Zagato is an independent coachbuilding company and total design center located northwest of Milan in the Terrazzano frazione of Rho, Italy. The companys premises occupy an area of 23,000 square metres, Ugo Zagato began his coachbuilding career in 1919 when he left Officine Aeronautiche Pomilio to set up his own business in Milan. This was, “the construction and repair of bodies for automobiles and he did so with the intent of transferring sophisticated constructional techniques that combined lightness with strength from the aeronautics to the automotive sector. Cars of the time were bulky and heavy, Ugo Zagato conceived them as lightweight structures. This change in direction came to represent a chapter in the history of taste and saw, in Europe. During the 20s Zagato concentrated on racing cars, in the beginning of the decade he was asked by Alfa Romeo to dress some Alfa Romeo RLs. But in 1925 Vittorio Jano, Alfa Romeo’s Chief Engineer, asked him to create a body for the Alfa 6C1500, the Alfa Romeo P2’s heir, which should have been light and fast.
Zagato, using his Aeronautics culture, succeeded in creating a sleek and light body for the car, the 6C1500 technical qualities were improved on the Alfa Romeo 6C1750, which was introduced in 1927. It was bodied in several versions and achieved victories in the Mille Miglia in 1929 and 1930. Enzo Ferrari started his career at Alfa Romeo in 1929 founded Scuderia Ferrari as the team for race Alfas. Also Bugatti, Diatto, OM and even Rolls-Royce were clients of Zagato since the beginning, thirty-six these decades, Zagato continued building a variety of aerodynamic cars. Thirty-six Zagato bodied cars were at the start of 1938 Mille Miglia, at the outbreak of the Second World War, Ugo Zagato escaped from Milan and sought refugee at Lake Maggiore. On 13 August 1943 a RAF bombing raid destroyed his coachworks in Corso Sempione road and he found new premises at Saronno, alongside the Isotta Fraschini works, on behalf of which he constructed trucks and military vehicles and a futuristic Monterosa. He returned to Milan at the end of the war and re-established his company and he searched for more spacious and more comfortable car greenhouses.
They eventually crystallised in a new type-form characterised by airiness and visibility thanks to large glazed areas made with a new material, Plexiglas, in place of the traditional heavy glass. He called it “Panoramica” body, destined to mark the rebirth of his coachwork, Lancia, Fiat, in 1949 he built for Antonio Stagnoli a Panoramic body for his Ferrari 166 Mille Miglia. As a gift for his graduation at Bocconi University of Milan, Elio Zagato, Ugo’s first-born son and this car represented the beginning of his career as a gentleman driver and as a manager of the family company. They were, cars capable of being used on a basis and well-finished, yet sufficiently sleek
A roadster, sometimes referred to as a spider or spyder, is an open two-seat car with emphasis on sporting appearance or character. Initially an American term for a car with no weather protection. The roadster is a style of racing car driven in United States Auto Club Championship Racing, including the Indianapolis 500 and this type of racing car was superseded by mid-engined cars. In the nineteenth century, the word denoted a horse suitable for traveling. By the end of the century the definition had expanded to include bicycles and tricycles. In 1916, the Society of Automobile Engineers defined a roadster as and it may have additional seats on running boards or in rear deck. Additional seating in the deck was known as a rumble seat or a dickey seat. The main seat for the driver and passenger was usually further back in the chassis than it would have been in a touring car, Roadsters usually had a hooded dashboard. The earliest roadster automobiles had only basic bodies without doors, windshields, by the 1920s they were appointed similarly to touring cars, with doors, simple folding tops, and side curtains.
