Oak Park, Michigan
Oak Park is a city in south Oakland County in the U. S. state of Michigan. It is a northern suburb of the city of Detroit, located in neighboring Wayne County, part of its metropolitan area; as of the 2010 census, the population of Oak Park was 29,319. This area was designated as within Royal Oak Township; the first major housing development was constructed in 1914 at the time of World War I, when the township sold land to the Majestic Land Company to be developed as the Oak Park subdivision. The subdivision was incorporated as a village on May 3, 1927. Two petition drives during the Great Depression to dissolve the village government and return it to the township, citing "excessively high cost of village government," failed in 1931 and 1933; the village incorporated as a city on October 29, 1945 following the end of World War II. Stimulated by the GI Bill which aided veterans in buying new housing, highways to improve commuting, planned developments in the late 1950s, Oak Park from 1950 to 1960 was named as "America's Fastest Growing City".
Its population increased sevenfold, from 5,000 to more than 36,000. Much of its population was second and third-generation children of European immigrants who had settled in Detroit in the early 20th century; these included many Jewish Americans descended from immigrant ancestors from the Russian Empire, including present-day Poland and Ukraine. Major civic improvements in this period included construction of an outdoor swimming pool and an ice rink in Major Park. In 1995, Detroit-based window manufacturer WeatherGard moved its headquarters to Oak Park. In 2002 and 2004, the city annexed portions of neighboring Royal Oak Township to expand its land and tax base. On November 8, 2011 the citizens of Oak Park elected Marian McClellan, she was the city's first new mayor in 22 years, replacing the long-serving Jerry Naftaly. In April 2015, the city approved the development of a new FedEx distribution center which will be located on a 60-acre plot of land at the site of the former Detroit Artillery Armory.
On May 5, 2015 the citizens of Oak Park voted to allow mixed drinks to be sold at businesses within city limits, in addition to beer and wine, which were allowed. On November 3, 2015 the citizens of Oak Park re-elected McClellan, running against Aaron Tobin. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 5.16 square miles, all of it land. As of the census of 2010, there were 29,319 people, 11,719 households, 7,533 families residing in the city; the population density was 5,682.0 inhabitants per square mile. There were 12,782 housing units at an average density of 2,477.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 57.4% African American, 37.4% White, 1.4% Asian, 0.2% Native American, 0.5% from other races, 3.0% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino people of any race were 1.4% of the population. There were 11,719 households of which 35.7% were non-families, 35.4% were married couples living together, 33.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 23.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 5.1% had a male householder with no wife present.
30.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 11% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.50 and the average family size was 3.16. The median age in the city was 37.5 years. 24.9% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 45.1% male and 54.9% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 29,793 people, 11,104 households, 7,595 families residing in the city; the population density was 2,291.5/km². There were 11,370 housing units at an average density of 874.5/km². The racial makeup of the city was 46.95% White, 45.95% African American, 2.18% Asian, 0.17% Native American, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.60% from other races, 4.13% from two or more races. 1.28% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 11,104 households out of which 44.0% were married couples living together, 34.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 31.6% were non-families, 19.5% had a female householder with no husband present.
26.6% of all households were made up of individuals, 10.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.68 and the average family size was 3.29. In the city, the population was spread out with 28.2% under the age of 18, 8.0% from 18 to 24, 29.8% from 25 to 44, 21.8% from 45 to 64, 12.2% who are 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females, there were 88.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 81.9 males. The median income for a household in the city was $48,697, the median income for a family was $54,786. Males had a median income of $40,922 versus $35,968 for females; the per capita income for the city was $21,677. 9.4% of the population and 7.8% of families were below the poverty line. Out of the total population, 10.9% of those under the age of 18 and 13.9% of those 65 and older were living below the poverty line. Oak Park's educational history began with the Clinton School, a one-room schoolhouse on property donated by Barney Clinton in the early 20th century.
As the population grew Clinton School was expanded and more elementary schools were built beginning in the 1950s. Clinton School was made a junior high school and another w
Royal Oak, Michigan
Royal Oak is a city in Oakland County in the U. S. state of Michigan. It is a suburb of Detroit; as of the 2010 census, the city had a population of 57,236. It is the 8th-largest municipality in Oakland County and the 27th-largest municipality in Michigan by population. Early Europeans in this area near Fort Detroit in the 18th century were French Canadians. After defeating France in the Seven Years' War, Great Britain took control of their territory east of the Mississippi River, including Fort Detroit and environs. After the American Revolutionary War, Britain promoted development of what was called Upper Canada and Province of Quebec, across the Detroit and St. Clair rivers to the south and east. Royal Oak was not incorporated as a village until 1891, as a city in 1921, it was named in 1819, during one of the surveying expeditions led by Territorial Governor Lewis Cass. A large oak tree at this small settlement reminded Cass of the story of the Royal Oak, where King Charles II of England was said to have hid to escape capture by the Roundheads after the Battle of Worcester.
