In motorsport the pole position is the position at the inside of the front row at the start of a racing event. This position is given to the vehicle and driver with the best qualifying time in the trials before the race. This number-one qualifying driver is referred to as the pole sitter, the fastest qualifier was not necessarily the designated pole-sitter. Different sanctioning bodies in motor sport employ different qualifying formats in designating who starts from pole position, often, a starting grid is derived either by current rank in the championship, or based on finishing position of a previous race. In contrast to contemporary motorsport, where only a participant is designated pole-sitter, prior to World War II. The term has its origins in horse racing, in which the fastest qualifying horse would be placed on the part of the course. Originally in Grand Prix racing, grid positions, including pole, were determined by lottery among the drivers, prior to the inception of the Formula 1 World Championship, the first instance of grid positions being determined by qualifying times was at the 1933 Monaco Grand Prix.
Since then, the FIA have introduced many different qualifying systems to F1, between 1996 and 2006, the FIA made 6 significant changes to the qualifying procedure, each with the intention of making the battle for pole more interesting to an F1 viewer at home. Traditionally, pole was always occupied by the fastest driver due to low-fuel qualifying, the race-fuel qualifying era between 2003 and 2009 briefly changed this. Despite the changing formats, drivers attempting pole were required between 2003 and 2009 to do qualifying laps with the fuel they would use to start the race the next day. An underfuelled slower car and driver would therefore be able to take pole ahead of a better, in this situation, pole was not always advantageous to have in the race as the under-fueled driver would have to pit for more fuel before their rivals. With the race refueling ban introduced, low-fuel qualifying returned and these decisions are no longer in play. Since the reintroduction of the rule in 2011, this applies to the quickest first session time.
Since 2014, the FIA has awarded a trophy to the driver who wins the most pole positions in the season, indicates that the driver won the World Championship in the same season. IndyCar uses four formats for qualifying, one for most oval tracks, one for Iowa Speedway, one for the Indianapolis 500, and another for road and street circuits. Oval qualifying is almost like the Indianapolis 500, with two laps, instead of four, averaged together with one attempt, although with just one session. At Iowa, each car takes one qualifying lap, and the top six cars advance to the race for the pole position. The result of the race determines positions 1–10
North American Racing Team
The North American Racing Team was created by businessman Luigi Chinetti to promote the Ferrari marque in United States through success in endurance motorsport. It was created in 1958 when Chinetti received backing from wealthy racers George Arents, NART raced at only the worlds premier races, such as the 24 Hours of Daytona in Florida and the 24 Hours of Le Mans in Le Mans, France. Their first race was the 12 Hours of Sebring in March 1958, pedro Rodríguez won the second and the third editions of Daytona with NART team. In 1963 was a three hours race and in 1964 a 2,000 kilometers, both in a Ferrari 250 GTO. A Ferrari 158 officially entered by NART sealed the win of the 1964 F1 World championship with John Surtees and this was done as a protest concerning arguments between Ferrari and the Italian Racing Authorities regarding the homologation of a new mid-engined Ferrari race car. The peak of NARTs own racing success came in 1965, when a NART-entered 250 LM became the last Ferrari to win Le Mans outright with Jochen Rindt, with this model, NART scored 2nd in the 1973 Daytona 24h, behind a Porsche 911.
NART raced Ferraris until 1982, at which point it had participated in more than 200 races with over 100 different drivers, including Mario Andretti and Phil Hill. NART had a Ferrari model with its attached to it – the 1967275 GTB/4 NART Spyder was a convertible version of the 275 GTB/4 requested especially by Luigi Chinetti. The original order of 25 cars was never fulfilled, as only 10 were delivered from the Maranello factory, because of the popularity of the drop-top NART Spyder design, many 275 GTB/4 were converted to drop-top models to imitate the NART Spyders design
1964 Monaco Grand Prix
The 1964 Monaco Grand Prix was a Formula One motor race held at Monaco on May 10,1964. It was the first race of the 1964 Formula One season, peter Arundell scored his first podium finish, and Mike Hailwood his first point. Notes, Only the top five positions are included for both sets of standings,1964 Monaco Grand Prix at statsf1. com 1964 Monaco Grand Prix at grandprix. com
Watkins Glen International
Watkins Glen International is an automobile race track located in Watkins Glen, New York, at the southern tip of Seneca Lake. Initially, public roads in the village were used for the race course, in 1956 a permanent circuit for the race was built. In 1968 the race was extended to six hours, becoming the 6 Hours of Watkins Glen, the chicane was removed in 1985, but another chicane called the Inner Loop was installed in 1992 after a fatal accident during the previous years NASCAR Winston Cup event. The circuit is known as the Mecca of North American road racing and is a popular venue among fans. The facility is owned by International Speedway Corporation. The Watkins Glen International race course has several changes over the years. Currently, two distinct layouts are used—the Boot layout and the 1971 Six Hours layout, the first races in Watkins Glen were initiated by Cameron Argetsinger, whose family had a summer home in the area. With Chamber of commerce approval and SCCA sanction, the first Watkins Glen Grand Prix took place in 1948 on a 6. 6-mile course over local public roads.
