The Ferrari Mondial is a V8, mid-engined, grand tourer coupé and cabriolet that was produced by Italian manufacturer Ferrari between 1980 and 1993. Conceived as a practical Ferrari, the Mondial is a genuine long-distance four-seater, with sufficient rear head- and leg-room for children and it affords easy access via the long single doors, and has surprisingly good all-round visibility for a mid-engined car. The vehicle has a higher roofline and greater all-round dimensions compared to its two-seater stable mates. It is claimed that the Mondial cabriolets are the production vehicles manufactured to a four-seater, rear mid-engined. The Ferrari Mondial is a vehicle of the R-M-R configuration. It was produced in 2-door coupé and convertible forms, with all vehicles offering 2+2 passenger accommodation. Unlike its GT4 predecessor which was styled by the Italian Gruppo Bertone, the Mondial was designed by Pininfarina of Turin, pininfarinas bodywork was manufactured by Ferraris regular coachbuilder Carrozzeria Scaglietti.
Its structure conformed with Ferraris practice at the time, with body panels fitted onto a separate space-frame chassis constructed from tubular box or oval-shaped steel sections. While most body panels are steel pressings, the front lid and rear cover of the Mondial 8. Additional louvre grilles are located on side of the vehicle just ahead of the rear wheels. Louvres feature in the front polished aluminium grille behind which sits the main radiator, a final full-width black louvre panel closes-off the rear of the car below the rear bumper, and through which protrudes a pair of exhaust outlets on each side of the vehicle. Front and rear bumpers are from black plastic on the Mondial 8 and QV, the Mondial chassis includes several detachable sub-frames holding major mechanical assemblies, including one at the rear supporting the entire engine/transmission/rear suspension assembly. This design considerably simplifies engine removal for a rebuild or cylinder head removal compared to previous Ferrari V8 vehicles.
At the front of the vehicle, a front-hinged lid encloses space for the tyre and cooling fans, battery and cooling systems. At the rear, a full-width and trimmed luggage boot with a gas-strut-supported lid sits behind the engine bay, sizeable enough to hold several sizeable soft bags or set of golf clubs. Differences in body features between sales markets was small, with the most obvious being the prominent rectangular side turn-indicator lamps affixed front, all Mondials are fitted with a V8 engine which is essentially identical to that used in Ferraris concurrent 2-seater 308/328/348 series vehicles. Engine capacity started at 3.0 l for the Mondial 8 and QV models, increasing to 3.2 l for the Mondial 3.2, the orientation of the V8 engine block is quite different in the Mondial t compared to the earlier Mondials. Mirroring the two-seater Ferrari V8 vehicles, all 3.0 and 3.2 l engines sit across the car with their crankshaft, the 3.4 l engine in the Mondial t is rotated ninety degrees to a longitudinal orientation with respect to the car
Targa top, targa for short, is a semi-convertible car body style with a removable roof section and a full width roll bar behind the seats. The term was first used on the 1966 Porsche 911 Targa, the rear window is normally fixed, but on some targa models, it is removable or foldable, making it a convertible-type vehicle. The word targa first came into use from the 1966 Porsche 911 Targa, the system first appeared in 1957 on the limited-production Fiat 1200 “Wonderful” by Vignale, designed by Giovanni Michelotti. The Triumph TR4 from 1961, another Michelotti design, featured a similar system, the 1964 SAAB Catherina prototype and the 1965 Toyota Sports 800 both used similar systems before the 1966 Porsche 911 Targa. As a result, manufacturers adopted Targa tops or T-tops, as Porsche helped to popularise this body style, they took out a trademark for the Targa name and manufacturers sought for alternative names for their removable tops. Porsche got the name Targa from the Targa Florio, the road race in Sicily where Porsche was very successful.