Cass named the settlement after that, several years after the United States had fought Great Britain across the northern border in the War of 1812. Royal Oak developed as a suburb of Detroit in the early 20th century, following Detroit's booming growth as a result of industrialization and its auto industry; the Royal Oak Farmers Market opened as a truck market, at the corner of 4th and Troy streets, on October 14, 1925 as a cooperative venture between the then-new City of Royal Oak and Oakland County, Michigan. There were still numerous farmers in the county; the present structure, at the corner of 11 Mile Road and Troy Street, is adjacent to the 44th District Court. It was dedicated July 1 of that year. In the 1920s, Father Charles Coughlin, a Canadian Catholic priest who relocated to Detroit, became the founding pastor of the Shrine of the Little Flower, now a prominent landmark in the city. Through his ministry, he raised funds to build tower, he broadcast religious speeches from this site.
During the 1930s, his broadcasts became more political. He supported President Franklin D. Roosevelt opposed him and promoted the causes of the fascist leaders of Germany and Italy; the Roosevelt administration closed down his radio operation after the outbreak of World War II, with support from the Catholic hierarchy. Coughlin had developed national political influence and had an anti-semitic message, at a time when Jewish people were being persecuted in Germany; the downtown had a typical mixture of small-scale retail and trade to serve the city of Royal Oak. With the development of the highway system in the postwar period, it lost business to suburban malls. Since the late 1990s and early 2000s, Royal Oak's downtown has developed as an entertainment and nightlife destination. A number of large condominiums and lofts have been built in the area, increasing the density of the downtown population. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 11.79 square miles, all land.
Royal Oak developed around the Red Run. Vinsetta Boulevard was built skirting a source branch of the Red Run for its median. In the 1930s, Vinsetta's entire median, along with the river and all but the tops of the bridges for the crossing streets were filled in as part of a WPA project during the Great Depression. During 1967–8, the rest of the river in Oakland County was buried within a six-foot drain pipe; as of the census of 2010, there were 57,236 people, 28,063 households, 13,394 families residing in the city. The population density was 4,854.6 inhabitants per square mile. There were 30,207 housing units at an average density of 2,562.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 90.7% White, 4.3% African American, 0.3% Native American, 2.4% Asian, 0.4% from other races, 1.9% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.3% of the population. There were 28,063 households of which 20.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 36.7% were married couples living together, 8.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 3.0% had a male householder with no wife present, 52.3% were non-families.
41.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.03 and the average family size was 2.82. The median age in the city was 37.8 years. 16.7% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 49.0% male and 51.0% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 60,062 people, 28,880 households, 14,440 families residing in the city; the population density was 5,083.0 people per square mile. There were 29,942 housing units at an average density of 2,534.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 94.80% White, 1.54% African American, 0.26% Native American, 1.56% Asian, 0.05% Pacific Islander, 0.38% from other races, 1.40% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.30% of the population. There were 28,880 households out of which 20.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 39.9% were married couples living together, 7.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 50.0% were non-families.
40.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.06 and the average family size was 2.86. I
A metropolitan area, sometimes referred to as a metro area or commuter belt, is a region consisting of a densely populated urban core and its less-populated surrounding territories, sharing industry and housing. A metro area comprises multiple jurisdictions and municipalities: neighborhoods, boroughs, towns, suburbs, districts and nations like the eurodistricts; as social and political institutions have changed, metropolitan areas have become key economic and political regions. Metropolitan areas include one or more urban areas, as well as satellite cities and intervening rural areas that are socioeconomically tied to the urban core measured by commuting patterns. In the United States, the concept of the metropolitan statistical area has gained prominence. Metropolitan areas may themselves be part of larger megalopolises. For urban centres outside metropolitan areas, that generate a similar attraction at smaller scale for their region, the concept of the regiopolis and regiopolitan area or regio was introduced by German professors in 2006.
