click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Ferranti Mark 1

The Ferranti Mark 1 known as the Manchester Electronic Computer in its sales literature, thus sometimes called the Manchester Ferranti, was produced by British electrical engineering firm Ferranti Ltd. Among the world's first commercially available general-purpose digital computers, it was "the tidied up and commercialised version of the Manchester Mark I. The first machine was delivered to the University of Manchester in February 1951 ahead of the UNIVAC I, sold to the United States Census Bureau on 31 March 1951, although not delivered until late December the following year. Based on the Manchester Mark 1, designed at the University of Manchester by Freddie Williams and Tom Kilburn, the machine was built by Ferranti of the United Kingdom; the main improvements over it were in the size of the primary and secondary storage, a faster multiplier, additional instructions. The Mark 1 used a 20-bit word stored as a single line of dots of electric charges settled on the surface of a Williams tube display, each cathodic tube storing 64 lines of dots.

Instructions were stored in a single word. The main memory consisted of eight tubes. Other tubes stored the single 80-bit accumulator, the 40-bit "multiplicand/quotient register" and eight "B-lines", or index registers, one of the unique features of the Mark 1 design; the accumulator could be addressed as two 40-bit words. An extra 20-bit word per tube stored an offset value into the secondary storage. Secondary storage was provided in the form of a 512-page magnetic drum, storing two pages per track, with about 30 milliseconds revolution time; the drum provided eight times the storage of the original designed at Manchester. The instructions, like the Manchester machine, used a single address format in which operands were modified and left in the accumulator. There were about fifty instructions in total; the basic cycle time was 1.2 milliseconds, a multiplication could be completed in the new parallel unit in about 2.16 milliseconds. The multiplier used a quarter of the machine's 4,050 vacuum tubes.

Several instructions were included to copy a word of memory from one of the Williams tubes to a paper tape machine, or read them back in. Several new instructions were added to the original Manchester design, including a random number instruction and several new instructions using the B-lines; the original Mark 1 had to be programmed by entering alphanumeric characters representing a five-bit value that could be represented on the paper tape input. The engineers decided to use the simplest mapping between the paper holes and the binary digits they represented, but the mapping between the holes and the physical keyboard was never meant to be a binary mapping; as a result, the characters representing the values from 0–31 looked random /E@A:SIU½DRJNFCKTZLWHYPQOBG"MXV£. The first machine was delivered to the University of Manchester. Ferranti had high hopes for further sales, were encouraged by an order placed by the Atomic Energy Research Establishment for delivery in autumn 1952, but a change of government while the second machine was being built led to all government contracts over £100,000 being cancelled, leaving Ferranti with a completed Mark 1.

The company sold it to the University of Toronto, building their own machine but saw the chance to buy the complete Mark 1 for less. They purchased it for around $30,000, a "fire sale" price, gave it the nickname FERUT. FERUT was extensively used in business and academia, among other duties, carrying out calculations as part of the construction of the St. Lawrence Seaway. After the first two machines, a revised version of the design became available, known as the Ferranti Mark 1 Star or the Ferranti Mark 1*; the revisions cleaned up the instruction set for better usability. Instead of the original mapping from holes to binary digits that resulted in the random-looking mapping, the new machines mapped digits to holes to produce a much simpler mapping, ø£½0@:$ABCDEFGHIJKLMNPQRSTUVWXYZ. Additionally, several commands that used the index registers had side effects that led to quirky programming, but these were modified to have no side effects; the original machines' JUMP instructions landed at a location "one before" the actual address, for reasons similar to the odd index behaviour, but these proved useful only in theory and quite annoying in practice, were modified.

