International Boxing Federation
The International Boxing Federation is one of four major organizations recognized by the International Boxing Hall of Fame which sanction world championship boxing bouts, alongside the World Boxing Association, World Boxing Council and World Boxing Organization. The IBF was preceded by the United States Boxing Association, a regional championship organization like the North American Boxing Federation, the North American Boxing Association. In 1983, at the WBA's annual convention, held in Puerto Rico, Robert W. "Bobby" Lee, Sr. president of the USBA, lost in his bid to become WBA president against Gilberto Mendoza. Lee and others withdrew from the convention after the election, decided to organize a third, world-level organization, to co-exist with the World Boxing Association and the World Boxing Council. Formed as USBA-International, the fledgling organization was renamed the International Boxing Federation, based in New Jersey, where its main offices remain. Bobby Lee had been a New Jersey boxing commissioner until 1985, according to news reports, "he was suspended and fined by the Ethical Standards Commission for accepting contributions from fight promoters and casino executives."The IBF's first world champion was Marvin Camel, a former World Boxing Council world cruiserweight champion who won the IBF's belt in the same division.
During its first year of existence, the IBF remained obscure. But by 1984, the IBF decided to recognize Larry Holmes, Aaron Pryor, Marvin Hagler and Donald Curry established champions from other organizations, as IBF world champions. In Holmes' case, he relinquished his WBC title to accept the IBF's recognition, it established the IBF as the third sanctioning body, a legitimate organization. Despite achieving an appearance of legitimacy, subsequent to a three-year investigation started by 1996 charges levied by former heavyweight champion Michael Moorer. Indicted on federal racketeering and racketeering conspiracy charges were "president, Robert W. Lee, 65. Lee was subsequently convicted of money-laundering and tax evasion in August 2000 sentenced, in 2001, to 22 months in prison and fined $25,000. In 2000, citing extortion. Arum was fined $125,000 by the Nevada State Athletic Commission. Boxing promoters Cedric Kushner and Dino Duva admitted to making similar payments to Lee. IBF was under federal observation from Lee's conviction through September 2004.
Former Michigan Boxing Commissioner, WBA vice-president, boxing safety advocate and IBF interim president Hiawatha Knight became president following Lee's conviction, was the first woman president of any world governing boxing organization. In 2001, Marian Muhammad assumed the presidency, followed by Daryl J. Peoples, who remains president as of 2018. IBF had "1st Annual Convention of IBF Muaythai" in Bangkok, Thailand on 20–21 December 2017. Daryl Peoples, IBF president, attended the convention; the new champions of IBF Muay Thai were crowned in three weight divisions. As of April 13, 2019. List of boxing organisations Don King List of IBF world champions List of IBF Muay Thai world champions Official website All-time IBF World champions - Reference book
Alpha Dog is a 2006 American crime drama film written and directed by Nick Cassavetes based on the true story of the kidnapping and murder of Nicholas Markowitz in 2000. It was first screened at the Sundance Film Festival on January 27, 2006, with a wide release the following year on January 12, 2007. Starring Emile Hirsch, Justin Timberlake, Ben Foster, Shawn Hatosy, Anton Yelchin, Olivia Wilde, Amanda Seyfried with Harry Dean Stanton, Sharon Stone, Bruce Willis. In 1999, Johnny Truelove is a young drug dealer living in the San Gabriel Valley, in Southern California, his father, supplies him with marijuana, which Johnny distributes to his gang of friends, which include Frankie Ballenbacher, Johnny’s right-hand man. Jake goes to his parents’ home in Claremont and makes a failed attempt at borrowing money from his father Butch and stepmother Olivia, who themselves are dealing with their other rebellious son: Zack Mazursky, Jake’s younger half-brother who looks up to him; that night, a fight breaks out between Jake and Johnny when the former tries to pay Johnny only part of his debt.