In the United States, the term micropolitan statistical area is used. A metropolitan area combines an urban agglomeration with zones not urban in character, but bound to the center by employment or other commerce; these outlying zones are sometimes known as a commuter belt, may extend well beyond the urban zone, to other political entities. For example, New York on Long Island is considered part of the New York metropolitan area. In practice, the parameters of metropolitan areas, in both official and unofficial usage, are not consistent. Sometimes they are little different from an urban area, in other cases they cover broad regions that have little relation to a single urban settlement. Population figures given for one metro area can vary by millions. There has been no significant change in the basic concept of metropolitan areas since its adoption in 1950, although significant changes in geographic distributions have occurred since and more are expected; because of the fluidity of the term "metropolitan statistical area," the term used colloquially is more "metro service area," "metro area," or "MSA" taken to include not only a city, but surrounding suburban and sometimes rural areas, all which it is presumed to influence.
A polycentric metropolitan area contains multiple urban agglomerations not connected by continuous development. In defining a metropolitan area, it is sufficient that a city or cities form a nucleus with which other areas have a high degree of integration. See the many lists of metropolitan areas itemized at § Lists of metropolitan areas; the Australian Bureau of Statistics defines Greater Capital City Statistical Areas as the areas of functional extent of the seven state capitals and the Australian Capital Territory. GCCSAs replaced "Statistical Divisions" used until 2011. In Brazil, metropolitan areas are called "metropolitan regions"; each State defines its own legislation for the creation and organization of a metropolitan region. The creation of a metropolitan region is not intended for any statistical purpose, although the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics uses them in its reports, their main purpose is to allow for a better management of public policies of common interest to all cities involved.
They don't have political, electoral or jurisdictional power whatsoever, so citizens living in a metropolitan region do not elect representatives for them. Statistics Canada defines a census metropolitan area as an area consisting of one or more adjacent municipalities situated around a major urban core. To form a CMA, the metropolitan area must have a population of at least 100,000, at least half within the urban core. To be included in the CMA, adjacent municipalities must have a high degree of integration with the core, as measured by commuter flows derived from census data. In Chinese, there used to be no clear distinction between "megalopolis" and "metropolitan area" until National Development and Reform Commission issued Guidelines on the Cultivation and Development of Modern Metropolitan Areas on Feb 19, 2019, in which a metropolitan area was defined as "an urbanized spatial form in a megalopolis dominated by supercity or megacity, or a large metropolis playing a leading part, within the basic range of 1-hour commute area."
The European Union's statistical agency, has created a concept named Larger Urban Zone. The LUZ represents an attempt at a harmonised definition of the metropolitan area, the goal was to have an area from a significant share of the resident commute into the city, a concept known as the "functional urban region". France's national statistics institute, the INSEE, names an urban core and its surrounding area of commuter influence an aire urbaine; this statistical method applies to agglomerations of all sizes, but the INSEE sometimes uses the term aire métropolitaine to refer to France's largest aires urbaines. In German definition, metropolian areas are eleven most densely populated areas in the Federal Republic of Germany, they comprise the major German cities and their surrounding catchment areas and form the political and cultural centres of the country. For urban centres outside metropolitan areas, that generate a similar attraction at smaller scale for their region, the concept of the Regiopolis and regiopolitan area or regio was introduced by German professors in 2006.
In India, a metropolitan city is defin
A commuter town is a populated area with residents who work elsewhere, but in which they live and sleep. The term additionally implies a community that has little commercial or industrial activity beyond a small amount of locally oriented retail business. A commuter town may be called by many other terms: "exurb", "bedroom community", "bedroom town", "bedroom suburb", "dormitory town", "dormitory suburb", or, less "dormitory village". In Japan, a commuter town may be referred to with the wasei-eigo coinage "bed town". Suburbs and commuter towns coincide, but are not synonymous. Similar to college town, resort town and mill town, the term commuter town describes the municipality's predominant economic function. A suburb, in contrast, is a community of lesser size, political power and/or commerce comparative to a nearby community, of greater economic importance. A town's economic function may change, for example when improved transport brings commuters to industrial suburbs or railway towns in search of suburban living.
Some suburbs, for example Teterboro, New Jersey and Emeryville, remained industrial when they became surrounded by commuter towns. As a general rule, suburbs are developed in areas adjacent to a main employment center, such as a town or a city, but may or may not have many jobs locally, whereas bedroom communities have few local businesses, most residents who have jobs commute to employment centers some distance away. Commuter towns may be in rural or semi-rural areas, with a ring of green space separating them from the larger city or town. Where urban sprawl and conurbation have erased clear lines among towns and cities in large metropolitan areas, this is not the case. Commuter towns can arise for a number of different reasons. Sometimes, as in Sleepy Hollow, New York or Tiburon, California, a town loses its main source of employment, leaving its residents to seek work elsewhere. In other cases, a pleasant small town, such as Warwick, New York, over time attracts more residents but not large businesses to employ them, requiring denizens to commute to employment centers.
