, founded trading posts at the current sites of Cádiz and of Seville. The original core of the city, in the neighbourhood of the present-day street, Cuesta del Rosario, dates to the 8th century BC, when Seville was on an island in the Guadalquivir. Archaeological excavations in 1999 found anthropic remains under the north wall of the Real Alcázar dating to the 8th–7th century BC; the town was called Hisbaal by the Phoenicians and by the Tartessians, the indigenous pre-Roman Iberian people of Tartessos, who controlled the Guadalquivir Valley at the time. The city was known from Roman times as Hispal and as Hispalis. Hispalis developed into one of the great market and industrial centres of Hispania, while the nearby Roman city of Italica remained a Roman residential city. Large-scale Roman archaeological remains can be seen there and at the nearby town of Carmona as well.
Existing Roman features in Seville itself include the remains exposed in situ in the underground Antiquarium of the Metropol Parasol building, the remnants of an aqueduct, three pillars of a temple in Mármoles Street, the columns of La Alameda de Hércules and the remains in the Patio de Banderas square near the Seville Cathedral. The walls surrounding the city were built during the rule of Julius Caesar, but their current course and design were the result of Moorish reconstructions. Following Roman rule, there were successive conquests of the Roman province of Hispania Baetica by the Vandals, the Suebi and the Visigoths during the 5th and 6th centuries. Seville was taken by the Moors, during the conquest of Hispalis in 712, it was the capital for the kings of the Umayyad Caliphate, the Almoravid dynasty first and
A dictator is a political leader who possesses absolute power. A state, ruled by a dictator is called a dictatorship; the word originated as the title of a magistrate in the Roman Republic appointed by the Senate to rule the republic in times of emergency. Like the term "tyrant", to a lesser degree "autocrat", "dictator" came to be used exclusively as a non-titular term for oppressive abusive rule. Thus, in modern usage, the term "dictator" is used to describe a leader who holds or abuses an extraordinary amount of personal power. Dictatorships are characterised by some of the following: suspension of elections and civil liberties. Dictatorships are one-party or dominant-party states. A wide variety of leaders coming to power in different kinds of regimes, such as military juntas, one-party states, dominant-party states, civilian governments under a personal rule, have been described as dictators, they may be apolitical. An emergency legal appointment in the Roman Republic, the term "Dictator" did not have the negative meaning it has now.
A Dictator was a magistrate given sole power for a limited duration. At the end of the term, the Dictator's power was returned to normal Consular rule whereupon a dictator provided accountability, though not all dictators accepted a return to power sharing; the term started to get its modern negative meaning with Cornelius Sulla's ascension to the dictatorship following Sulla's second civil war, making himself the first Dictator in Rome in more than a century as well as de facto eliminating the time limit and need of senatorial acclamation. He avoided a major constitutional crisis by resigning the office after about one year, dying a few years later. Julius Caesar followed Sulla's example in 49 BC and in February 44 BC was proclaimed Dictator perpetuo, "Dictator in perpetuity" doing away with any limitations on his power, which he kept until his assassination the following month. Following Julius' assassination, his heir Augustus was offered the title of dictator, but he declined it. Successors declined the title of dictator, usage of the title soon diminished among Roman rulers.
As late as the second half of the 19th century, the term dictator had occasional positive implications. For example, when creating a provisional executive in Sicily during the Expedition of the Thousand in 1860, Giuseppe Garibaldi assumed the title of "Dictator". Shortly afterwards, during the 1863 January Uprising in Poland, "Dictator" was the official title of four leaders, the first being Ludwik Mierosławski. Past that time, the term dictator assumed an invariably negative connotation. In popular usage, a dictatorship is associated with brutality and oppression; as a result, it is also used as a term of abuse against political opponents. The term has come to be associated with megalomania. Many dictators create a cult of personality around themselves and they have come to grant themselves grandiloquent titles and honours. For instance, Idi Amin Dada, a British army lieutenant prior to Uganda's independence from Britain in October 1962, subsequently styled himself "His Excellency, President for Life, Field Marshal Al Hadji Doctor Idi Amin Dada, VC, DSO, MC, Conqueror of the British Empire in Africa in General and Uganda in Particular".
In the movie The Great Dictator, Charlie Chaplin satirized not only Adolf Hitler but the institution of dictatorship itself. A benevolent dictatorship refers to a government in which an authoritarian leader exercises absolute political power over the state but is perceived to do so with regard for benefit of the population as a whole, standing in contrast to the decidedly malevolent stereotype of a dictator. A benevolent dictator may allow for some economic liberalization or democratic decision-making to exist, such as through public referenda or elected representatives with limited power, makes preparations for a transition to genuine democracy during or after their term, it might be seen as a republican form of enlightened despotism. The label has been applied to leaders such as Mustafa Kemal Atatürk of Turkey, Josip Broz Tito of Yugoslavia, Lee Kuan Yew of Singapore,The association between a dictator and the military is a common one. In some cases, this is legitimate. In other cases, the association is mere pretense.