After back and forth escalating retaliation, Johnny brings Frankie and Tiko to go and confront Jake in person, but when they arrive at his apartment he is nowhere to be found. At the Mazursky home and Butch find drugs in Zack’s possession and confront him, but Zack decides to sneak out and run away from home. Driving by, Johnny spots him on the side of the road and impulsively orders the gang to kidnap him with the intent of holding on to him until Jake pays his debt. Wanting a break from his home life, Zack makes no effort to escape; the group drives down to Palm Springs with plans to party for the next few days. Johnny leaves Frankie to watch Zack and he offers Zack a chance to leave, but Zack declines, not wanting to cause any problems for his brother. Zack stays with Frankie at his father's house and the two develop a friendship over drinking and doing chores around Frankie’s house; the next day, Zack ingratiates himself with Frankie's friends Keith, Julie and Susan. Frankie meets with Johnny and grows nervous when Johnny tells him that they could get in serious trouble for the kidnapping.
Frankie suggests they pay Zack to keep quiet about the kidnapping upon returning home. However, the next day after a threatening phone call from Jake, a phone conversation from his lawyer who tells him he could face life in prison for the kidnapping, he decides the risk of ending up dead or in jail is too great to let Zack go. Johnny offers to erase his debt if he kills Zack, giving him a submachine gun. Frankie and his friends still believe Zack will be returning home that night and throw a raucous going away party at a hotel. Zack has a good time at the party, goes skinny dipping with Julie and her friend Alma, which leads to Zack hooking up with them in the pool; the party soon ends and everybody says good-bye to Zack and leave Zack and Keith at the hotel. Elvis arrives at the hotel and he and Frankie begin to argue when he reveals Johnny sent him there to kill Zack. While Frankie runs off, Elvis introduces himself to Zack. Elvis takes Keith out to help him dig a grave in a secluded part of the nearby mountains.
Frankie returns to the hotel and offers Zack a final opportunity to escape, but believing that he will be returning home soon, Zack prefers to wait for Elvis. When Elvis and Keith return to the hotel and Frankie go outside to talk. Frankie, reluctant because of the friendship he has formed with Zack relents when Elvis tells him they could face life in prison, in addition to problems with Jake and Johnny, if Zack goes free. Meanwhile, Sonny and their lawyer confront Johnny, who stubbornly refuses to call off the hit when they present him the offer to spend a minimal amount of jail time with a plea deal. Zack and the others arrive at the grave site. Zack is not aware of what's going on but grows suspicious when a saddened Keith tells Frankie he can't go through with it; when Zack sees the grave, he begins to break down, begs them to let him go. Frankie tells Elvis one last time that they shouldn't do it. Frankie calms proceeds to tie Zack up with duct tape. Elvis knocks Zack into the grave with the shovel and shoots him to death.
Despite the seclusion of the spot, Zack’s body is found days later. Certain parts of the film are intercut with scenes from interviews, conducted by detective Tom Finnegan, of people connected to Johnny and his group; the film makes note of the multiple witnesses—ranging from onlookers, partygoers and family members—that saw Zack in between his initial kidnapping and eventual murder, which total up to 32. The epilogue shows the aftermath of the crime. Olivia, now suffering from obesity and depression, talks candidly to Finnegan about her suicide attempts and the loss that she has experienced from her son's death. Susan angrily goes to the authorities. Elvis is caught while trying to secure a ride out of town. Johnny flees the city as far as Albuquerque and arrives at the house of an old classmate, who drives him to Cosmo’s house, where he enters and is not seen again. Tiko and Frankie are all arrested and serve their respective sentences—Tiko is convicted of kidnapping and sentenced to nine years in prison.
Tucson is a city and the county seat of Pima County, United States, home to the University of Arizona. The 2010 United States Census put the population at 520,116, while the 2015 estimated population of the entire Tucson metropolitan statistical area was 980,263; the Tucson MSA forms part of the larger Tucson-Nogales combined statistical area, with a total population of 1,010,025 as of the 2010 Census. Tucson is the second-largest populated city in Arizona behind Phoenix, both of which anchor the Arizona Sun Corridor; the city is 108 miles southeast of Phoenix and 60 mi north of the U. S.–Mexico border. Tucson is the 58th largest metropolitan area in the United States. Major incorporated suburbs of Tucson include Oro Valley and Marana northwest of the city, Sahuarita south of the city, South Tucson in an enclave south of downtown. Communities in the vicinity of Tucson include Casas Adobes, Catalina Foothills, Flowing Wells, Midvale Park, Tanque Verde and Vail. Towns outside the Tucson metro area include Benson to the southeast and Oracle to the north, Green Valley to the south.