The original 6. 6-mile course is listed in the New York State register and National Register of Historic Places as the Watkins Glen Grand Prix Course, the second layout 4. 6-mile began use in 1953 and used existing roads. The Watkins Glen Grand Prix Corporation was formed to manage spectators, the first permanent course was constructed on 550 acres, overlapping part of the previous street course. It was designed by Bill Milliken, and engineering professors from Cornell University and this course was used from 1956–1970. In 1968 the race was extended to six hours, the circuit underwent a major overhaul for the 1971 season. The Big Bend and the leading up to it were eliminated. The pits and start/finish line were relocated to this new straightaway, the 90 now became turn one instead of turn 8. When the 1971 Six Hours of Watkins Glen arrived in July 1971, the short course had been finished, but the Boot segments were not complete, nor was the new pit area. The 1971 Six Hours race was run on the course layout.
In addition, for 1971 only, the cars used the original start/finish line, when NASCAR returned to the track in 1986, they chose to use the short course layout. IMSA originally used the Boot, but eventually, that began using the shorter 1971 layout
Italy, officially the Italian Republic, is a unitary parliamentary republic in Europe. Located in the heart of the Mediterranean Sea, Italy shares open land borders with France, Austria, San Marino, Italy covers an area of 301,338 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate and Mediterranean climate. Due to its shape, it is referred to in Italy as lo Stivale. With 61 million inhabitants, it is the fourth most populous EU member state, the Italic tribe known as the Latins formed the Roman Kingdom, which eventually became a republic that conquered and assimilated other nearby civilisations. The legacy of the Roman Empire is widespread and can be observed in the distribution of civilian law, republican governments, Christianity. The Renaissance began in Italy and spread to the rest of Europe, bringing a renewed interest in humanism, exploration, Italian culture flourished at this time, producing famous scholars and polymaths such as Leonardo da Vinci, Galileo and Machiavelli. The weakened sovereigns soon fell victim to conquest by European powers such as France and Austria.
Despite being one of the victors in World War I, Italy entered a period of economic crisis and social turmoil. The subsequent participation in World War II on the Axis side ended in defeat, economic destruction. Today, Italy has the third largest economy in the Eurozone and it has a very high level of human development and is ranked sixth in the world for life expectancy. The country plays a prominent role in regional and global economic, military and diplomatic affairs, as a reflection of its cultural wealth, Italy is home to 51 World Heritage Sites, the most in the world, and is the fifth most visited country. The assumptions on the etymology of the name Italia are very numerous, according to one of the more common explanations, the term Italia, from Latin, was borrowed through Greek from the Oscan Víteliú, meaning land of young cattle. The bull was a symbol of the southern Italic tribes and was often depicted goring the Roman wolf as a defiant symbol of free Italy during the Social War. Greek historian Dionysius of Halicarnassus states this account together with the legend that Italy was named after Italus, mentioned by Aristotle and Thucydides.
The name Italia originally applied only to a part of what is now Southern Italy – according to Antiochus of Syracuse, but by his time Oenotria and Italy had become synonymous, and the name applied to most of Lucania as well. The Greeks gradually came to apply the name Italia to a larger region, excavations throughout Italy revealed a Neanderthal presence dating back to the Palaeolithic period, some 200,000 years ago, modern Humans arrived about 40,000 years ago. Other ancient Italian peoples of undetermined language families but of possible origins include the Rhaetian people and Cammuni. Also the Phoenicians established colonies on the coasts of Sardinia and Sicily, the Roman legacy has deeply influenced the Western civilisation, shaping most of the modern world
Internal combustion engine
An internal combustion engine is a heat engine where the combustion of a fuel occurs with an oxidizer in a combustion chamber that is an integral part of the working fluid flow circuit. In an internal combustion engine the expansion of the high-temperature and high-pressure gases produced by combustion applies direct force to some component of the engine, the force is applied typically to pistons, turbine blades, rotor or a nozzle. This force moves the component over a distance, transforming chemical energy into mechanical energy. The first commercially successful internal combustion engine was created by Étienne Lenoir around 1859, firearms are a form of internal combustion engine. Working fluids can be air, hot water, pressurized water or even liquid sodium, ICEs are usually powered by energy-dense fuels such as gasoline or diesel, liquids derived from fossil fuels. While there are many applications, most ICEs are used in mobile applications and are the dominant power supply for vehicles such as cars, aircraft.