The glass roof retracted underneath the window revealing a large opening. A shade was there to prevent the greenhouse effect of the closed roof. This system was a redesign, as previous Targa models had a removable roof section. The Targa had the body of the Cabriolet with the Targa glass roof replacing the fabric roof, the 911 Targa continued with the all-new 996-model and gained a lifting hatchback glass window. This, in turn, was used on the 997 model of 911, with the introduction and production of the latest 911, the Type 991, Porsche decided to take the latest Targa in a different direction from that of the previous water-cooled Type 996/997 cars. The Type 991 Targa brings back the feature of the Targa bar that was perhaps the most obvious. Ferrari introduced a variation of the targa roof and folding metal roof with the 180 degree rotating roof featured on the 2005 Ferrari 575M Maranello Superamerica. The concept was used in the 2010 Renault Wind. Examples of the Targa car body style include, Hardtop Bimini top Dodger
Ferrari Dino engine
The Ferrari Dino engine is a line of mechanically similar V6 and V8 engines produced by Ferrari for the past 40 years Alfredo Dino Ferrari, was the son of Enzo Ferrari. Dino suggested to Enzo Ferrari the development of a V6 engine for F2 at the end of 1955, soon afterwards, Alfredo fell ill, suffering from muscular dystrophy. While in hospital, he discussed technical details with the engineer Vittorio Jano, Dino would never see the engine, he died on June 30,1956 at the age of 24. The Dino V6 was Ferraris first V6 engine, the Dino V8 engine was introduced later. The V8 engines all used a crankshaft configuration. The production Dino V6 began as a discussion between Vittorio Jano and Enzo and Dino Ferrari about the ideal 1.5 L engine for use in the 1958 Formula Two auto racing series. Jano, formerly of Alfa Romeo and Lancia, pressed for a conventional 60° V6 but the Ferraris were open-minded. Janos 60° design incorporated some of his ideas from the Lancia Aurelia, and were used in a number of Formula One, Formula Two, appearing in 1958, it used a 77x71 mm bore and stroke for 1984 cc and produced 200 hp in the 196 S.
Two larger versions were produced, the 245 hp 2497 cc 246 S and 296 hp 2962 cc 296 S. These engines continued in the 1962196 SP and 286 SP, the latter had a 90 mm bore and 75 mm stroke for 2863 cc and 260 hp. This engine was so small that very little room was available for smooth intake tracts, the Ferraris were convinced that a freer-flowing intake could result in more power, so a new design was called for. Ferrari designers began work on the first Dino V6 engine in 1956 and this engine was installed in the Ferrari 156 F2 car and was first raced in the Grand Prix of Naples in April 1957, where it finished in third place behind two Lancia-Ferrari V8 Formula One cars. The result of the creativity was the worlds only 65° V6 engine. The extra 5° between cylinder banks gave Ferrari the straight intakes he wanted, as this engine was not a true V6 but had a separate crank pin for every connecting rod, the crank pins were offset by 55 degrees within every pair of cylinders. This ensured an even firing order for the engine as well as an even distance between firing pulses per cylinder bank.
Thus the engine was as smoothly running as a conventional 60 degree V6, although the Dino V6 was discontinued with the introduction of the V8, the 65° design continues to this day, It reappeared on Ferraris 1992456 V12. The 85x71 mm 2417 cc engine used in the 246 S/I produced 280 hp with dual overhead camshafts pushing two valves per cylinder, the mid-engined 1961246 SP used this same engine, as did the 156 F1. The 65° Dino V6 quickly replaced the 60° unit in racing, Ferrari needed to have the engine in 500 production vehicles to homologate it for racing use
A transmission is a machine in a power transmission system, which provides controlled application of the power. Often the term refers simply to the gearbox that uses gears and gear trains to provide speed. In British English, the term refers to the whole drivetrain, including clutch, prop shaft, differential. In American English, the term more specifically to the gearbox alone. The most common use is in vehicles, where the transmission adapts the output of the internal combustion engine to the drive wheels. Such engines need to operate at a high rotational speed, which is inappropriate for starting, stopping. The transmission reduces the engine speed to the slower wheel speed. Transmissions are used on bicycles, fixed machines. Often, a transmission has multiple gear ratios with the ability to switch between them as speed varies and this switching may be done manually or automatically. Directional control may be provided, single-ratio transmissions exist, which simply change the speed and torque of motor output.