The Spanish name of the city, Tucsón, is derived from the O'odham Cuk Ṣon, meaning " base of the black ", a reference to a basalt-covered hill now known as Sentinel Peak known as "A" Mountain. Tucson is sometimes referred to as "The Old Pueblo". Tucson was first visited by Paleo-Indians, known to have been in southern Arizona about 12,000 years ago. Recent archaeological excavations near the Santa Cruz River found a village site dating from 2100 BC; the floodplain of the Santa Cruz River was extensively farmed during the Early Agricultural Period, circa 1200 BC to AD 150. These people constructed irrigation canals and grew corn and other crops while gathering wild plants and hunting; the Early Ceramic period occupation of Tucson saw the first extensive use of pottery vessels for cooking and storage. The groups designated as the Hohokam lived in the area from AD 600 to 1450 and are known for their vast irrigation canal systems and their red-on-brown pottery. Jesuit missionary Eusebio Francisco Kino visited the Santa Cruz River valley in 1692, founded the Mission San Xavier del Bac in 1700 about 7 mi upstream from the site of the settlement of Tucson.
A separate Convento settlement was founded downstream along the Santa Cruz River, near the base of what is now "A" mountain. Hugo O'Conor, the founding father of the city of Tucson, Arizona authorized the construction of a military fort in that location, Presidio San Agustín del Tucsón, on August 20, 1775. During the Spanish period of the presidio, attacks such as the Second Battle of Tucson were mounted by Apaches; the town came to be called "Tucson" and became a part of the state of Sonora after Mexico gained independence from the Kingdom of Spain and its Spanish Empire in 1821. Tucson was captured by Philip St. George Cooke with the Mormon Battalion during the Mexican–American War in 1846-1848, but it soon returned to Mexican control as Cooke continued his mission westward establishing Cooke's Wagon Road to California. Tucson was not included in the Mexican Cession and Cooke's road through Tucson became one of the important routes into California during the California Gold Rush of 1849. Arizona, south of the Gila River, was obtained via treaty from Mexico in the Gadsden Purchase on June 8, 1854.
Tucson became a part of the United States of America, although the American military did not formally take over control until March 1856. In 1857, Tucson became a stage station on the San Antonio-San Diego Mail Line and in 1858 became 3rd division headquarters of the Butterfield Overland Mail until the line shut down in March 1861; the Overland Mail Corporation attempted to continue running, following the Bascom Affair, devastating Apache attacks on the stations and coaches ended operations in August 1861. From August 1861 to mid-1862, Tucson was the western capital of the Confederate Arizona Territory, the eastern capital being Mesilla. In 1862, the California Column drove the Confederate forces out of Arizona. Tucson and all of what is now Arizona were part of New Mexico Territory until 1863, when they became part of the new Arizona Territory. From 1867 to 1877, Tucson was the capital of the Arizona Territory. Tucson was incorporated in 1877. From 1877 to 1878, the area suffered a rash of stagecoach robberies.
Most notable were the two holdups committed by masked road-agent William Whitney Brazelton. Brazelton held up two stages in the summer of 1878 near Point of Mountain Station 17 mi northwest of Tucson. John Clum, of Tombstone, Arizona fame was one of the passengers. Pima County Sheriff Charles A. Shibell and his citizen posse killed Brazelton on Monday August 19, 1878, in a mesquite bosque along the Santa Cruz River 3 miles south of Tucson. Brazelton had been suspected of highway robbery in the Tucson area, the Prescott region and Silver City, New Mexico area. Brazelton's crimes prompted John J. Valentine, Sr. of Wells, Fargo & Co. to send special agent and future Pima County sheriff Bob Paul to investigate. Fort Lowell east of Tucson, was established to help protect settlers from Apache attacks. In 1882, Frank Stilwell was implicated in the murder of Morgan Earp by Cowboy Pete Spence's wife, Marietta, at the coroner's inquest on Morgan Earp's shooting; the coroner's jury concluded Spence, Frederick Bode, Florentino "Indian Charlie" Cruz were the prime suspects in the assassination of Morgan Earp.