Another cause relevant in the American South and West, is the rapid growth of once-small cities. Owing to the earlier creation of the Interstate Highway System, the greatest growth was seen by the sprawling metropolitan areas of these cities; as a result, many small cities were absorbed into the suburbs of these larger cities. However, commuter towns form when workers in a region cannot afford to live where they work and must seek residency in another town with a lower cost of living; the late 20th century dot-com bubble and United States housing bubble drove housing costs in Californian metropolitan areas to historic highs, spawning exurban growth in adjacent counties. For example, most cities in western Riverside County, California can be considered exurbs of Orange County and Los Angeles County, California; as of 2003, over 80% of the workforce of Tracy, California was employed in the San Francisco Bay Area. A related phenomenon is common in the resort towns of the American West that require large workforces, yet emphasize building larger single-family residences and other expensive housing.
For example, the resort town of Jackson, Wyoming has spawned several nearby bedroom communities, including Victor, Driggs and Alpine, where the majority of the Jackson workforce resides. On Long Island, New York, many of the workforce who serve The Hamptons reside in communities more modest and more suburban than their workplace, giving rise to a daily reverse commuter flow from more dense to less dense areas. In certain major European cities, such as Berlin and London, commuter towns were founded in response to bomb damage sustained during World War II. Residents were relocated to semi-rural areas within a 50-mile radius, firstly because much inner city housing had been destroyed, secondly in order to stimulate development away from cities as the industrial infrastructure shifted from rail to road. Around London, several towns – such as Basildon, Crawley and Stevenage – were built for this purpose by the Commission for New Towns. In some cases, commuter towns can result from negative economic conditions.
Steubenville, for instance, had its own regional identity along with neighboring Weirton, West Virginia until the collapse of the steel industry in the 1980s. Combined with easier access to the much larger city of Pittsburgh via the Steubenville Pike and the Parkway West, Steubenville has shifted its marketing efforts to being a commuter town to Pittsburgh, as well as one with a lower cost of living in Ohio compared to tax-heavy Pennsylvania. In 2013, Jefferson County, Ohio was added to the Pittsburgh metropolitan area as part of its larger Combined Statistical Area. Where commuters are wealthier and small town housing markets weaker than city housing markets, the development of a bedroom community may raise local housing prices and attract upscale service businesses in a process akin to gentrification. Long-time residents may be displaced by new commuter residents due to rising house prices; this can be influenced by zoning restrictions in urbanized areas that prevent the construction of suitably cheap housing closer to places of employment.
The number of commuter towns increased in the US and the UK during the 20th century because of a trend for people to move out of the cities into the surrounding green belt. Commuter towns were developed by railway companies to create demand for their l
Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume. It is applied to living organisms, most of the time to humans, it is a key geographical term. In simple terms population density refers to the number of people living in an area per kilometer square. Population density is population divided by total land water volume, as appropriate. Low densities may lead to further reduced fertility; this is called the Allee effect after the scientist. Examples of the causes in low population densities include: Increased problems with locating sexual mates Increased inbreeding For humans, population density is the number of people per unit of area quoted per square kilometer or square mile; this may be calculated for a county, country, another territory or the entire world. The world's population is around 7,500,000,000 and Earth's total area is 510,000,000 square kilometers. Therefore, the worldwide human population density is around 7,500,000,000 ÷ 510,000,000 = 14.7 per km2. If only the Earth's land area of 150,000,000 km2 is taken into account human population density is 50 per km2.
This includes all continental and island land area, including Antarctica. If Antarctica is excluded population density rises to over 55 people per km2. However, over half of the Earth's land mass consists of areas inhospitable to human habitation, such as deserts and high mountains, population tends to cluster around seaports and fresh-water sources. Thus, this number by itself does not give any helpful measurement of human population density. Several of the most densely populated territories in the world are city-states and dependencies; these territories have a small area and a high urbanization level, with an economically specialized city population drawing on rural resources outside the area, illustrating the difference between high population density and overpopulation The potential to maintain the agricultural aspects of deserts is limited as there is not enough precipitation to support a sustainable land. The population in these areas are low. Therefore, cities in the Middle East, such as Dubai, have been increasing in population and infrastructure growth at a fast pace.