Input/output was modified, with five-bit numbers being output least significant digit to the right, as is typical for most numeric writing. These, among other changes improved the ease of programming the newer machines; the Mark 1/1* weighted 10,000 pounds. At least seven of the Mark 1* machines were delivered between 1953 and 1957, one of them to Shell labs in Amsterdam. Another was installed at Avro, the aircraft manufacturers, at their Chadderton factory in Manchester; this was used for work on the Vulcan among other projects. Conway Berners-Lee and Mary Lee Woods, the parents of Tim Berners-Lee, inventor of the World Wide Web, both worked on the Ferranti Mark 1 and Mark 1*. Included in the Ferranti Mark 1's instruction set was a hoot command, which enabled the machine to give auditory feedback to its operators; the sound generated could be altered in pitch, a feature, exploited when the Mark 1 made the earliest known recording of computer-generated music, playing a medley which included "God Save the King", "Baa Baa Black Sheep", "In the Mood".

The recording was made by the BBC towards the end of 1951, with the programming being done by Christop

Thymic stromal lymphopoietin

Thymic stromal lymphopoietin is a protein belonging to the cytokine family. It is known to play an important role in the maturation of T cell populations through activation of antigen presenting cells. TSLP is produced by non-hematopoietic cells such as fibroblasts, epithelial cells and different types of stromal or stromal-like cells; these cells are located in regions. TSLP production has been observed including humans and mice. In humans TSLP is encoded by the TSLP gene. Alternative splicing of this gene results in two transcript variants, it impacts myeloid cells and induces the release of T cell-attracting chemokines from monocytes and enhances the maturation of myeloid dendritic cells. TSLP has been shown to activate the maturation of a specific subset of dendritic cells located within the epidermis, called Langerhans cells. Within the thymus TSLP activation of both myeloid and plasmacytoid dendritic cells results in the production of regulatory T cells. TSLP signals through a heterodimeric receptor complex composed of the thymic stromal lymphopoietin receptor CRLF2 and the IL-7R alpha chain.

After binding STAT5 phosphorylation is induced resulting in the expression of upstream transcription factors. TSLP expression is linked to many disease states including asthma, inflammatory arthritis, atopic dermatitis, eosinophilic esophagitis and other allergic states; the factors inducing the activation of TSLP release are not defined. Expression of TSLP is enhanced under asthma-like conditions, conditioning APCs in order to orient the differentiation of T cells coming into the lungs towards a TH2 profile; the TH2 cells release factors promoting an inflammatory reaction following the repeated contact with a specific antigen in the airways. TSLP-activated Langerhans cells of the epidermis induce the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines like TNF-alpha by T cells causing atopic dermatitis, it is thought that understanding the mechanism of TSLP production and those potential substances that block the production, one may be able to prevent or treat conditions of asthma and/or eczema. Overview of all the structural information available in the PDB for UniProt: Q969D9 at the PDBe-KB

Attak

Attak is the twelfth studio album by German industrial band KMFDM, released on 19 March 2002 by Metropolis Records. The band's first album following a three-year hiatus, it was the first to feature member Lucia Cifarelli and the last to feature member Tim Sköld; the album was going to be titled Attaq and written in a Middle Eastern font, but was changed by Konietzko after the September 11 attacks, who explained that the band's history with the Columbine shootings would have made the original title "pretty fucking harsh". Attak received mixed reviews. Sascha Konietzkodrums, synthesizers, bass, percussion, cockpit voice recorder Tim Sköld – guitars, drums, synthesizers, percussion, drumloops Bill Rieflin – drums, programming, percussion, guitars Lucia Cifarelli – vocals, Sidstation "Ninja" Jules Hodgson – guitars Raymond Watts – vocals, drumloops Arianne Schreiber – vocals Curt Golden – slide guitars Dorona Alberti – vocals KMFDM DØTKØM Attak lyrics at the official KMFDM website

Mikhail Zaitsev

Mikhail Mitrofanovich Zaitsev was a general of the Soviet Army. Zaitsev's principal commands were the Group of Soviet Forces in Germany and the southern military districts of the Soviet Union. Zaitsev was born into a peasant family and attended middle school before volunteering for the Soviet Army in 1941. In May 1942, Zaitsev was transferred to the combat arms and served as a staff officer in the 113th Tank Brigade and the 7th Guards Tank Corps, he was transferred to the headquarters of the 6th Guards Tank Corps. Zaitsev took part in the battles of Kursk and Berlin, as well as major Soviet operations such as Lvov-Sandomierz, Vistula-Oder, the drive on Prague. Zaitsev ended his wartime service assigned to the 1st Ukrainian Front. Following the war, Zaitsev served in a variety of staff assignments that built upon his expertise with armored forces and warfare, he commanded a tank division in 1965 and the 5th Guards Tank Army in 1969. He held command of 5th Guards Tank Army from 2.12.69 to 11.8.72.