Deputy U. S. Marshal Wyatt Earp gathered a few trusted friends and accompanied
Félix Juan Trinidad García, popularly known as "Tito" Trinidad, is a Puerto Rican former professional boxer who competed from 1990 to 2008. He held multiple world championships in three weight classes, is considered one of the best boxers in Puerto Rico's history. After winning five national amateur championships in Puerto Rico, Trinidad debuted as a professional when he was seventeen, won his first world championship by defeating Maurice Blocker to win the IBF welterweight title in 1993, he holds the record for the second most welterweight title defenses, as well as the record for longest reign as welterweight champion, at 6 years, 8 months and 14 days. As his career continued, he defeated Oscar De La Hoya to win the WBC and lineal welterweight titles in 1999. Trinidad's first professional loss was against Bernard Hopkins in 2001, following this he retired from boxing for the first time. Trinidad made his ring return by defeating Ricardo Mayorga in 2004 and, after a losing effort against Winky Wright in 2005, retired for a second time.
In 2008 he returned once more and lost to Roy Jones Jr. Subsequently, Trinidad entered a hiatus without clarifying the status of his career. Trinidad is mentioned among the best Puerto Rican boxers of all time by sports journalists and analysts, along with Juan Laporte, Esteban De Jesús, Wilfredo Vázquez, Miguel Cotto, Wilfred Benítez, Wilfredo Gómez, Héctor Camacho, Carlos Ortíz. In 2000, Trinidad was voted Fighter of the Year by The Ring magazine and the Boxing Writers Association of America, he is ranked number 30 on The Ring's list of 100 greatest punchers of all time and in 2002 named him the 51st greatest fighter of the past 80 years. In 2014 Trinidad was inducted into the International Boxing Hall of Fame, thus becoming the tenth Puerto Rican to receive such an honor. Trinidad debuted as a professional on March 1990, when he was 17 years old; the fight was against Angel Romero, another debuting boxer, in a contest that Trinidad won by knockout in the second round. In the beginning of his career he knocked out nine of his first 10 opponents.
He competed against more experienced boxers like Jake Rodriguez, whom he fought on December 6, 1991. Trinidad suffered an injury on his right hand, he was inactive for five months while recovering from the injury. Raul Gonzalez fought Felix Trinidad on May 3, 1992, in Puerto Rico; this fight was the main event of the night. Both Gonzalez and Trinidad weighed in at 142 pounds. Gonzalez had a record of 8-2-3 with 5 KOs, while Trinidad had a record of 13-0 with 10 KOs. Gonzalez went down three times, Trinidad took the victory in round four by TKO. Trinidad would now make it 14-0 with 11 KOs. Trinidad traveled to San Diego and defeated the IBF welterweight champion Maurice Blocker in two rounds, in a fight card that took place on June 19, 1993, televised by Showtime. Trinidad spent the first two minutes of the fight analyzing Blocker's style. With 11 seconds left in the first round, one of Trinidad's punches injured Blocker, who survived the round. In the second round, the champion's condition appeared to improve, but after the first 30 seconds, another Trinidad punch injured him.
Trinidad followed with a combination, scoring a knockout at 1:49 in the round when the referee stopped the fight. Afterwards, tournament organizer Don King's exclusive relationship to stage fights for the cable channel Showtime meant that Trinidad would be showcased on Showtime Championship Boxing. Trinidad defended his title for the next three years against several opponents. Trinidad's first fight in Las Vegas was against Héctor Camacho on January 29, 1994, he received a cut over his left eye. In the third round he connected a solid combination. Throughout the fight Trinidad was on the offensive and won the fight by unanimous decision, in what was his first decision since he won the world championship; the scores awarded by the judges were 117–109, 116–110, 119–106. On September 17, 1994, Trinidad traveled to the MGM Grand for a second straight fight to compete in a title defense against Yori Boy Campas, who had a record of 56-0. In the second round Campas scored a knockdown, the second knockdown in Trinidad's career.