When roadsters of this era were equipped with seats, the seats folded into the body when not in use. They are popular with collectors, often valued over other open styles, the term roadster as applied to automobiles is American in origin, before World War II, the British equivalent was a two-seat tourer. By the 1970s, the roadster was applied to open two-seat cars of sporting appearance or character. Roadsters had become almost as well-equipped as convertibles, including side windows that retract into the doors, Roadsters of that time included the Alfa Romeo Spider, MGB, and Triumph TR4. A roadster is still defined as a car with two seats, with some roadsters having power tops or retractable hardtops. A few manufacturers and fabricators still offer roadsters that meet the older definitions and these include Morgan, with the windowless Roadster, with the doorless Seven, and Ariel, with the bodyless Atom. The American hot rod is based on pre–World War II roadsters, late run Model Ts and 1932 Fords were the most popular starting points.
The term roadster applies to front-engined AAA/USAC Championship cars, associated with the Indianapolis 500, the roadster engine and drive shaft are offset from the centerline of the car. This allows the driver to sit lower in the chassis and facilitates a weight offset which is beneficial on oval tracks, one story of why this type of racing car is referred to as a roadster is that a team was preparing a new car for the Indianapolis 500
An engine or motor is a machine designed to convert one form of energy into mechanical energy. Heat engines burn a fuel to heat, which is used to create a force. Electric motors convert electrical energy into motion, pneumatic motors use compressed air. In biological systems, molecular motors, like myosins in muscles, use energy to create forces. The word engine derives from Old French engin, from the Latin ingenium–the root of the word ingenious. Pre-industrial weapons of war, such as catapults and battering rams, were called siege engines, the word gin, as in cotton gin, is short for engine. Most mechanical devices invented during the revolution were described as engines—the steam engine being a notable example. However, the steam engines, such as those by Thomas Savery, were not mechanical engines. In this manner, an engine in its original form was merely a water pump. Devices converting heat energy into motion are commonly referred to simply as engines, examples of engines which exert a torque include the familiar automobile gasoline and diesel engines, as well as turboshafts.
Examples of engines which produce thrust include turbofans and rockets, the term motor derives from the Latin verb moto which means to set in motion, or maintain motion. Thus a motor is a device that imparts motion and engine came to be used largely interchangeably in casual discourse. However, the two words have different meanings, rocketry uses the term rocket motor, even though they consume fuel. A heat engine may serve as a prime mover—a component that transforms the flow or changes in pressure of a fluid into mechanical energy. An automobile powered by a combustion engine may make use of various motors and pumps. Another way of looking at it is that a motor receives power from an external source, simple machines, such as the club and oar, are prehistoric. More complex engines using human power, animal power, water power, wind power and these were used in cranes and aboard ships in Ancient Greece, as well as in mines, water pumps and siege engines in Ancient Rome. The writers of those times, including Vitruvius and Pliny the Elder, treat these engines as commonplace, by the 1st century AD, cattle and horses were used in mills, driving machines similar to those powered by humans in earlier times
The Pirelli Cinturato is a Pirelli-developed car tyre that was the first example of a wrap-around radial tyre structure. It was used to effect in motorsport, and most modern tyres are based upon the design. The five-times Formula One World Champion Juan Manuel Fangio called the Pirelli Cinturato Extraordinary, without a belt, the 90-degree plies would produce a casing which would greatly increase its sectional height on inflation. The belt was kept under tension, and the tread retained its flatter profile even when the tyre was inflated, the Pirelli Cinturato may be compared to a wheel in which the rim is attached to the hub by means of fine spokes. The tread and belt are in effect the rim, the 90-degree or radial cord plies are the spokes, the inextensible belt and the radial casing cords were the combined factors which gave the Cinturato tyre its special properties. The different geometric arrangement of the Cinturato carcass resulted in greater deformation in the area of the section which is under load.