Some dictators have been masters such as Mussolini and Hitler. Others were more prosaic speakers, such as Franco; the dictator's people seize control of all media, censor or destroy the opposition, give strong doses of propaganda daily built around a cult of personality. Because of its negative and pejorative connotations, modern authoritarian leaders rarely use the term dictator in their formal titles, instead they most simply have title of president. In the 19th century, its official usage was more common: Hungary Artúr Görgei was styled Dictator from 11 August – 13 August 1849, during the last days of the Hungarian Revolution of 1848. Italy In the former city-state of Venice, while it was a r
Santiago de Vera
Santiago de Vera was a native of Alcalá de Henares and the sixth Spanish governor of the Philippines, from May 16, 1584 until May 1590. Governor Gonzalo Ronquillo de Peñalosa and Domingo de Salazar, the first bishop of Manila, had requested the King of Spain to establish the Supreme Court of the Philippines called the Audiencia, to settle disputes between the Church and State. In 1584, three judges arrived from Mexico and started the justice court with De Vera serving as the chief justice. After the sudden death of Governor Peñalosa, Diego Ronquillo, his nephew became the governor ad interim but was charged for defalcation in the trust of Peñalosa's estate and was sent back to Spain as a prisoner; as the chief justice of the court, Santiago de Vera succeeded as the governor of the islands on May 16, 1584. Following the great fire of Manila on March 19, 1583, which started during the wake of Governor Gonzalo Ronquillo de Peñalosa at the San Agustin Church, Santiago de Vera made an order that all construction in Manila should be of stone.
It was found that stone could be cut near the banks of the Pasig in Guadalupe and brought to Manila in boats. He built the first stone fort of Manila called Nuestra Señora de Guia in 1587 located at the present location of San Diego Bastion at the southwestern corner of Intramuros with plans by a Jesuit named Sedeño; the artillery for this fort was cast by Panday Pira. De Vera began to dig the moat which surrounded the city, he built a stone breastwork along the Pasig riverfront. The great wall was not begun till the rule of Gómez Pérez Dasmariñas
Pact of Biak-na-Bato
The Pact of Biak-na-Bato, signed on December 14, 1897, created a truce between Spanish colonial Governor-General Fernando Primo de Rivera and the revolutionary leader Emilio Aguinaldo to end the Philippine Revolution. Aguinaldo and his fellow revolutionaries were given amnesty and monetary indemnity by the Spanish Government, in return for which the revolutionary government would go into exile in Hong Kong. Aguinaldo had decided to use the money to purchase advance firearms and ammunition on return to the archipelago; the pact was signed in San Miguel, Bulacan, in the house of Pablo Tecson, a Philippine revolutionary captain who served as Brigadier General in the'Brigada Del Pilar' of General Gregorio del Pilar during the Revolution. According to Aguinaldo, writing in 1899, the principal conditions of the pact were: That I would, any of my associates who desired to go with me, be free to live in any foreign country. Having fixed upon Hong Kong as my place of residence, it was agreed that payment of the indemnity of $800,000 should be made in three installments, namely, $400,000 when all the arms in Biak-na-bató were delivered to the Spanish authorities.
The latter part of February was fixed as the limit of time wherein the surrender of arms should be completed. The whole of the money was to be paid to me leaving the disposal of the money to my discretion and knowledge of the understanding with my associates and other insurgents. Prior to evacuating Biak-na-bató the remainder of the insurgent forces under Captain-General Primo de Rivera should send to Biak-na-bató two General of the Spanish Army to be held as hostages by my associates who remained there until I and a few of my compatriots arrived in Hong Kong and the first installment of the money payment was paid to me, it was agreed that the religious corporations in the Philippines be expelled and an autonomous system of government and administrative, be established, though by special request of General Primo de Rivera these conditions were not insisted on in the drawing up of the Treaty, the General contending that such concessions would subject the Spanish Government to severe criticism and ridicule.
According to historian Teodoro Agoncillo, the pact was made up of three documents which together came to be known as the Truce of Biak-na-Bató and which provided, among other things: That Aguinaldo and his companions would go into voluntary exile abroad. That Governor-General Primo de Rivera would pay the sum of P800,000 to the rebels in three installments:$400,000 to Aguinaldo upon his departure from Biak-na-Bató, $200,000 when the arms surrendered by the revolutionists amounted to 800 stand, the remaining $200,000 when the arms surrendered amounted to 1,000 stand, Te Deum in the Cathedral in Manila as thanksgiving for the restoration of peace; that Primo de Rivera would pay the additional sum of P900,000 to the families of the non-combatant Filipinos who suffered during the armed conflict. According to historian Sonia M. Zaide, the agreement consisted of three parts: A document called "Program" as described by Agoncillo. A document called "Act of Agreement" which reiterated parts of the "Program" document and hinted at the desire of the Filipinos for reforms but contained no definite agreement by Spain to grant such reforms.