Following this Trinidad exchanged several combinations, injuring Campas' face and breaking his nose. In the fourth round, the referee stopped the first defeat in Campas' career. Trinidad's fourth fight outside Puerto Rico or the United States took place on Estadio de Beisbol in Monterey, Mexico. Trinidad was scheduled to defend his title against the undefeated Oba Carr. In the second round, Carr scored a knockdown, the product of a quick right hand punch. Trinidad continued the fight and pursued the challenger, who displayed a quick pace throughout the fight. In the fourth round Trinidad connected a solid punch that injured Carr, in the eighth he scored three consecutive knockdowns before the referee stopped the fight by technical knockout. Trinidad spent the next four years defending his title against numerous fighters in bouts televised on Showtime. Among these fights was a defense against Mahenge Zulu, the number two challenger for Trinidad's championship; this fight was part of a card that took place on April 3, 1998, in Bayamón, Puerto Rico and marked the first time that Trinidad had performed in the island in five years.
Trinidad began the first round by cautiously analyzing the challenger's style, but the round ended with quick exchanges after Zulu too
Corpus Christi, Texas
Corpus Christi, colloquially Corpus, is a coastal city in the South Texas region of the U. S. state of Texas. The county seat of Nueces County, it extends into Aransas and San Patricio Counties, it is 130 miles southeast of San Antonio. Its political boundaries encompass Corpus Christi Bay, its zoned boundaries include small land parcels or water inlets of three neighboring counties. The city's population was estimated to be 320,434 in 2014, making it the eighth-most populous city in Texas; the Corpus Christi metropolitan area had an estimated population of 442,600. It is the hub of the six-county Corpus Christi-Kingsville-Alice Combined Statistical Area, with a 2013 estimated population of 516,793; the Port of Corpus Christi is the fifth-largest in the United States. The region is served by the Corpus Christi International Airport; the city's name means Body of Christ in Latin. The name was given to the settlement and surrounding bay by Spanish explorer Alonso Álvarez de Pineda in 1519, as he discovered the lush semitropical bay on the Catholic feast day of Corpus Christi.
The nickname of the city is "Sparkling City by the Sea" featured in tourist literature. Karankawans inhabited the Corpus Christi region in pre-Columbian times. Spaniard Alonso Alvarez de Pineda traveled in 1519 to this bay on the day of the religious “Feast of Corpus Christi,” thus naming the semi-tropical bay Corpus Christi. Cabeza de Vaca may have passed through Corpus Christi in the 1500s, but the first European to study the Nueces River and Corpus Christi Bay was Joaquín de Orobio y Basterra in 1747. A few years José de Escandón organized a colony of about 50 families to settle the head of the bay, though this was short-lived. In 1839, the first known permanent settlement of Corpus Christi was established by Colonel Henry Lawrence Kinney and William P. Aubrey as Kinney's Trading Post, or Kinney's Ranch, it was a small trading post that sold supplies to a Mexican revolutionary army camped about 25 mi west. In July 1845, U. S. troops commanded by General Zachary Taylor set up camp there in preparation for war with Mexico, where they remained until March 1846.
About a year the settlement was named Corpus Christi and was incorporated on September 9, 1852. The Battle of Corpus Christi was fought between August 12 and August 18, 1862, during the American Civil War. United States Navy forces blockading Texas fought a small land and sea engagement with Confederate forces in and around Corpus Christi Bay and bombarded the city. Union forces defeated Confederate States Navy ships operating in the area, but were repulsed when they landed on the coast; the Port of Corpus Christi was opened in 1926, the Corpus Christi Naval Air Station was commissioned in 1941. The 1919 Storm devastated the city, killing hundreds on September 14. Only three structures survived the storm on North Beach. To protect the city, the seawall was built; the city suffered damage from Hurricane Celia in 1970 and Hurricane Allen in 1980, but little damage from Hurricane Ike in 2008. The city was affected in 2017 by Hurricane Harvey. In November 1873, seven Mexican shepherds were lynched by a mob near the city.