This caused no disadvantage and did not result in greater tyre casing fatigue, by the end of 1968 Pirelli was exporting or directly manufacturing the Cinturato to or in as many as 137 countries worldwide. In 2014, the Pirelli Cinturato P7 was developed, derived from F1 technology, the first Cinturato tread pattern was the CA67, still made today in the sizes 165HR14, 155HR15, 165HR15, 185VR15 & 185VR16. Immediately recognisable as it was fitted to so many desirable cars such as the 250GT Ferrari, the Cinturato CA67 is famously the tyre that Roger Moore had fitted to his Volvo P1800 in the series The Saint. In 1964 Pirelli developed a new extra large high performance tyre with a 205 section and a new tread pattern that was designated CN72 HS. This new tyre again took the world of sportscars by storm and kept the Cinturato as the tyre of choice for sports such as Ferrari 330 GT 2+2, Iso Grifo, Lamborghini Muira. Once again Aston Martin offered them as an alternative for their DBS. Towards the end of 1968 the new technology was low profile tyres.
Pirelli were hot on the tail with their new CN36 which came out in 1969, the CN36 had a striking tread pattern and was a favourite for the likes of the Porsche 911, Ford Escort & Ford Cortina. 1971 would see Pirelli’s introduction of high speed tyre with their CN12 Cinturato HS. These tyres were rated to be able to withstand the power of the Lamborghini Muira SV. Pirelli, Pattern of Progress Pirelli Cinturato, H. Hacker Ltd, Pirelli and pressure table for Cinturato car tyres, Mears Caldwell Hacker Ltd. Juan Manuel Fangio driving on Pirelli Cinturato
Paris Motor Show
The Paris Motor Show is a biennial auto show in Paris. Held during October, it is one of the most important auto shows, often with new production automobile. The show presently takes place in Paris expo Porte de Versailles, the Mondial is scheduled by the Organisation Internationale des Constructeurs dAutomobiles, which considers it a major international auto show. In 2014, the Paris Motor Show welcomed 1,253,513 visitors, making it the most visited auto show in the world, ahead of Tokyo, until 1986, it was called the Salon de lAutomobile, it took the name Mondial de lAutomobile in 1988. The show was held annually through 1976, since, it has been biennial, the show was the first motor show in the world, started in 1898 by industry pioneer, Albert de Dion. After 1910 it was held at the Grand Palais in the Champs-Élysées, during the First World War motor shows were suspended, meaning that the show of October 1919 was only the 15th Salon. There was again no Paris Motor Show in 1925, the venue having been booked instead for an Exhibition of Decorative Arts, in October 1926 the Motor Show returned, this being the 26th Paris Salon de lAutomobile.
The outbreak of war again intervened in 1939 when the 33rd Salon de lAutomobile was cancelled at short notice, normality of a sorts returned some six years and the 33rd Salon finally opened in October 1946. 1898 1st 1913 14th Salon de lAutomobile 1919 15th Salon de lAutomobile The first Salon since 1913,9 October 191965 French automobile makers exhibited. At least 118 exhibitors in total, there was no Salon de lAutomobile in 19201921 16th Salon de lAutomobile 1922 17th Salon de lAutomobile 4 October 192281 French automobile makers exhibited 113 exhibitors in total. 1923 18th Salon de lAutomobile 1924 19th Salon de lAutomobile 2 October 192478 French automobile makers exhibited 116 exhibitors in total,1931 25th Salon de lAutomobile 1 October 193139 French automobile makers and 37 non-French automobile makers exhibited. 1932 26th Salon de lAutomobile 1933 27th Salon de lAutomobile 5 October 193326 French automobile makers exhibited,1934 28th Salon de lAutomobile 1935 29th Salon de lAutomobile 1936 30th Salon de lAutomobile 1937 31st Salon de lAutomobile 7 October 193722 French automobile makers exhibited.
