Formula One is the highest class of single-seat auto racing that is sanctioned by the Fédération Internationale de lAutomobile. The FIA Formula One World Championship has been the form of racing since the inaugural season in 1950. The formula, designated in the name, refers to a set of rules, the F1 season consists of a series of races, known as Grands Prix, held worldwide on purpose-built F1 circuits and public roads. The results of each race are evaluated using a system to determine two annual World Championships, one for drivers, one for constructors. The racing drivers are required to be holders of valid Super Licences, the races are required to be held on tracks graded 1, the highest grade a track can receive by the FIA. Most events are held in locations on purpose-built tracks, but there are several events in city centres throughout the world. Formula One cars are the fastest road racing cars in the world. Formula One cars race at speeds of up to approximately 375 km/h with engines currently limited in performance to a maximum of 15,000 RPM, the cars are capable of lateral acceleration in excess of five g in corners.
The performance of the cars is very dependent on electronics – although traction control and other driving aids have been banned since 2008 – and on aerodynamics, the formula has radically evolved and changed through the history of the sport. F1 had a global television audience of 425 million people during the course of the 2014 season. Grand Prix racing began in 1906 and became the most popular internationally in the second half of the twentieth century. The Formula One Group is the holder of the commercial rights. Its high profile and popularity have created a major merchandising environment, since 2000 the sports spiraling expenditures and the distribution of prize money favoring established top teams have forced complaints from smaller teams and led several teams to bankruptcy. On 23 January 2017 it was confirmed that Liberty Media had completed its $8 billion acquisition of Delta Topco, the Formula One series originated with the European Grand Prix Motor Racing of the 1920s and 1930s.
The formula is a set of rules that all cars must meet. Formula One was a new formula agreed upon after World War II during 1946, the first world championship race was held at Silverstone, United Kingdom in 1950. A championship for constructors followed in 1958, national championships existed in South Africa and the UK in the 1960s and 1970s. Non-championship Formula One events were held for years, but due to the increasing cost of competition
Joseph Gilles Henri Villeneuve, known as Gilles Villeneuve, was a Canadian racing driver. Villeneuve spent six years in Grand Prix racing with Ferrari, winning six races, an enthusiast of cars and fast driving from an early age, Villeneuve started his professional career in snowmobile racing in his native province of Quebec. He moved into single seaters, winning the US and Canadian Formula Atlantic championships in 1976 and he was taken on by reigning world champions Ferrari for the end of the season and from 1978 to his death in 1982 drove for the Italian team. He won six Grand Prix races in a career at the highest level. In 1979, he finished second by four points in the championship to teammate Jody Scheckter, Villeneuve died in a 140 mph crash caused by a collision with the March of Jochen Mass during qualifying for the 1982 Belgian Grand Prix at Zolder. The accident came less than two weeks after an argument with his teammate, Didier Pironi, over Pironis move to pass Villeneuve at the preceding San Marino Grand Prix.
At the time of his death, Villeneuve was extremely popular with fans and has become an iconic figure in the history of the sport. His son, Jacques Villeneuve, became Formula One world champion in 1997 and, to date, Villeneuve was born in Richelieu, a small town just outside Montreal, in the largely French-speaking province of Quebec in Canada and grew up in Berthierville. In 1970, he married Joann Barthe, with whom he had two children, Jacques and Mélanie. During his early career Villeneuve took his family on the road with him in a motorhome during the racing season and he often claimed to have been born in 1952. By the time he got his break in Formula One, he was already 27 years old, niki Lauda said of him, He was the craziest devil I ever came across in Formula 1. The fact that, for all this, he was a sensitive and his younger brother Jacques had a successful racing career in Formula Atlantic, Can Am and CART. Gilles son, named Jacques, won the Indianapolis 500 and CART championships in 1995, Villeneuve started competitive driving in local drag-racing events, entering his road car, a modified 1967 Ford Mustang.