The crime was never solved. In February 1929, the League of United Latin American Citizens was founded in Corpus Christi; this organization was created to battle racial discrimination against Hispanic people in the United States. Since its founding, LULAC has grown and now has a national headquarters in Washington, DC. In March 1949, the American GI Forum was founded in Corpus Christi. AGIF focuses on veteran's issues and civil-rights issues; this organization was founded after concerns over the segregation of Mexican-American veterans from other veterans groups and the denial of medical services based on race by the United States Department of Veterans Affairs. Cisneros v. Corpus Christi Independent School District was the first case to extend the U. S. Supreme Court's Brown v. the Board of Education of Kansas decision to Mexican Americans. It recognized them as a minority group that could be and was discriminated against; such segregation and discrimination was ruled unconstitutional. Judge Woodrow Seals found that the school board consciously fostered a system that perpetuated traditional segregation.
This included a system that bused Anglo students to schools out of their neighborhoods, renovated old schools in black and Mexican-American neighborhoods rather than building new ones, assigned black and Hispanic teachers to segregated schools, limited hiring of such teachers at other schools. Corpus Christi is situated on fluvial deposits -- Pleistocene age. Although no solidified rock occurs at the surface, the Deweyville Formation of sand, silt and gravel, is locally indurated with calcium carbonate deposits. In 2017, Hurricane Harvey's storm surge eroded down to shale bedrock at a depth of 40' in Packery Channel, an artificial pass cut between North Padre and Mustang Islands; this feature has become a gathering place for game fish, can be identified from the surface by its whirlpool-like current. The large, shallow bay makes Corpus Christi an ideal feeding place for birds, this is one reason why Corpus Christi is known as the "Bird Capital" of North America; the San Diego Audubon Society has designated Corpus Christi as "America's birdiest place."
According to the United States Census Bureau, Corpus Christi has a total area of 460.2 square miles, of which 154.6 mi2 are land and 305.6 mi2 are covered by water. Drinking water for the city is supplied by three reservoirs
Shane Andre Mosley known by his nickname "Sugar" Shane Mosley, is an American former professional boxer who competed from 1993 to 2016. He is a four-time world champion in three weight classes, he is a former lineal champion at welterweight and light middleweight. In 1998, the Boxing Writers Association of America named Mosley as their Fighter of the Year, he was given the same honor by the International Boxing Hall of Fame in 2000. In 2000 and 2001 he was named pound for pound, by The Ring. Mosley was born in Lynwood and raised in Pomona, California, he has two older sisters and Cerena. Mosley became interested in boxing after watching his father, box in street fights. Mosley has been managed by his father since the age of eight. Mosley was an amateur standout, capturing various amateur titles, including: 1989 United States Amateur Champion at Lightweight 132 lb 1989 World Junior Championships Silver Medalist in San Juan, Puerto Rico 132 lb 1990 United States Amateur Champion at Lightweight 132 lb 1990 Goodwill Games Bronze Medalist in Seattle 132 lb 1992 United States Amateur Champion at Light Welterweight 139 lb On February 11, 1993 a 21 year old Mosley made his professional boxing debut in a scheduled six round fight at the Hollywood Palladium in Hollywood, California.