A third document which discussed the question of indemnity, specifying that Spain would pay a total of $1,700,000— $800,000 as above plus $900,000 to be distributed among the civilian population as compensation for the ravages of war. In accordance with the first part of the pact and twenty five other top officials of the revolution were banished to Hong Kong with $400,000 in their possession; the rest of the men received $200,000. General amnesty was never declared. Agoncillo, History of the Filipino People, R. P. Garcia Publishing Company, ISBN 971-10-2415-2 Don Emilio Aguinaldo y Famy, "Chapter II; the Treaty of Biak-na-bató", True Version of the Philippine Revolution, Authorama: Public Domain Books, retrieved 23 September 2008 Halstead, Murat, "XII. The American Army in Manila", The Story of the Philippines and Our New Possessions Zaide, Sonia M; the Philippines: a unique nation, All-Nations Publishing, ISBN 978-971-642-071-5
The Restoration, or Bourbon Restoration, is the name given to the period that began on 29 December 1874 — after a coup d'état by Martínez Campos ended the First Spanish Republic and restored the monarchy under Alfonso XII — and ended on 14 April 1931 with the proclamation of the Second Spanish Republic. After a whole century of political instability and many civil wars, the aim of the Restoration was to create a new political system, which ensured stability by the practice of turnismo; this was the deliberate rotation of the Liberal and Conservative parties in the government, so no sector of the bourgeoisie felt isolated, while all other parties were excluded from the system. This was achieved by electoral fraud. Opposition to the system came from republicans, anarchists and Catalan nationalists, Carlists; the pronunciamiento by Martinez Campos established Alfonso XII as king, marking the end of the First Spanish Republic. After this, the Constitution of 1876 was enforced during the whole restoration.
This constitution established Spain as a constitutional monarchy with a bicameral legislature, consisting of an upper house, a lower house. This constitution gave the King the power to name Senators and to revoke laws if he wanted to, he was given the title of Commander-in-chief of the army; these years were marked by economic prosperity. Spain's economy had fallen behind those of the other European countries, during these years the modernization of the country took place on a large scale. On most fronts production was increased, supported by extreme protectionist measures; the two parties alternated in the government in a controlled process known as el turno pacífico. The caciques, powerful local figures, were used to manipulate election results, as a result resentment of the system built up over time and important nationalist movements in Catalonia and the Basque Country, as well as unions, started to form. In 1898, Spain lost its last major overseas colonies in the Spanish–American War; the rapid collapse was perceived as a disaster in Spain, undermining the credibility of both the government and its associated ideologies and leading to a military coup d'état led by Camilo Polavieja.
This was the start of the system's decline, giving energy to all manner of conflicting opposition movements at a local and national level. The failed attempts to conquer Morocco caused great discontent at home and ended in a revolt in Barcelona, known as the Semana Tragica, in which the lower classes of Barcelona, backed by the anarchists and republicans, revolted against what they considered the unjust methods for recruiting soldiers; the government declared a state of war and sent the army to crush the revolt, causing over a hundred deaths and the execution of Francisco Ferrer. The socialist Unión General de Trabajadores and the anarchist Confederación Nacional del Trabajo decided to initiate a general strike across the country, but it failed because the unions could only mobilize urban workers; the problems in Morocco worsened. They achieved surprise and, due to the skill of the Moroccan chieftain, Abd-Al-Krim annihilated the Spanish army, advancing as far as Melilla in the Battle of Annual.
This Spanish defeat was due to improper planning and was blamed on the top military officers, causing great discontent among the military, who felt misunderstood, because they had been directed to advance into the interior without adequate resources to occupy the difficult territory. The military discontent, the fear of anarchist terrorism or a proletarian revolution, the rise of nationalist movements caused great agitation amongst the civilians and the military. On 13 September 1923, Miguel Primo de Rivera, Captain General of Catalonia, orchestrated a coup d'état, after issuing a manifesto blaming the problems of Spain on the parliamentary system. Alfonso XIII named him Prime Minister. Primo de Rivera proceeded to assume absolute powers as a dictator, he created the Unión Patriótica Española, meant to be the sole legal party, abolishing all other parties. During this time, he increased government spending on business and public services, which caused his government to go bankrupt, he faced serious health problems.
Opposition to his regime was so great that Alfonso XIII stopped supporting him and forced him to resign in January 1930. Alfonso XIII, in an attempt to return to the previous system and restore his prestige, called on General Dámaso Berenguer to form a government; this failed utterly, as the King was considered a supporter of the dictatorship, more and more political forces called for the establishment of a republic. Berenguer resigned and the King gave the government to Admiral Juan Bautista Aznar. Aznar called for local elections on 12 April 1931 in order to satisfy the democrats and republicans, to replace the dictatorship's local governments and to re-introduce the restoration. Although the monarchists had not lost all their support, the republican and socialist parties won some significant victories in major cities. Street riots ensued; the army declared that they would not defend the King and on 14 April he fled Spain. The Second Spanish Republic was established under a provisional government led by Niceto Alcalá-Zamora.
Barton, Simon. A History of Spain excerpt and text search Be