He was soon bored by this and entered the Jim Russell Racing School at Le Circuit Mont Tremblant to gain a racing licence and he had a very successful season in Quebec regional Formula Ford, running his own two-year-old car and winning seven of the ten races he entered. The next year he progressed to Formula Atlantic, competing there for four years and he won his first Atlantic race in 1975 at Gimli Motosport Park in heavy rain. In 1976, teamed with Chris Harrisons Ecurie Canada and factory March race engineer Ray Wardell, he dominated the season by winning all but one of the races and taking the US and he won the Canadian championship again in 1977. Money was very tight in Villeneuves early career and he was a professional racing driver from his late teens, with no other income. In the first few years the bulk of his income came from snowmobile racing
Aluminium or aluminum is a chemical element in the boron group with symbol Al and atomic number 13. It is a silvery-white, nonmagnetic, ductile metal, Aluminium metal is so chemically reactive that native specimens are rare and limited to extreme reducing environments. Instead, it is combined in over 270 different minerals. The chief ore of aluminium is bauxite, Aluminium is remarkable for the metals low density and its ability to resist corrosion through the phenomenon of passivation. Aluminium and its alloys are vital to the industry and important in transportation and structures, such as building facades. The oxides and sulfates are the most useful compounds of aluminium, despite its prevalence in the environment, no known form of life uses aluminium salts metabolically, but aluminium is well tolerated by plants and animals. Because of these salts abundance, the potential for a role for them is of continuing interest. Aluminium is a soft, lightweight, ductile. It is nonmagnetic and does not easily ignite, a fresh film of aluminium serves as a good reflector of visible light and an excellent reflector of medium and far infrared radiation.
The yield strength of aluminium is 7–11 MPa, while aluminium alloys have yield strengths ranging from 200 MPa to 600 MPa. Aluminium has about one-third the density and stiffness of steel and it is easily machined, cast and extruded. Aluminium atoms are arranged in a cubic structure. Aluminium has an energy of approximately 200 mJ/m2. Aluminium is a thermal and electrical conductor, having 59% the conductivity of copper. Aluminium is capable of superconductivity, with a critical temperature of 1.2 kelvin. Aluminium is the most common material for the fabrication of superconducting qubits, the strongest aluminium alloys are less corrosion resistant due to galvanic reactions with alloyed copper. This corrosion resistance is reduced by aqueous salts, particularly in the presence of dissimilar metals. In highly acidic solutions, aluminium reacts with water to form hydrogen, primarily because it is corroded by dissolved chlorides, such as common sodium chloride, household plumbing is never made from aluminium
1975 Formula One season
The 1975 Formula One season was the 29th season of FIA Formula One motor racing. It featured the 1975 World Championship of F1 Drivers and the 1975 International Cup for F1 Manufacturers which were contested concurrently from 12 January to 5 October over fourteen races, the season included three non-championship Formula One races and a nine race South African Formula One Championship. After a strong finish to the 1974 season, many felt the Brabham team were favourites to win the 1975 title. The year started well, with an emotional first win for Carlos Pace at the Interlagos circuit in his native São Paulo, over the season tyre wear frequently slowed the cars, and the initial promise was not maintained. Niki Lauda often refers to 1975 as the unbelievable year, in his second year with Ferrari, the team provided him with the Ferrari 312T—a car that was technically far superior to any of the competition. He won his first world title with five wins and a margin over second place in the championship.
American Mark Donohue died in August, two days after a practice run crash for the Austrian Grand Prix, after the season in late November, an Embassy Hill airplane crashed in England and all six aboard were killed, including team owner Graham Hill and driver Tony Brise. The following drivers and constructors and contested the 1975 World Championship of F1 Drivers, poleman Jarier could not even start the race because his transmission failed on the parade lap. Home hero Reutemann took the led from teammate Pace, with Niki Laudas Ferrari third, Pace passed teammate Reutemann to take the lead but spun off and dropped to seventh. James Hunt in his Hesketh soon overtook Lauda and Reutemann, by then, reigning world champion Emerson Fittipaldi in his McLaren was past Lauda and up to third, and soon took Reutemann for second as well. Fittipaldi closed in on Hunt and took the lead with 18 laps left, Pace recovered to fourth after his spin, but it was to no avail as his engine blew up. Fittipaldi started his title defence with a win, Hunt was a superb second, the second round was in Brazil, and Jarier took pole position again with Fittipaldi alongside and Reutemann third.