His opponent was Greg Puente. Mosley fought a further 6 times in 1993. In 1994, Mosley fought 9 times, winning all 8 inside the distance, he was taken the 10 round distance by Oscar Lopez. In April 1995, Mosley knocked out Raul Hernandez in round 2 at the Warner Center Marriott in Woodland Hills, California. In July he knocked out 34 year old veteran Mauricio Aceves in round 4 at the Arrowhead Pond in Anaheim, California. Aceves was best known for being the first WBO World lightweight champion. In January 1996, Mosley had his first fight outside of California since beginning his pro career, he fought at the Grand Casino in Biloxi, Mississippi knocking out 35 year old Mike Bryan in round one. By May 1997, Mosley went 23 fights unbeaten, with 22 coming inside the distance. On August 2, 1997 Mosley fought for his first world title, the IBF Lightweight championship against undefeated titleholder Philip Holiday. Holiday was making his seventh defence of the title since winning the vacant title in 1995.
It took place at the Mohegan Sun Casino in Uncasville and was the first time Mosley was scheduled to box 12 rounds. The fight went the full 12 round distance as Mosley took Holiday's IBF title via a unanimous decision; the three judges scored 117-111, 115-114 all in favor of Mosley. Mosley made his first title defence on November 25 at the County Coliseum in El Paso, Texas against Mexican Manuel Gomez. Mosley knocked Gomez out in round 11 to retain his title. On February 6, 1998 Mosley defeated 24 year old Demetrio Ceballos at the Mohegan Sun Casino in Uncasville. Ceballos left hook to the body, he was down again in round 8 following a flurry of punches before referee Eddie Cotton called an end to the fight. At the time of stoppage, Mosley was ahead on all cards. In May 1998, Mosley knocked out former world super featherweight champion and world lightweight challenger John John Molina in round 8 at the Trump Taj Mahal in Atlantic City, New Jersey. Molina was dropped to his knees in round 7. On June 27, 1998 Mosely knocked out Colombian boxer Wilfrido Ruiz in round 5.
He fought at the Madison Square Garden Theater in New York City on September 22, 1998 against Eduardo Bartolome Morales. Morales was knocked down in the 3rd round, stopped in round 5. On November 14, 1998 Mosley faced his toughest defense to date when he fought 32 year old former WBC super featherweight champion Jesse James Leija at the Foxwoods Resort in Mashantucket, Connecticut; this was Mosley's sixth defense of his IBF world title. As the fight progressed, Leija was knocked down in rounds 6, 7 and 9; the fight was stopped when Leija couldn't answer the bell for round 10, rewarding Mosley with a deserved victory. Mosley was leading by scores of 89-78 and 88-79 at the time of the stoppage. Leija took. Mosley took only two months out returning to the ring to defend his title in January 1999 against American Golden Johnson at the Civic Center in Pensacola, Florida; the fight ended when Mosley connected Johnson with a flurry of punches as he was against the ropes and dropped to both knees. He beat the count, but was put down again seconds ending the fight.
On April 17, 1999 Mosley made his 8th and final defense of the IBF lightweight title against former USBA super featherweight champion John Brown at the Fantasy Springs Casino in Indio, California. The fight was stopped after round 8. Mosley won the fight via TKO to retain his title. Mosley vacated his lightweight title and moved up two weight divisions to welterweight, scored two consecutive knockouts against Wilfredo Rivera and Willy Wise, setting up a huge fight against Oscar De La Hoya for the WBC welterweight title. On June 17, 2000, Mosley met De La Hoya in Los Angeles for the WBC, IBA & vacant lineal welterweight titles; this was the first boxing event to take place at the newly built Staples Center. After twelve rounds, Mosley emerged with a split decis
World Boxing Association
The World Boxing Association known as the National Boxing Association is the oldest and one of four major organizations which sanction professional boxing bouts, alongside the IBF, WBC, WBO. The WBA awards its world championship title at the professional level. Founded in the United States in 1921 by thirteen state representatives as the NBA, in 1962 it changed its name in recognition of boxing's growing popularity worldwide, began to gain other nations as members. By 1975, a majority of votes were held by Latin American nations, the organization headquarters were moved to Panama. After being located during the 1990s and early 2000s in Venezuela, the organization offices returned to Panama in 2007, it is the oldest of the four major organizations recognized by the International Boxing Hall of Fame, which sanction world championship boxing bouts, alongside the World Boxing Council, International Boxing Federation, World Boxing Organization. The World Boxing Association can be traced back to the original National Boxing Association, organized in 1921.