Cities with high population densities are, by some, considered to be overpopulated, though this will depend on factors like quality of housing and infrastructure and access to resources. Most of the most densely populated cities are in Southeast Asia, though Cairo and Lagos in Africa fall into this category. City population and area are, however dependent on the definition of "urban area" used: densities are invariably higher for the central city area than when suburban settlements and the intervening rural areas are included, as in the areas of agglomeration or metropolitan area, the latter sometimes including neighboring cities. For instance, Milwaukee has a greater population density when just the inner city is measured, the surrounding suburbs excluded. In comparison, based on a world population of seven billion, the world's inhabitants, as a loose crowd taking up ten square feet per person, would occupy a space a little larger than Delaware's land area; the Gaza Strip has a population density of 5,046 pop/km.
Although arithmetic density is the most common way of measuring population density, several other methods have been developed to provide a more accurate measure of population density over a specific area. Arithmetic density: The total number of people / area of land Physiological density: The total population / area of arable land Agricultural density: The total rural population / area of arable land Residential density: The number of people living in an urban area / area of residential land Urban density: The number of people inhabiting an urban area / total area of urban land Ecological optimum: The density of population that can be supported by the natural resources Demography Human geography Idealized population Optimum population Population genetics Population health Population momentum Population pyramid Rural transport problem Small population size Distance sampling List of population concern organizations List of countries by population density List of cities by population density List of city districts by population density List of English districts by population density List of European cities proper by population density List of United States cities by population density List of islands by population density List of U.
S. states by population density List of Australian suburbs by population density Selected Current and Historic City, Ward & Neighborhood Density Duncan Smith / UCL Centre for Advanced Spatial Analysis. "World Population Density". Exploratory map shows data from the Global Human Settlement Layer produced by the European Commission JRC and the CIESIN Columbia University
Royal Oak Charter Township, Michigan
Royal Oak Charter Township is a charter township of Oakland County of the U. S. state of Michigan. As of the 2010 census, the population was 2,419; the nearby city of Royal Oak is separate from the township. The township is bound by Galaxie and North End avenues to the north, Meyers Road to the west, 8 Mile Road to the south, a line running north-south along the backyards of Mitchelldale Avenue to the east; the township is bisected by Wyoming Avenue and is a general mix of residential and industrial space. While consisting of single-family homes, there are apartments along Fitzgerald Boulevard and Pasadena Avenue. Royal Oak Towers, an 11-story senior citizens apartment tower, is located off Wyoming Avenue. Commercial and retail space lines the southern border of the township along 8 Mile Road, while industrial space is located along the northern borders of the township. At the northernmost point of the township lies Radio Plaza, bordered by Radio Plaza Street on the west, serves as home to Greater Media, Salem Media Group's Detroit market headquarters, as well as Motower Multilink Corporation's 993 foot radio tower.
WDTK, WLQV, WCSX, WMGC, WRIF are all based out of Radio Plaza in Royal Oak Township. Royal Oak Township was established in 1833 as a regular, 36-square-mile civil township, at one time consisted of all or parts of the following modern cities and villages of Hazel Park, Oak Park, Madison Heights, Pleasant Ridge, Huntington Woods, Royal Oak and Clawson; the township began to shrink beginning in 1921 with the incorporation of the cities above. To provide greater protection from easy annexation, the township incorporated as a charter township in 1972; the township has neither its own police department nor a post office. Its police department was disbanded in 1998. For public safety, the township contracts with the Michigan State Police for police services and the Ferndale Fire Department for fire services. For postal purposes, the community records its location as "Ferndale, MI 48220"; until 2004, the township consisted of two small non-contiguous parcels of land within Oakland County. The larger portion was along Eight Mile Road, adjacent to Detroit, Oak Park, Ferndale.
A second portion, located northwest of the other portion, adjoining Oak Park and Southfield, was annexed by Oak Park on November 1, 2004. According to the United States Census Bureau, the township has a total area of.55-square-mile, all land. As of the census of 2010, there were 2,419 people residing in the township; the population density was 4,398.1 people per square mile. There were 1,111 housing units at an average density of 2,020.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the township was 1.4% White, 95.3% African American, 0.1% Native American, 0.0% Asian, 0.0% Pacific Islander, 0.3% from other races, 2.8% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.3% of the population. There were 1,211 households out of which 25.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 21.1% were married couples living together, 26.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 48.5% were non-families. 44.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 17.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.15 and the average family size was 3.02. In the township the population was spread out with 25.0% under the age of 18, 10.1% from 18 to 24, 29.7% from 25 to 44, 18.3% from 45 to 64, 16.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females, there were 78.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 72.2 males. The median income for a household in the township was $23,710, the median income for a family was $28,397. Males had a median income of $28,824 versus $26,382 for females; the per capita income for the township was $15,027. About 19.9% of families and 23.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 25.8% of those under age 18 and 30.4% of those age 65 and over. The township is divided between Ferndale Public Schools; the Clinton School District served Royal Oak Township. The majority black George Washington Carver School District separated from the Clinton district in 1945 as more African-Americans moved to the area.