Reutemann, just like in Argentina, took the lead at the start from Jarier and Pace was up to third, Jarier retook the lead from Reutemann on lap 5 and pulled away. Reutemann struggled with handling issues and dropped well down the then, with Pace up to second, Clay Regazzonis Ferrari third. Jariers engine stopped with seven laps left and Pace took the lead, Regazzoni was up to second but dropped behind Fittipaldi and Jochen Mass in the second McLaren as he too suffered handling issues. Pace took a victory, with countryman Fittipaldi second and Mass third. Pace led at the start, with Scheckter second, and Ronnie Peterson in his Lotus jumped up from eighth to take third, the Swede did not have the pace of the front runners and dropped back down the order. Scheckter took the lead from Pace on the lap, to the delight to the fans
Double wishbone suspension
In automobiles, a double wishbone suspension is an independent suspension design using two wishbone-shaped arms to locate the wheel. Each wishbone or arm has two mounting points to the chassis and one joint at the knuckle, the shock absorber and coil spring mount to the wishbones to control vertical movement. The double-wishbone suspension can be referred to as double A-arms, though the arms themselves can be A-shaped, L-shaped, a single wishbone or A-arm can be used in various other suspension types, such as variations of the MacPherson strut. The upper arm is shorter to induce negative camber as the suspension jounces. When the vehicle is in a turn, body roll results in positive camber gain on the lightly loaded inside wheel, between the outboard end of the arms is a knuckle. The knuckle contains a kingpin for horizontal radial movement in older designs, in newer designs, a ball joint at each end allow for all movement. Attached to the knuckle at its center is a hub, or in many older designs.
To resist fore-aft loads such as acceleration and braking, the arms require two bushings or ball joints at the body. At the knuckle end, single ball joints are used, in which case the steering loads have to be taken via a steering arm. An L-shaped arm is generally preferred on passenger vehicles because it allows a better compromise of handling and comfort to be tuned in. The bushing in line with the wheel can be kept relatively stiff to effectively handle cornering loads while the joint can be softer to allow the wheel to recess under fore-aft impact loads. For a rear suspension, a pair of joints can be used at both ends of the arm, making them more H-shaped in plan view. Alternatively, a fixed-length driveshaft can perform the function of a wishbone as long as the shape of the other wishbone provides control of the upright and this arrangement has been successfully used in the Jaguar IRS. In elevation view, the suspension is a 4-bar link, and it is easy to work out the camber gain, the various bushings or ball joints do not have to be on horizontal axes, parallel to the vehicle centre line.
If they are set at an angle, anti-dive and anti-squat geometry can be dialled in, in many racing cars, the springs and dampers are relocated inside the bodywork. The suspension uses a bellcrank to transfer the forces at the end of the suspension to the internal spring. This is known as a rod if bump travel pushes on the rod. As the wheel rises, the push rod compresses the spring via a pivot or pivoting system
Italy, officially the Italian Republic, is a unitary parliamentary republic in Europe. Located in the heart of the Mediterranean Sea, Italy shares open land borders with France, Austria, San Marino, Italy covers an area of 301,338 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate and Mediterranean climate. Due to its shape, it is referred to in Italy as lo Stivale. With 61 million inhabitants, it is the fourth most populous EU member state, the Italic tribe known as the Latins formed the Roman Kingdom, which eventually became a republic that conquered and assimilated other nearby civilisations. The legacy of the Roman Empire is widespread and can be observed in the distribution of civilian law, republican governments, Christianity. The Renaissance began in Italy and spread to the rest of Europe, bringing a renewed interest in humanism, exploration, Italian culture flourished at this time, producing famous scholars and polymaths such as Leonardo da Vinci, Galileo and Machiavelli. The weakened sovereigns soon fell victim to conquest by European powers such as France and Austria.
Despite being one of the victors in World War I, Italy entered a period of economic crisis and social turmoil. The subsequent participation in World War II on the Axis side ended in defeat, economic destruction. Today, Italy has the third largest economy in the Eurozone and it has a very high level of human development and is ranked sixth in the world for life expectancy. The country plays a prominent role in regional and global economic, military and diplomatic affairs, as a reflection of its cultural wealth, Italy is home to 51 World Heritage Sites, the most in the world, and is the fifth most visited country. The assumptions on the etymology of the name Italia are very numerous, according to one of the more common explanations, the term Italia, from Latin, was borrowed through Greek from the Oscan Víteliú, meaning land of young cattle. The bull was a symbol of the southern Italic tribes and was often depicted goring the Roman wolf as a defiant symbol of free Italy during the Social War. Greek historian Dionysius of Halicarnassus states this account together with the legend that Italy was named after Italus, mentioned by Aristotle and Thucydides.