1938 32nd 1946 33rd 1947 34th Salon de lAutomobile 23 October 194727 French automobile makers exhibited,1948 35th 1949 36th 1950 37th 1951 38th Salon de lAutomobile 4 October 195123 French automobile makers exhibited. 1952 39th 1953 40th 1954 41st 1955 42nd 1956 43rd 1957 44th Salon de lAutomobile 3 October 195724 French automobile makers exhibited,1958 45th 1959 46th 1960 47th 1961 48th Salon de lAutomobile 5 October 19619 French automobile makers exhibited. 1962 49th Salon This was the first year the show was held at the Porte de Versailles on the outskirts of Paris,1963 50th 1964 51st 1965 52nd Salon de lAutomobile October 19659 French automobile makers exhibited
Berlinetta is an especially sporty form of coupé. Typically a two-seater, the type may include 2+2s, the original meaning for berlinetta in Italian is “little saloon”. Introduced in the 1930s, the term was popularized by Ferrari in the 1950s, Opel, Alfa Romeo, and other European car manufacturers have used the Berlinetta label. In North America, Chevrolet produced a version of the Chevrolet Camaro called the Berlinetta, the model offered European styling touches to emphasize the interior rather than the performance of the car, which had long been the main selling point of the Camaro
Governments and private organizations have developed car classification schemes that are used for innumerable purposes including regulation and categorization, among others. This article details commonly used classification schemes in use worldwide, vehicles can be categorized in numerous ways. Regulatory agencies may establish a vehicle classification system for determining a tax amount, in the United Kingdom, a vehicle is taxed according to the vehicles construction, weight, type of fuel and emissions, as well as the purpose for which it is used. Other jurisdictions may determine vehicle tax based upon environmental principles, such as the user pays principle, another standard for road vehicles of all types that is used internationally, is ISO 3833-1977. In the United States, since 2010 the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety uses a scheme it has developed that takes into account a combination of both shadow and weight. The United States Federal Highway Administration has developed a scheme used for automatically calculating road use tolls.
There are two categories depending on whether the vehicle carries passengers or commodities. Vehicles that carry commodities are further subdivided by number of axles and number of units, the United States Environmental Protection Agency has developed a classification scheme used to compare fuel economy among similar vehicles. Passenger vehicles are classified based on a total interior passenger. Trucks are classified based upon their gross vehicle weight rating, heavy duty vehicles are not included within the EPA scheme. A similar set of classes is used by the Canadian EPA, in Australia, the Federal Chamber of Automotive Industries publishes its own classifications. This is a table listing several different methods of vehicle classification. Straddling the boundary between car and motorbike, these vehicles have engines under 1.0 litre, typically only two passengers, and are sometimes unorthodox in construction. Some microcars are three-wheelers, while the majority have four wheels, microcars were popular in post-war Europe, where their appearance led them to be called Bubble cars.
More recent microcars are often electric powered, the size of ultracompact cars will be less than minicars, but have engine greater than 50cc displacement and able to transport 1 or 2 persons. Ultracompact cars cannot use standard, because of strict safety standards for minicars. The regulation about running capacity and safety performance of cars will be published in early autumn. Today, there are smaller than ultracompact cars, called category-1 motorized vehicles which it has 50cc displacement or less
Luigi Chinetti was an Italian-born racecar driver, who emigrated to the United States during World War II and became an American citizen. He was a driver in 12 consecutive 24 Hours of Le Mans races, winning 3 times and he was the long-time American importer of Ferrari automobiles to the United States. Born in Jerago con Orago, north of Milan, he work for Alfa Romeo as a mechanic in 1917 at the age of sixteen. The rise of fascism in his native country prompted his move to Paris where he worked for Alfa Romeo as an automobile salesman, driving an Alfa Romeo race car entered by his co-driver Raymond Sommer, Chinetti won at his very first 24 hours of Le Mans race in 1932. The following year, with Louis Chiron as co-driver, he won the Spa 24 Hours endurance race in Belgium and he teamed up with Philippe Étancelin in 1934 to win his second 24 hours of Le Mans. Following the outbreak of World War II in Europe, Chinetti initially went to the United States of America with Dreyfus from the Ferrari team, for the 1940 Indy 500.