Typically an ICE is fed with fossil fuels like natural gas or petroleum products such as gasoline, there is a growing usage of renewable fuels like biodiesel for compression ignition engines and bioethanol or methanol for spark ignition engines. Hydrogen is sometimes used, and can be made from fossil fuels or renewable energy. Various scientists and engineers contributed to the development of internal combustion engines, in 1791, John Barber developed a turbine. In 1794 Thomas Mead patented a gas engine, in 1794 Robert Street patented an internal combustion engine, which was the first to use liquid fuel, and built an engine around that time. In 1798, John Stevens built the first American internal combustion engine, in 1807, Swiss engineer François Isaac de Rivaz built an internal combustion engine ignited by electric spark. In 1823, Samuel Brown patented the first internal combustion engine to be applied industrially, in 1860, Belgian Jean Joseph Etienne Lenoir produced a gas-fired internal combustion engine.
In 1864, Nikolaus Otto patented the first atmospheric gas engine, in 1872, American George Brayton invented the first commercial liquid-fuelled internal combustion engine. In 1876, Nikolaus Otto, working with Gottlieb Daimler and Wilhelm Maybach, patented the compressed charge, in 1879, Karl Benz patented a reliable two-stroke gas engine. In 1892, Rudolf Diesel developed the first compressed charge, compression ignition engine, in 1926, Robert Goddard launched the first liquid-fueled rocket. In 1939, the Heinkel He 178 became the worlds first jet aircraft, at one time, the word engine meant any piece of machinery — a sense that persists in expressions such as siege engine. A motor is any machine that produces mechanical power, electric motors are not referred to as Engines, combustion engines are often referred to as motors. In boating an internal combustion engine that is installed in the hull is referred to as an engine, reciprocating piston engines are by far the most common power source for land and water vehicles, including automobiles, ships and to a lesser extent, locomotives
A tire or tyre is a ring-shaped vehicle component that covers the wheels rim to protect it and enable better vehicle performance. Most tires, such as those for automobiles and bicycles, provide traction between the vehicle and the road providing a flexible cushion that absorbs shock. The materials of modern tires are synthetic rubber, natural rubber and wire, along with carbon black. They consist of a tread and a body, the tread provides traction while the body provides containment for a quantity of compressed air. Before rubber was developed, the first versions of tires were bands of metal fitted around wooden wheels to prevent wear and tear. Pneumatic tires are used on many types of vehicles, including cars, motorcycles, trucks, heavy equipment, and aircraft. Metal tires are used on locomotives and railcars, and solid rubber tires are still used in various non-automotive applications, such as some casters, lawnmowers. The etymology of tire is that the word is a form of attire. The spelling tyre does not appear until the 1840s when the English began shrink fitting railway car wheels with malleable iron, traditional publishers continued using tire.
The Times newspaper in Britain was still using tire as late as 1905, the spelling tyre began to be commonly used in the 19th century for pneumatic tires in the UK. However, over the course of the 20th century, tyre became established as the standard British spelling, the earliest tires were bands of leather, placed on wooden wheels, used on carts and wagons. The tire would be heated in a fire, placed over the wheel and quenched, causing the metal to contract. A skilled worker, known as a wheelwright, carried out this work, the outer ring served to tie the wheel segments together for use, providing a wear-resistant surface to the perimeter of the wheel. The word tire thus emerged as a variant spelling to refer to the bands used to tie wheels. The first patent for what appears to be a standard pneumatic tire appeared in 1847 lodged by the Scottish inventor Robert William Thomson, this never went into production. The first practical pneumatic tire was made in 1888 on May Street, Belfast, by Scots-born John Boyd Dunlop and it was an effort to prevent the headaches of his 10-year-old son Johnnie, while riding his tricycle on rough pavements.