The name Italia originally applied only to a part of what is now Southern Italy – according to Antiochus of Syracuse, but by his time Oenotria and Italy had become synonymous, and the name applied to most of Lucania as well. The Greeks gradually came to apply the name Italia to a larger region, excavations throughout Italy revealed a Neanderthal presence dating back to the Palaeolithic period, some 200,000 years ago, modern Humans arrived about 40,000 years ago. Other ancient Italian peoples of undetermined language families but of possible origins include the Rhaetian people and Cammuni. Also the Phoenicians established colonies on the coasts of Sardinia and Sicily, the Roman legacy has deeply influenced the Western civilisation, shaping most of the modern world
Auto racing is a sport involving the racing of automobiles for competition. Almost as soon as automobiles had been invented, races of various sorts were organised, by the 1930s specialist racing cars had developed. There are now numerous different categories, each with different rules and it was won by the carriage of Isaac Watt Boulton. Internal combustion auto racing events began soon after the construction of the first successful gasoline-fueled automobiles, the first organized contest was on April 28,1887, by the chief editor of Paris publication Le Vélocipède, Monsieur Fossier. It ran 2 kilometres from Neuilly Bridge to the Bois de Boulogne, on July 22,1894, the Parisian magazine Le Petit Journal organized what is considered to be the worlds first motoring competition, from Paris to Rouen. One hundred and two competitors paid a 10-franc entrance fee, the first American automobile race is generally held to be the Thanksgiving Day Chicago Times-Herald race of November 28,1895. Press coverage of the event first aroused significant American interest in the automobile, brooklands, in Surrey, was the first purpose-built motor racing venue, opening in June 1907.
It featured a 4.43 km concrete track with high-speed banked corners, One of the oldest existing purpose-built automobile racing circuits in the United States, still in use, is the 2. 5-mile -long Indianapolis Motor Speedway in Speedway, Indiana. It is the largest capacity venue of any variety worldwide, with a top capacity of some 257. NASCAR was founded by Bill France, Sr. on February 21,1948, the first NASCAR Strictly Stock race ever was held on June 19,1949, at Daytona Beach, Florida. From 1962, sports cars temporarily took a seat to GT cars. From 1972 through 2003, NASCARs premier series was called the Winston Cup Series, the changes that resulted from RJRs involvement, as well as the reduction of the schedule from 48 to 31 races a year, established 1972 as the beginning of NASCARs modern era. The IMSA GT Series evolved into the American Le Mans Series, the European races eventually became the closely related Le Mans Series, both of which mix prototypes and GTs. The best-known variety of racing, Formula One, which hosts the famous Monaco Grand Prix.
In single-seater, the wheels are not covered, and the cars often have aerofoil wings front, in Europe and Asia, open-wheeled racing is commonly referred to as Formula, with appropriate hierarchical suffixes. In North America, the Formula terminology is not followed, the sport is usually arranged to follow an international format, a regional format, and/or a domestic, or country-specific, format. In North America, the used in the National Championship have traditionally been similar though less sophisticated than F1 cars. The series most famous race is the Indianapolis 500, the other major international single-seater racing series is GP2
Monocoque, structural skin, is a structural system where loads are supported through an objects external skin, similar to an egg shell. The word monocoque is a French term for single shell or single hull, a true monocoque carries both tensile and compressive forces within the skin and can be recognised by the absence of a load carrying internal frame. By contrast, a semi-monocoque is a combining a tensile stressed skin. Other semi-monocoques not to be confused with true monocoques include vehicle unibodies, which tend to be composites, early aircraft were constructed using frames, typically of wood or steel tubing, which could be covered with fabric such as irish linen or cotton. The skin added nothing to the strength of the airframe and was dead weight beyond providing a smooth sealed surface. This reduced drag so effectively it was able to win most of the races it was entered into, however, it was prone to damage from moisture and delamination. While all metal aircraft from the Junkers firm had appeared as early as 1915, the first metal monocoques were built by Claudius Dornier, while working for Zeppelin-Lindau.
After failed attempts with several large flying boats in which a few components were monocoques, the aluminum alloy monocoque chassis was first used in the 1962 Lotus 25 Formula 1 race car. The term monocoque is frequently misused when referring to unibody cars, in motor racing, the safety of the driver depends on the car body which must meet stringent regulations and a few cars have been built with monocoque structures. Tanks and other armored vehicles such as the German Fuchs 2 and this reduces weight for a given amount of armor compared to vehicles to which armor has been attached to an underlying frame. A monocoque-framed motorcycle was developed by the Spanish motorcycle manufacturer, Ossa won four Grand Prix races with the monocoque bike before their rider was killed during the 1970 Isle of Man TT, causing the Ossa factory to withdraw from Grand Prix competition. Notable designers such as Eric Offenstadt and Dan Hanebrink created unique monocoque designs in the early 1970s, the 1973 Isle of Man TT was won by Peter Williams on the monocoque-framed Norton John Player Special that he helped design.