He remained in the U. S. during the war, working for the Italian dealer, luigi Chinetti became an American citizen in 1946. With the war over, racing resumed in Europe and he entered the competitions, at the 194924 Hours of Le Mans race he drove the first Ferrari ever to win the event, and set a record as the only three-time winner of the race to that date. Following the race, Thomson purchased that automobile through Chinetti and that same year Chinetti won his second Spa 24 Hours, this time driving for Ferrari with Jean Lucas. In 1951, he was the mechanic in the Ferrari 212 that won the grueling Carrera Panamericana race. Enzo Ferrari appointed Chinetti as his Ferrari factory agent in the United States, Chinetti opened the first—and for a while the only—Ferrari dealership in the country. Later his territory became all areas east of the Mississippi River, the tradition associated with Chinetti continued to draw clients from all areas throughout his career. In addition to handling Ferrari, Chinetti Motors was U. S.
agent for Automobili OSCA of Bologna until 1967, the showroom of his Greenwich, Connecticut business remains open, owned by Miller Motorcars, a Ferrari-Maserati dealership. The first sale Chinetti made through his Ferrari dealership was sold to Briggs Cunningham for racing, most of the sales Chinetti made were, kept secret to protect the privacy of his wealthy clients. Chinetti was the founder of the North American Racing Team, the team, sometimes abbreviated as N. A. R. T. Also had a successful endurance racing program both at Sebring and at Le Mans, right into the 1970s. In addition to the cars, the team commissioned many limited-run special variants of Ferrari road cars, most notably. Chinetti remained in Greenwich, Connecticut after his retirement and died in 1994 at the age of ninety-three. S. is at, as part of an article honoring a fellow driver, another site presents a photograph of Chinetti at a race toward the end of his life
Introduced at the 1966 Geneva Motor Show, it replaced the 330 and 500 Superfast. The 365 California replaced the 500 Superfast for 1966 and it was the first 365 model, with its 4.4 L V12 based on the 330s 4.0 L Colombo unit but with an 81 mm bore. The 365 California used the chassis as the 500 Superfast. Debuting at the Geneva Motor Show in 1966, just 14 examples were produced before production ended in 1967, whilst the prototype was built on a 330 GT 2+2 type 571 chassis, production cars featured type 598 chassis. Chassis were sent to Pininfarinas Grugliasco plant to be bodied and trimmed which were returned to Ferrari for fitment of the mechanical components. It was presented at the 1966 Geneva Salon, on 28 June 2005, a pristine 365 California sold for €736,000. The most popular 365 model was 1968s 365 GT 2+2, replacing the 330 GT 2+2, unlike the 330GT2+2 car it replaced, which had a live rear axle on leaf springs, the 365GT 2+2 had independent rear suspension rather than the live axle of the 365 California.
The 365 GT 2+2 was a car with leather seats, power steering and brakes, electric windows. It quickly became the companys top-selling model with about 800 produced in four years,52 of which were right hand drive, when leaving the factory the 365 GT 2+2 originally fitted Pirelli Cinturato 205VR15 tyres. The 330 GTC and GTS were replaced in 1968 by the 365 GTC and it was essentially a re-engine of the 330 GTC/GTS, with the engine increasing from 4.0 liters and 300 horsepower to 4.4 liters and 320 horsepower. The styling remained almost unchanged, on both body styles differences were limited to vents moved from behind the front wheels to the bonnet, like all 365s, the GTC and GTS were powered by a 4,390 cc Colombo V12 engine, specifically its Tipo 245/C variant. Fed by three twin-choke Weber 40 DFI carburettors, it produced 320 PS at 6,600 rpm, integrating the gearbox with the final drive gave these cars a balanced 50,50 weight distribution. The 365 GTC and GTS retained the independent rear suspension, employing coil springs and wishbones, brakes were servo-assisted discs all-round with a split circuit system.