The output of the transmission is transmitted via the driveshaft to one or more differentials, while a differential may provide gear reduction, its primary purpose is to permit the wheels at either end of an axle to rotate at different speeds as it changes the direction of rotation. Conventional gear/belt transmissions are not the mechanism for speed/torque adaptation. Alternative mechanisms include torque converters and power transformation, automatic transmissions use a valve body to shift gears using fluid pressures in conjunction with an ecm. Early transmissions included the right-angle drives and other gearing in windmills, horse-powered devices, and steam engines, in support of pumping, most modern gearboxes are used to increase torque while reducing the speed of a prime mover output shaft. This means that the shaft of a gearbox rotates at a slower rate than the input shaft. A gearbox can be set up to do the opposite and provide an increase in speed with a reduction of torque. Some of the simplest gearboxes merely change the rotational direction of power transmission.
Many typical automobile transmissions include the ability to select one of several gear ratios, in this case, most of the gear ratios are used to slow down the output speed of the engine and increase torque
A V8 engine is an eight-cylinder V configuration engine with the cylinders mounted on the crankcase in two sets of four, with all eight pistons driving a common crankshaft. Most banks are set at an angle to each other, some at a narrower angle, with 45°, 60°. In its simplest form, the V8 is basically two parallel inline-four engines sharing a common crankshaft, since the 1920s, most V8s have used the somewhat more complex crossplane crankshaft with heavy counterweights to eliminate the vibrations. This results in an engine that is smoother than a V6, most racing V8s continue to use the single plane crankshaft because it allows faster acceleration and more efficient exhaust system designs. In 1902, Léon Levavasseur took out a patent on a light and he called it the Antoinette after the young daughter of his financial backer. From 1904 he installed this engine in a number of competition speedboats, the aviation pioneer Alberto Santos-Dumont saw one of these boats in Côte dAzur and decided to try it on his 14-bis aircraft.
Its early 24 hp at 1400 rpm version with only 55 kg of weight was interesting, Santos-Dumont ordered a larger and more powerful version from Levavasseur. He changed its dimensions from the original 80 mm stroke and 80 mm bore to 105 mm stroke and 110 mm bore, obtaining 50 hp with 86 kg of weight and its power-to-weight ratio was not surpassed for 25 years. Levavasseur eventually produced its own line of V8 equipped aircraft, named Antoinette I to VIII, hubert Latham piloted the V8 powered Antoinette IV and Antoinette VII in July 1909 on two failed attempts to cross the English Channel. However, in 1910, Latham used the VII with the engine to become the first in the world to reach an altitude of 3600 feet. Voisin constructed pusher biplanes with Antoinette engines, notably the one first flown successfully by Henry Farman in 1908, the V8 engine configuration became popular in France from 1904 onward, and was used in a number of aircraft engines introduced by Renault, and Buchet among others.