His doctor, Sir John Fagan, had prescribed cycling as an exercise for the boy, Fagan participated in designing the first pneumatic tires. In Dunlops tire patent specification dated 31 October 1888, his interest is only in its use in cycles, in September 1890, he was made aware of an earlier development but the company kept the information to itself
Dunlop is a brand of tyres owned by various companies around the world. It is owned and operated by Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company in North America, Australia, in India the brand is owned by Dunlop India Ltd. whose parent company is the Ruia Group. In Asia and Latin America by Sumitomo Rubber Industries, in 1985, Dunlop Rubber Company was acquired by BTR plc, and Sumitomo acquired the rights to manufacture and market Dunlop branded road tyres. Sumitomo did not acquire any Dunlop company, in 1997 Sumitomo gained agreement to use the Dunlop name in its corporate name, and changed the name of its UK subsidiary to Dunlop Tyres Ltd. The company has manufacturing operations throughout the world. With the closure of the Washington plant in 2006, Goodyear Dunlop ceased mainstream car, until May 2014 Goodyear Dunlop occupied a compact part of the site with their British main office. In the UK, the company operates as an organisation, importing tyres from manufacturing plants around the world, including China, Slovenia.
The Goodyear Dunlop joint venture is managed from sites in Luxembourg and Brussels, fort Dunlop was a motorsport manufacturing operation located in a corner of the original Dunlop factory in Erdington, established in 1891 until May 2014. This factory produced specialised vintage and touring car tyres, on 30 May 2014, the Birmingham factory ceased tyre production, ending Dunlop tyre production in the UK. The main Birmingham building has been redeveloped extensively as a residential and hotel complex, with a modern shopping facility, car dealerships. It can be observed between junction 5 and 6 of the M6, on the side of the motorway. Dunlop Tyres is the tyre supplier to the British Touring Car Championship, V8 Supercars Championship. It was the sole supplier for the Deutsche Tourenwagen Masters from 2000-2010. Dunlop supplies tyres to the Japanese Super GTs Nakajima Racing, classes in the FIA World Endurance Championship, the Dunlop GP Racer D209 tyre has been chosen repeatedly as a control tyre for the R&G Racing GSX-R Trophy motorcycle race.
It has chosen for the Henderson Harley-Davidson XR1200 Trophy. The History of the Pneumatic Tyre
1964 Formula One season
The 1964 Formula One season was the 18th season of FIA Formula One motor racing. The season included eight races for Formula One cars. Clark was forced to stop with an oil leak on the last lap, honda made a low-key debut in grand prix racing with the American driver Ronnie Bucknum, and Maurice Trintignant retired at the age of 46 after one of the longest world championship careers. Ferrari won the International Cup for F1 Manufacturers, dutchman Carel Godin de Beaufort died during practice for the German Grand Prix at the Nürburgring, driving a privately entered Porsche 718. The following teams and drivers competed in the 1964 FIA World Championship, the following races counted towards the 1964 World Championship of Drivers and the International Cup for F1 Manufacturers. Championship points were awarded on a 9–6–4–3–2–1 basis for the first six positions in each race, only the best 6 results counted toward the championship. Hill scored 41 points during the year, but only 39 points were counted toward the championship, Surtees scored 40 points, all of which counted toward the championship.
Thus, Surtees became the World Champion, although he did not score the most points over the course of the year, points were awarded on a 9–6–4–3–2–1 basis for the first six positions at each round with only the best six round results retained. Only the best placed car from each manufacturer at each round was eligible to score points, eight other races which did not count towards the World Championship of Drivers and the International Cup for F1 Manufacturers were held for Formula One cars during the season
Formula One car
The regulations governing the cars are unique to the championship. The Formula One regulations specify that cars must be constructed by the teams themselves, though the design. The modern-day Formula One cars are constructed from composites of carbon fibre, the minimum weight permissible is 702 kg including the driver but not fuel. Cars are weighed with dry-weather tyres fitted, prior to the 2014 F1 season, cars often weighed in under this limit so teams added ballast in order to add weight to the car. The advantage of using ballast is that it can be placed anywhere in the car to provide ideal weight distribution and this can help lower the cars centre of gravity to improve stability and allows the team to fine-tune the weight distribution of the car to suit individual circuits. The 2009 season limited engines to 18,000 rpm in order to improve engine reliability, the FIA has continually enforced material and design restrictions to limit power. Even with the restrictions, the V10s in the 2005 season were reputed to develop 980 hp, the lesser funded teams had the option of keeping the current V10 for another season, but with a rev limiter to keep them competitive with the most powerful V8 engines.
The only team to take this option was the Toro Rosso team, the engines consume around 450 l of air per second. Race fuel consumption rate is normally around 75 l/100 km travelled, All cars have the engine located between the driver and the rear axle. In the 2004 championship, engines were required to last a full race weekend, for the 2005 championship, they were required to last two full race weekends and if a team changes an engine between the two races, they incur a penalty of 10 grid positions. In 2007, this rule was altered slightly and an engine only had to last for Saturday and Sunday running and this was to promote Friday running. In the 2008 season, engines were required to last two race weekends, the same regulation as the 2006 season. However, for the 2009 season, each driver is allowed to use a maximum of 8 engines over the season and this method of limiting engine costs increases the importance of tactics, since the teams have to choose which races to have a new or an already-used engine.