In 1960 Governor of Michigan G. Mennen Williams consolidated the Carver School District, along with its elementary school, into the Oak Park School District because the Carver district no longer had sufficient taxes to pay for a senior high school services, no area school districts voluntarily took its students for high school. Official Website of the Charter Township of Royal Oak
United States Census Bureau
The United States Census Bureau is a principal agency of the U. S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy; the Census Bureau is part of the U. S. Department of Commerce and its director is appointed by the President of the United States; the Census Bureau's primary mission is conducting the U. S. Census every ten years, which allocates the seats of the U. S. House of Representatives to the states based on their population; the Bureau's various censuses and surveys help allocate over $400 billion in federal funds every year and it helps states, local communities, businesses make informed decisions. The information provided by the census informs decisions on where to build and maintain schools, transportation infrastructure, police and fire departments. In addition to the decennial census, the Census Bureau continually conducts dozens of other censuses and surveys, including the American Community Survey, the U. S. Economic Census, the Current Population Survey.
Furthermore and foreign trade indicators released by the federal government contain data produced by the Census Bureau. Article One of the United States Constitution directs the population be enumerated at least once every ten years and the resulting counts used to set the number of members from each state in the House of Representatives and, by extension, in the Electoral College; the Census Bureau now conducts a full population count every 10 years in years ending with a zero and uses the term "decennial" to describe the operation. Between censuses, the Census Bureau makes population projections. In addition, Census data directly affects how more than $400 billion per year in federal and state funding is allocated to communities for neighborhood improvements, public health, education and more; the Census Bureau is mandated with fulfilling these obligations: the collecting of statistics about the nation, its people, economy. The Census Bureau's legal authority is codified in Title 13 of the United States Code.
The Census Bureau conducts surveys on behalf of various federal government and local government agencies on topics such as employment, health, consumer expenditures, housing. Within the bureau, these are known as "demographic surveys" and are conducted perpetually between and during decennial population counts; the Census Bureau conducts economic surveys of manufacturing, retail and other establishments and of domestic governments. Between 1790 and 1840, the census was taken by marshals of the judicial districts; the Census Act of 1840 established a central office. Several acts followed that revised and authorized new censuses at the 10-year intervals. In 1902, the temporary Census Office was moved under the Department of Interior, in 1903 it was renamed the Census Bureau under the new Department of Commerce and Labor; the department was intended to consolidate overlapping statistical agencies, but Census Bureau officials were hindered by their subordinate role in the department. An act in 1920 changed the date and authorized manufacturing censuses every two years and agriculture censuses every 10 years.
In 1929, a bill was passed mandating the House of Representatives be reapportioned based on the results of the 1930 Census. In 1954, various acts were codified into Title 13 of the US Code. By law, the Census Bureau must count everyone and submit state population totals to the U. S. President by December 31 of any year ending in a zero. States within the Union receive the results in the spring of the following year; the United States Census Bureau defines four statistical regions, with nine divisions. The Census Bureau regions are "widely used...for data collection and analysis". The Census Bureau definition is pervasive. Regional divisions used by the United States Census Bureau: Region 1: Northeast Division 1: New England Division 2: Mid-Atlantic Region 2: Midwest Division 3: East North Central Division 4: West North Central Region 3: South Division 5: South Atlantic Division 6: East South Central Division 7: West South Central Region 4: West Division 8: Mountain Division 9: Pacific Many federal, state and tribal governments use census data to: Decide the location of new housing and public facilities, Examine the demographic characteristics of communities and the US, Plan transportation systems and roadways, Determine quotas and creation of police and fire precincts, Create localized areas for elections, utilities, etc.
Gathers population information every 10 years The United States Census Bureau is committed to confidentiality, guarantees non-disclosure of any addresses or personal information related to individuals or establishments. Title 13 of the U. S. Code establishes penalties for the disclosure of this information. All Census employees must sign an affidavit of non-disclosure prior to employment; the Bureau cannot share responses, addresses or personal information with anyone including United States or foreign government