Some of these found their way into automobiles in small quantities. In 1905, Darracq built a car to beat the world speed record. They came up with two racing car built on a common crankcase and camshaft. The result was monstrous engine with a displacement of 1,551 cu in, victor Hemery fixed that record on 30 December 1905 with a speed of 109.65 mph. Rolls-Royce built a 3,535 cc V8 car from 1905 to 1906, in 1907 The Hewitt Motor Company built a large 5 passenger Touring Car. It was equipped with a hefty V8 engine that developed 50/60 horsepower and had a bore of 4 inches, the Hewitt was the first American Automobile to be equipped with a V8 engine. De Dion-Bouton introduced a 7,773 cc automobile V8 in 1910 and it was produced only in small quantities, but inspired a number of manufacturers to follow suit
Pininfarina S. p. A. is an Italian car design firm and coachbuilder in Cambiano, Italy. It was founded by Battista Pinin Farina in 1930. On December 14,2015, Mahindra Group, Pininfarina is employed by a wide variety of automobile manufactures to design vehicles. Since the 1980s Pininfarina has designed high-speed trains, trams, rolling stocks, automated light rail cars, people movers, airplanes, with the 1986 creation of Pininfarina Extra they have consulted on industrial design, interior design and graphic design. Pininfarina was run by Battistas son Sergio Pininfarina until 2001, his grandson Andrea Pininfarina until his death in 2008, after Andreas death his younger brother Paolo Pininfarina was appointed as CEO. At its height in 2006 the Pininfarina Group employed 2,768 with subsidiary company offices throughout Europe, as well as in Morocco, as of 2012 with the end of series automotive production, employment has shrunk to 821. Pininfarina is registered and publicly traded on the Borsa Italiana, on December 14,2015, Mahindra Group, announced a deal to acquire Pininfarina S. p. A. in a deal worth about 168 million euros.
That first year the firm employed eighteen and built 50 automobile bodies, on May 22,1930 papers were filed to become a corporation, Società anonima Carrozzeria Pinin Farina headquartered in Turin, Italy, at 107 Corso Trapani. During the 1930s, the company built bodies for Lancia, Alfa Romeo, Isotta-Fraschini, Hispano Suiza, Fiat and this development happened in the mid-1930s when others saw the frameless construction as the end of the independent coachbilder. In 1939, World War II ended automobile production, but the company had 400 employees building 150 bodies a month, the war effort against the Allies brought work making ambulances and searchlight carriages. The Pininfarina factory was destroyed by Allied bombers ending the firms operations, after the war, Italy was banned from the 1946 Paris Motor Show. The Paris show was attended by 809,000 visitors, lines of people stretched from the gate all the way to the Seine. The managers of the Grand Palais said of the display, the devil Pininfarina, but to the press, at the end of 1945 the Cisitalia 202 Coupé was designed.
An elegantly proportioned design with a low hood, it is the car that usually is given credit for establishing Pininfarinas reputation, the Pininfarina design was honored in the Museum of Modern Arts landmark presentation Eight Automobiles in 1951. A total of 170 Coupés where produced by Pininfarina, the publicity of the Museum of Modern Art exhibit brought Pininfarina to the attention of Nash-Kelvinator managers. The subsequent cooperation with Nash Motors resulted in production of Pininfarina designs. In 1952, Mr. Farina visited the U. S, the Nash-Healey sports car body was, completely designed and assembled in limited numbers from 1952 to 1954 at Pininfarinas Turin facilities. Nash heavily advertised its link to the famous Italian designer, much as Studebaker promoted its longtime association with Raymond Loewy, there were 99 Broughams built in 1959 and 101 in 1960. A similar arrangement was repeated in the late 1980s when Pininfarina designed the Cadillac Allanté at the San Giusto Canavese factory, the car bodies were assembled and painted in Italy before being flown from the Turin International Airport to Detroit for final vehicle assembly
Leonardo Fioravanti (engineer)
Leonardo Fioravanti is an Italian automobile designer and CEO of Fioravanti Srl. He studied mechanical engineering at the Politecnico di Milano, specializing in aerodynamics, before founding Fioravanti Srl in 1991 he held the positions of deputy General Manager at Ferrari and the directors role at the Centro Stile Alfa Romeo. On January 16,2009 Leonardo Fioravanti was elected Chairman of ANFIA Car Coachbuilders Group for a 3-year mandate from 2009 to 2011, unwavering Passion,40 Years and Counting. Classic Cars ANFIA Press Release, Fioravanti website Fioravanti Srl