In May 1976, he became commander of the Belorussian Military District. In 1980, he was transferred to the German Democratic Republic and became commander of the Group of Soviet Forces in Germany on 22 October 1980, a position he held until 6 July 1985. Zaitsev was made a Hero of the Soviet Union on 22 November 1983. Zaitsev's priorities for GSFG included training that stressed the use of individual initiative by junior officers. During his tour of command of GSFG, a crisis with the United States broke out because of the shooting of Arthur D. Nicholson, a U. S. officer assigned to the U. S. Military Liaison Mission in East Germany. Zaitsev subsequently had a tense meeting with General Glenn K. Otis, the commander of U. S. Army Europe, in which Zaitsev stated the Soviet forces had not acted improperly when Nicholson was shot. From 1985 until 1989, Zaitsev commanded the Southern Strategic Direction and thus supervised the Limited Contingent of Soviet Forces in Afghanistan made up of troops of the 40th Army and the Air Force's 34th Composite Aviation Corps, plus Border and KGB Troops.

From 1989 until his retirement in 1992, Zaitsev was assigned to the inspector-general staff of the Soviet Ministry of Defense. In 1981, he was a member of the Central Committee of the Communist Party, from 1979 until 1989 he was a member of the Supreme Soviet. In retirement, he lived in Moscow until his death. General Mikhail Zaitsev is interred in Troyekurovskoye Cemetery. Cooley, John K. Unholy Wars, London: Pluto Press, 2002. ISBN 0 7453 1917 3

Wüst Seahawk

The Wüst Seahawk is a German amateur-built flying boat under development by Wüst GmbH. The aircraft is intended to be supplied as a kit for amateur construction; the Seahawk was the Mark Flugzeugbau Shark, but that company went out of business and Wüst continued development of the design. The Seahawk features a cantilever shoulder-wing, a two-seats-in-side-by-side configuration enclosed cockpit, retractable tricycle landing gear and a single engine in pusher configuration, mounted in a pod above the wing; the aircraft is made from composites. Its wing mounts downturned wing tips; the standard engine used is the 115 hp Rotax 914 four-stroke turbocharged powerplant. The swept fin mounts the tailplane high, in a nearly T-tailed configuration; the hull incorporates a built-in step. The aircraft prototype first flew in the spring of 2003 and a second prototype was completed. A third prototype was under construction in Africa in 2010; the company indicated that kit production would take place in the Czech Republic.

Since 2010 the company website has disappeared and development of the Seahawk may have ceased. Data from BayerlGeneral characteristics Crew: one Capacity: one passenger Empty weight: 350 kg Powerplant: 1 × Rotax 914 four cylinder and air-cooled, four stroke turbocharged aircraft engine, 86 kW

List of Black Mirror episodes

Black Mirror is a British science fiction anthology television series created by Charlie Brooker and produced by Zeppotron for Endemol. It focuses on humanity's relationship to technology and its consequences; as of 5 June 2019, 22 episodes of Black Mirror have been released, including one special, concluding the fifth series. Additionally, an interactive film was released between series four and five, as part of the anthology; the episodes vary between 89 minutes in length. The first two series of Black Mirror comprised three episodes each and aired on Channel 4 from 2011 to 2013, along with the special episode "White Christmas" in 2014. Netflix purchased the program in 2015 and commissioned a series of twelve episodes, divided into two separate series; the third and fourth series, each comprising six episodes, were released in 2016 and 2017 respectively. The interactive film Black Mirror: Bandersnatch was released in 2018, the fifth series of three episodes was released in June 2019. Black Mirror on Netflix Black Mirror at Channel 4 Black Mirror – list of episodes on IMDb