Honda experimented with a monocoque Grand Prix racing motorcycle named the NR500 in 1979, in 1987 John Britten developed the Aero-D One, featuring a composite monocoque chassis that weighed only 12 kg. The first time an aluminium monocoque frame appeared on a production motorcycle was the 2000 Kawasaki Ninja ZX-12R. This was Kawasakis flagship production sportbike aimed at being the fastest production motorcycle, various rockets have used pressure-stabilized monocoque designs, such as Atlas and Falcon 1. Balloon tanks are not true monocoques but act in the way as inflatable shells. A balloon tank skin only handles tensile forces while compression is resisted by internal pressure in a way similar to semi-monocoques braced by a solid frame. This becomes obvious when internal pressure is lost and the structure collapses, the Handle is an electric guitar characterized by its hollow sectioned monocoque chassis, created by the award-winning designer Peter Solomon
Automotive design is the profession involved in the development of the appearance, and to some extent the ergonomics, of motor vehicles or more specifically road vehicles. This most commonly refers to automobiles but refers to motorcycles, buses, the functional design and development of a modern motor vehicle is typically done by a large team from many different disciplines included within automotive engineering. Automotive design in context is primarily concerned with developing the visual appearance or aesthetics of the vehicle. Automotive design is practiced by designers who usually have an art background, the task of the design team is usually split into three main aspects, exterior design, interior design, and color and trim design. Graphic design is an aspect of design, this is generally shared amongst the design team as the lead designer sees fit. Design focuses not only on the outer shape of automobile parts. The aesthetic value will need to correspond to ergonomic functionality and utility features as well, though not all the new vehicular gadgets are to be designated as factory standard items, some of them may be integral to determining the future course of any specific vehicular models.
The stylist responsible for the design of the exterior of the vehicle develops the proportions, Exterior design is first done by a series of digital or manual drawings. Progressively, drawings that are more detailed are executed and approved by appropriate layers of management, Clay and or digital models are developed from, and along with the drawings. The data from these models are used to create a full sized mock-up of the final design. With three- and five-axis CNC milling machines, the model is first designed in a computer program and carved using the machine. Even in times of high-class 3d software and virtual models on power walls, here the emphasis is on ergonomics and the comfort of the passengers. The procedure here is the same as with exterior design, the color and trim designer is responsible for the research and development of all interior and exterior colors and materials used on a vehicle. These include paints, fabric designs, grains, headliner, wood trim, contrast and pattern must be carefully combined to give the vehicle a unique interior environment experience.
Designers work closely with the exterior and interior designers, designers draw inspiration from other design disciplines such as, industrial design, home furnishing and sometimes product design. Specific research is done into global trends to design for two to three model years in the future. Trend boards are created from research in order to keep track of design influences as they relate to the automotive industry. The designer uses this information to develop themes and concepts that are further refined and tested on the vehicle models
A chassis consists of an internal vehicle frame that supports an artificial object in its construction and use, can provide protection for some internal parts. An example of a chassis is the underpart of a motor vehicle, if the running gear such as wheels and transmission, and sometimes even the drivers seat, are included, the assembly is described as a rolling chassis. In the case of vehicles, the rolling chassis means the frame plus the running gear like engine, drive shaft, differential. An under body, which is not necessary for integrity of the structure, is built on the chassis to complete the vehicle. For commercial vehicles, a rolling chassis consists of an assembly of all the parts of a truck to be ready for operation on the road. The design of a car chassis will be different than one for commercial vehicles because of the heavier loads. Commercial vehicle manufacturers sell chassis only and chassis, as well as chassis cab versions that can be outfitted with specialized bodies and these include motor homes, fire engines, box trucks, etc.
In particular applications, such as buses, a government agency like National Highway Traffic Safety Administration in the U. S. defines the design standards of chassis. An armoured fighting vehicles hull serves as the chassis and comprises the part of the AFV that includes the tracks, drivers seat. This describes the hull, although common usage might include the upper hull to mean the AFV without the turret. The hull serves as a basis for platforms on tanks, armoured carriers, combat engineering vehicles. In an electronic device, the chassis consists of a frame or other supporting structure on which the circuit boards. In the absence of a frame, the chassis refers to the circuit boards and components themselves. The combination of chassis and outer covering is called an enclosure. Vietnam Studies, Department of the Army, Washington, D. C.1978