Berlinetta is an especially sporty form of coupé. Typically a two-seater, the type may include 2+2s, the original meaning for berlinetta in Italian is “little saloon”. Introduced in the 1930s, the term was popularized by Ferrari in the 1950s, Opel, Alfa Romeo, and other European car manufacturers have used the Berlinetta label. In North America, Chevrolet produced a version of the Chevrolet Camaro called the Berlinetta, the model offered European styling touches to emphasize the interior rather than the performance of the car, which had long been the main selling point of the Camaro
The Ferrari 348 is a mid-engined, rear-wheel-drive V8-powered 2-seat sports car by Ferrari, replacing the 328 in 1989 and continuing until 1995. It was the final V8 mid-engine model developed by Enzo Ferrari before his death, the 348, badged 348 tb for the coupé and 348 ts and the 348sp versions, features a normally aspirated 3. 4-litre version of the quad-cam, four-valve-per-cylinder V8 engine. As with its predecessors, the number was derived from this configuration. The engine, which produced 300 hp, was mounted longitudinally and coupled to a manual gearbox. The T in the model name 348 tb and ts refers to the position of the gearbox. Overall,2,895 examples of the 348 tb and 4,230 of the 348 ts were produced, the F355 that replaced it returned to the styling cues of the 328 with round tail lights and rounded side air scoops. Fifty-seven Challenge models were built for owners who wanted a more track-ready car, the 348 was fitted with dual-computer engine management using twin Bosch Motronic ECUs, double-redundant anti-lock brakes, and self-diagnosing air conditioning and heating systems.
Late versions have Japanese-made starter motors and Nippondenso power generators to improve reliability, U. S. spec 348s have OBD-I engine management systems, though European variants do not come with the self-test push button installed, which is needed to activate this troubleshooting feature. This had the effect of making the doors very wide. The 348 was equipped with an oil system to prevent oil starvation at high speeds. The oil level can only be checked on the dipstick when the motor is running due to this setup. The 348 was fitted with adjustable suspension and a removable rear sub-frame to speed up the removal of the engine for maintenance. This vehicle served as a test mule for the Ferrari Enzo, between 1992 and 1993 Ferrari made 100 units of 348 Serie Speciale of its tb and ts versions. It was a limited edition made for the US market. During 1992 -1993 there were only 35 TB Serie Speciales manufactured with the remainder being the TS Serie Speciale, Ferrari indicates a 0-60 mph time of 5.3 seconds and a standing ¼ mile of 13.75 seconds.
The cars were offered with F40 style sport seats in Connolly leather, the door panels were modified and made of leather. Each car is numbered, with a 348 Serie Speciale plate on the passengers side door-post, in 1994, a further 15 units were produced, bringing the total production of this limited edition to 115. The Ferrari Challenge was initiated by Ferrari Club Nederland and designated for the Ferrari 348, using the un-modified engine, the only changes of the car were slick tyres, better brake-pads, roll-bar, smaller battery in a different position and seat belts
Italy, officially the Italian Republic, is a unitary parliamentary republic in Europe. Located in the heart of the Mediterranean Sea, Italy shares open land borders with France, Austria, San Marino, Italy covers an area of 301,338 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate and Mediterranean climate. Due to its shape, it is referred to in Italy as lo Stivale. With 61 million inhabitants, it is the fourth most populous EU member state, the Italic tribe known as the Latins formed the Roman Kingdom, which eventually became a republic that conquered and assimilated other nearby civilisations. The legacy of the Roman Empire is widespread and can be observed in the distribution of civilian law, republican governments, Christianity. The Renaissance began in Italy and spread to the rest of Europe, bringing a renewed interest in humanism, exploration, Italian culture flourished at this time, producing famous scholars and polymaths such as Leonardo da Vinci, Galileo and Machiavelli. The weakened sovereigns soon fell victim to conquest by European powers such as France and Austria.