The first bout it recognized was the Jack Dempsey–Georges Carpentier Heavyweight Championship bout in New Jersey. The NBA was formed by representatives from thirteen American states, including Sam Milner, to counterbalance the influence that the New York State Athletic Commission wielded; the NBA and the NYSAC sometimes crowned different world champions in the same division, leading to confusion about, the real champion. The International Boxing Research Organization describes the early NBA as follows: Originally more comparable to the present American Association of Boxing Commissions than to its offspring and successor, the NBA sanctioned title bouts, published lists of outstanding challengers, withdrew titular recognition, but did not attempt to appoint its own title bout officials or otherwise impose its will on championship fights, it did not conduct purse bids or collect "sanctioning fees." The NBA became the WBA on August 23, 1962. Gilberto Mendoza was the president of the WBA from 1982 until his death in 2016, after which Gilberto Mendoza Jr. took over as president.
In the 1990s, the WBA moved its central offices from Panama, to Caracas, Venezuela. In January 2007, it returned its offices to Panama; the WBA has been plagued with charges of corruption for years. In a 1981 Sports Illustrated article, a WBA judge claimed that he was influenced by the WBA president to support certain fighters; the same article discussed a variety of bribes paid to WBA officials to obtain title fights or rankings with the organization. In a 1982 interview, the promoter Bob Arum claimed that he had to pay off WBA officials to obtain rankings for his fighters. Though the "Super Champion" designation are for WBA champions who concurrently hold titles with the WBO, IBF and/or WBC, in some instances, the WBA has designated as "Super Champion" fighters with only the WBA title; this particular practice has come under scrutiny, as several boxing experts consider it a means for the organization to gain more sanctioning fees within each division. The WBA garnered some attention in 2015 when it continued ranking Ali Raymi in its flyweight rankings, despite Raymi, who worked as a colonel in the Yemeni military, having been killed by a Saudi airstrike that year.
Ali Raymi was ranked Number 6 at the time of Number 11 after his death. The WBA recognises the title holders from the WBC, WBO, IBF organisations; the WBA refers to a champion who holds two or more of these titles in the same weight class as a "Super Champion", "Unified Champion", or "Undisputed Champion". This applies if the WBA title is not one of the titles held by the "Undisputed Champion." In September 2008 for example, Nate Campbell was recognized as the WBA's "Undisputed Champion" at lightweight due to holding the WBO and IBF titles as well, while the WBA's "Regular" champion was Yusuke Kobori. If a fighter with multiple titles holds the WBA's title, the fighter is promoted to "Super Champion" and the WBA title—which is referred to as the "Regular" title—becomes vacant for competition by other WBA-ranked boxers; as a result, the WBA's official list of champions will show a "WBA Super World Champion" and a "WBA World Champion" for the same weight class, instead of "WBA Champion." The WBA has been known to recognize three different fighters as one form of champion or another in the same weight class, there have been occasions where two different WBA "World" champions have defended their own versions of the same title, in the same weight class, on the same night, in two different parts of the world.
A WBA champion may be promoted to "Super Champion" without winning another organization's title: Chris John, Floyd Mayweather Jr. and Anselmo Moreno are examples. The WBA will promote their titlist to a "Super" champion when he defends his title five times; as of 2017, the WBA continues to issue Regular titles, despite having stated that they would seek to reduce their number of titles to one per weight class. Since 2015, the WBA awards a customized version of their Super champion belt to big fights involving a WBA championship; the WBA called this the Man of Triumph belt, named after the trophy awarded to the winner of Mayweather-Pacquiao fight. The plate of the belt has the images of the two boxers fighting. Floyd Mayweather Jr. received the first Gold-plated version of the belt while Manny Pacquiao was awarded a one-time Rhodium-plated version. Other recipients of the custom Gold-plated belt are Anthony Joshua, Vasyl Lomachenko, Manny Pacquiao, Oleksandr Usyk, Canelo Alvarez, Callum Smith.
As of April 13, 2019