168 examples of the coupé were built between the 1968 and 1970 and it was replaced by the Ferrari 365 GTC/4. Just 20 spiders were built before its place was assumed by the 365 GTB/4-based Daytona Spider
Geneva Motor Show
The International Geneva Motor Show is an annual auto show held in March in the Swiss city of Geneva. The show is hosted at the Geneva Palexpo, a centre located next to the Geneva Cointrin International Airport. The Salon is organised by the Organisation Internationale des Constructeurs dAutomobiles, exotic supercars often steal the spotlight during their debuts at the show. Prototypes, new equipment, technical breakthroughs, international partnerships, as well as political and social debates, have announced at the exhibition. The show is regarded as a playing field for the worlds automakers. Areas of the show, Motor cars 3 or 4 or more wheels, electric cars and alternative powered cars. Special bodywork for motor cars, car design, the International Advanced Mobility Forum is the Geneva Motor Show forum on the mobility of the future. The 87th Geneva Motor Show was held from 9 to 19 March 2017, the 86th Geneva Motor Show was held from 3 to 13 March 2016. The 85th Geneva Motor Show was held from 5 to 15 March 2015, the 84th Geneva Motor Show was held from 6 to 16 March 2014.
The 83rd Geneva Motor Show was held from 5 to 17 March 2013, the 82nd edition was held from 8 to 18 March 2012. The 2011 edition was held from 3 to 13 March 2011, the 80th edition of the Geneva Motor Show was held from 4–14 March 2010. Over 80 introductions were expected for the show, press days for the show started on 2 March 2010, when most of the major introductions occurred. The 2009 Geneva Motor Show was held from 5–15 March 2009, the following vehicles were introduced, The 2008 Geneva Motor Show was held from 4–16 March 2008. Bolloré Bluecar Fiat Panda, hybrid petrol -natural gas, ford Focus Turnier 2.0 Honda Small Hybrid Sports Honda FCX Clarity Opel Corsa D, with optimized 100HP1. 6l natural gas engine. Reva Greeny AC1 and AC1 Z Subaru R1e, small city car
In automobiles, power steering helps drivers steer by augmenting steering effort of the steering wheel. Power steering can be engineered to provide some artificial feedback of forces acting on the steered wheels, hydraulic power steering systems for cars augment steering effort via an actuator, a hydraulic cylinder that is part of a servo system. These systems have a mechanical connection between the steering wheel and the linkage that steers the wheels. This means that power-steering system failure still permits the vehicle to be steered using manual effort alone, electric power steering systems use electric motors to provide the assistance instead of hydraulic systems. As with hydraulic types, power to the actuator is controlled by the rest of the power-steering system, other power steering systems have no direct mechanical connection to the steering linkage, they require electrical power. Systems of this kind, with no connection, are sometimes called drive by wire or steer by wire. In this context, wire refers to electrical cables that carry power and data, some construction vehicles have a two-part frame with a rugged hinge in the middle, this hinge allows the front and rear axles to become non-parallel to steer the vehicle.
Opposing hydraulic cylinders move the halves of the relative to each other to steer. The first power steering system on an automobile was apparently installed in 1876 by a man with the surname of Fitts, but little else is known about him. The next power steering system was put on a Columbia 5-ton truck in 1903 where an electric motor was used to assist the driver in turning the front wheels. Robert E. Twyford, a resident of Pittsburgh, francis W. Davis, an engineer of the truck division of Pierce-Arrow, began exploring how steering could be made easier, and in 1926 invented and demonstrated the first practical power steering system. Davis moved to General Motors and refined the hydraulic-assisted power steering system, Davis signed up with Bendix, a parts manufacturer for automakers. Military needs during World War II for easier steering on heavy vehicles boosted the need for assistance on armored cars and tank-recovery vehicles for the British. Chrysler Corporation introduced the first commercially available passenger car power steering system on the 1951 Chrysler Imperial under the name Hydraguide, the Chrysler system was based on some of Daviss expired patents.
General Motors introduced the 1952 Cadillac with a steering system using the work Davis had done for the company almost twenty years earlier. Charles F. Hammond from Detroit filed several patents for improvements of power steering with the Canadian Intellectual Property Office in 1958. Most new vehicles now have power steering, owing to the trends toward front wheel drive, greater vehicle mass, and wider tires, which all increase the required steering effort. Heavier vehicles, as are common in countries, would be extremely difficult to maneuver at low speeds