Despite being one of the victors in World War I, Italy entered a period of economic crisis and social turmoil. The subsequent participation in World War II on the Axis side ended in defeat, economic destruction. Today, Italy has the third largest economy in the Eurozone and it has a very high level of human development and is ranked sixth in the world for life expectancy. The country plays a prominent role in regional and global economic, military and diplomatic affairs, as a reflection of its cultural wealth, Italy is home to 51 World Heritage Sites, the most in the world, and is the fifth most visited country. The assumptions on the etymology of the name Italia are very numerous, according to one of the more common explanations, the term Italia, from Latin, was borrowed through Greek from the Oscan Víteliú, meaning land of young cattle. The bull was a symbol of the southern Italic tribes and was often depicted goring the Roman wolf as a defiant symbol of free Italy during the Social War. Greek historian Dionysius of Halicarnassus states this account together with the legend that Italy was named after Italus, mentioned by Aristotle and Thucydides.
The name Italia originally applied only to a part of what is now Southern Italy – according to Antiochus of Syracuse, but by his time Oenotria and Italy had become synonymous, and the name applied to most of Lucania as well. The Greeks gradually came to apply the name Italia to a larger region, excavations throughout Italy revealed a Neanderthal presence dating back to the Palaeolithic period, some 200,000 years ago, modern Humans arrived about 40,000 years ago. Other ancient Italian peoples of undetermined language families but of possible origins include the Rhaetian people and Cammuni. Also the Phoenicians established colonies on the coasts of Sardinia and Sicily, the Roman legacy has deeply influenced the Western civilisation, shaping most of the modern world
In both road and rail vehicles, the wheelbase is the distance between the centers of the front and rear wheels. For road vehicles with more than two axles, the wheelbase is defined as the distance between the axle and the centerpoint of the driving axle group. In the case of a truck, the wheelbase would be the distance between the steering axle and a point midway between the two rear axles. The wheelbase of a vehicle equals the distance between its front and rear wheels, at equilibrium, the total torque of the forces acting on a vehicle is zero. So, for example, when a truck is loaded, its center of gravity shifts rearward, the amount the vehicle sinks will depend on counter acting forces like the size of the tires, tire pressure, and the stiffness of the suspension. If the vehicle is accelerating or decelerating, extra torque is placed on the rear or front tire respectively, so, as is common experience, when the vehicle accelerates, the rear usually sinks and the front rises depending on the suspension.
Likewise, when braking the front noses down and the rear rises, because of the effect the wheelbase has on the weight distribution of the vehicle, wheelbase dimensions are crucial to the balance and steering. For example, a car with a greater weight load on the rear tends to understeer due to the lack of the load on the front tires. This is why it is crucial, when towing a single-axle caravan, likewise, a car may oversteer or even spin out if there is too much force on the front tires and not enough on the rear tires. Also, when turning there is lateral torque placed upon the tires which imparts a turning force that depends upon the length of the distances from the CM. Wheelbases provide the basis for one of the most common vehicle size class systems, some luxury vehicles are offered with long-wheelbase variants to increase the spaciousness and therefore the luxury of the vehicle. Prime Minister of the United Kingdom Tony Blair was given a version of the Rover 75 for official use. In contrast, coupé varieties of vehicles such as the Honda Accord are usually built on shorter wheelbases than the sedans they are derived from.
The wheelbase on many commercially available bicycles and motorcycles is so short, relative to the height of their centers of mass, in skateboarding the word wheelbase is used for the distance between the two inner pairs of mounting holes on the deck. This is different from the distance between the centers of the two wheel pairs. A reason for this use is that decks are sold with prefabricated holes. It is therefore easier to use the holes for measuring and describing this characteristic of the deck. A common misconception is that the choice of wheelbase is influenced by the height of the skateboarder, the length of the deck would be a better candidate, because the wheelbase affects characteristics useful in different speeds or terrains regardless of the height of the skateboarder