As of the 2014 season, all F1 cars have been equipped with turbocharged 1. 6-litre V6 engines, turbochargers have been banned since 1988. This change may give an improvement of up to 29% fuel efficiency, the benefit is that air is not traveling through as much pipework, in turn reducing turbo lag and increases efficiency of the car. In addition, it means that the air moving through the compressor is much cooler as it is away from the hot turbine section. Formula One cars use semi-automatic sequential gearboxes, with stating that 8 forward gears and 1 reverse gear must be used. The gearbox is constructed of titanium, as heat dissipation is a critical issue
A manual transmission, known as a manual gearbox, stick shift, n-speed manual, standard, MT, or in colloquial U. S. English, a stick, is a type of transmission used in motor vehicle applications. The number of gear ratios is often expressed for automatic transmissions as well. Manual transmissions often feature a clutch and a movable gear stick. This type of transmission is called a sequential manual transmission. In a manual transmission, the flywheel is attached to the engines crankshaft, the clutch disk is in between the pressure plate and the flywheel, and is held against the flywheel under pressure from the pressure plate. When the engine is running and the clutch is engaged, the flywheel spins the clutch plate, as the clutch pedal is depressed, the throw out bearing is activated, which causes the pressure plate to stop applying pressure to the clutch disk. This makes the clutch plate stop receiving power from the engine, when the clutch pedal is released, the throw out bearing is deactivated, and the clutch disk is again held against the flywheel, allowing it to start receiving power from the engine.
Manual transmissions are characterized by gear ratios that are selectable by locking selected gear pairs to the shaft inside the transmission. Conversely, most automatic transmissions feature epicyclic gearing controlled by brake bands and/or clutch packs to select gear ratio, automatic transmissions that allow the driver to manually select the current gear are called manumatics. A manual-style transmission operated by computer is called an automated transmission rather than an automatic. Operating aforementioned transmissions often use the pattern of shifter movement with a single or multiple switches to engage the next sequence of gear selection. The earliest form of a transmission is thought to have been invented by Louis-René Panhard. This type of transmission offered multiple gear ratios and, in most cases and these transmissions are called sliding mesh transmissions or sometimes crash boxes, because of the difficulty in changing gears and the loud grinding sound that often accompanied.
Newer manual transmissions on cars have all gears mesh at all times and are referred to as constant-mesh transmissions, in both types, a particular gear combination can only be engaged when the two parts to engage are at the same speed. To shift to a gear, the transmission is put in neutral. The vehicle slows while in neutral and that slows other transmission parts, so the time in neutral depends on the grade, for both upshifts and downshifts, the clutch is released while in neutral. Some drivers use the only for starting from a stop. Even though automobile and light truck transmissions are now almost universally synchronized, transmissions for trucks and machinery, motorcycles
A chassis consists of an internal vehicle frame that supports an artificial object in its construction and use, can provide protection for some internal parts. An example of a chassis is the underpart of a motor vehicle, if the running gear such as wheels and transmission, and sometimes even the drivers seat, are included, the assembly is described as a rolling chassis. In the case of vehicles, the rolling chassis means the frame plus the running gear like engine, drive shaft, differential. An under body, which is not necessary for integrity of the structure, is built on the chassis to complete the vehicle. For commercial vehicles, a rolling chassis consists of an assembly of all the parts of a truck to be ready for operation on the road. The design of a car chassis will be different than one for commercial vehicles because of the heavier loads. Commercial vehicle manufacturers sell chassis only and chassis, as well as chassis cab versions that can be outfitted with specialized bodies and these include motor homes, fire engines, box trucks, etc.
In particular applications, such as buses, a government agency like National Highway Traffic Safety Administration in the U. S. defines the design standards of chassis. An armoured fighting vehicles hull serves as the chassis and comprises the part of the AFV that includes the tracks, drivers seat. This describes the hull, although common usage might include the upper hull to mean the AFV without the turret. The hull serves as a basis for platforms on tanks, armoured carriers, combat engineering vehicles. In an electronic device, the chassis consists of a frame or other supporting structure on which the circuit boards. In the absence of a frame, the chassis refers to the circuit boards and components themselves. The combination of chassis and outer covering is called an enclosure. Vietnam Studies, Department of the Army, Washington, D. C.1978