Sports car racing
Sports car racing is a form of motorsport road racing which utilizes sports cars that have two seats and enclosed wheels. They may be related to road-going models. A type of hybrid between the purism of open-wheelers and the familiarity of touring car racing, this style is associated with the annual Le Mans 24 Hours endurance race. First run in 1923, Le Mans is one of the oldest motor races still in existence. Other classic but now defunct sports car races include the Italian classics, the Targa Florio and Mille Miglia, the Mexican Carrera Panamericana. Most top class sports car races emphasize endurance and strategy, over pure speed. Longer races involve complex pit strategy and regular driver changes; as a result, sports car racing is seen more as a team endeavor than an individual sport, with team managers such as John Wyer, Tom Walkinshaw, driver-turned-constructor Henri Pescarolo, Peter Sauber and Reinhold Joest becoming as famous as some of their drivers. The prestige of storied marques such as Porsche, Corvette, Jaguar, Aston Martin, Maserati, Alfa Romeo, Mercedes-Benz, BMW is built in part upon success in sports car racing and the World Sportscar Championship.
These makers' top road cars have been similar both in engineering and styling to those raced. This close association with the'exotic' nature of the cars serves as a useful distinction between sports car racing and touring cars; the 12 Hours of Sebring, 24 Hours of Daytona, 24 Hours of Le Mans were once considered the trifecta of sports car racing. Driver Ken Miles would have been the only to win all three in the same year but for an error in the Ford GT40's team orders at Le Mans in 1966 that cost him the win in spite of finishing first. According to historian Richard Hough, "It is impossible to distinguish between the designers of sports cars and Grand Prix machines during the pre-1914 period; the late Georges Faroux always contended that sports-car racing was not born until the first 24 Hours of Le Mans race in 1923, while as a joint-creator of that race he may have been prejudiced in his opinion, it is true that sports-car racing as it was known after 1919 did not exist before the First World War."
In the 1920s, the cars used in endurance racing and Grand Prix were still identical, with fenders and two seats, to carry a mechanic if necessary or permitted. Cars such as the Bugatti Type 35 were equally at home in Grands Prix and endurance events, but specialisation started to differentiate the sports-racer from the Grand Prix car; the legendary Alfa Romeo Tipo A Monoposto started the evolution of the true single-seater in the early 1930s. During the 1930s, French constructors, unable to keep up with the progress of the Mercedes-Benz and Auto-Union cars in GP racing, withdrew into domestic competition with large-capacity sports cars – marques such as Delahaye and the Bugattis were locally prominent. Through the 1920s and 1930s the roadgoing sports/GT car started to emerge as distinct from fast tourers and sports cars, whether descended from roadgoing vehicles or developed from pure-bred racing cars came to dominate races such as Le Mans and the Mille Miglia. In open-road endurance races across Europe such as the Mille Miglia, Tour de France and Targa Florio, which were run on dusty roads, the need for fenders and a mechanic or navigator was still there.
As Italian cars and races defined the genre, the category came to be known as Gran Turismo, as long distances had to be travelled, rather than running around on short circuits only. Reliability and some basic comfort were necessary. After the Second World War, sports car racing emerged as a distinct form of racing with its own classic races, from 1953, its own FIA sanctioned World Sportscar Championship. In the 1950s, sports car racing was regarded as as important as Grand Prix competition, with major marques like Ferrari, Maserati and Aston Martin investing much effort in their works programmes and supplying cars to customers. Top Grand Prix drivers competed in sports car racing. After major accidents at the 1955 24 Hours of Le Mans and the 1957 Mille Miglia the power of sports cars was curbed with a 3-litre engine capacity limit applied to them in the World Championship from 1958. From 1962 sports cars temporarily took a back seat to GT cars with the FIA replacing the World Championship for Sports Cars with the International Championship for GT Manufacturers.
In national rather than international racing, sports car competition in the 1950s and early 1960s tended to reflect what was locally popular, with the cars that were successful locally influencing each nation's approach to competing on the international stage. In the US, imported Italian and British cars battled local hybrids, with very distinct East and West Coast scenes; the US scene tended to featu
Michelin Raceway Road Atlanta is a 2.54-mile road course located just north of Braselton, United States. The facility is utilized for a wide variety of events, including professional and amateur sports car and motorcycle races and driving schools, corporate programs and testing for motorsports teams; the track has 12 turns, including the famous "esses" between turns five. The track is owned by IMSA Holdings, LLC through its subsidiary Road Atlanta, LLC, is the home to the Petit Le Mans, as well as AMA motorcycle racing, smaller events throughout the year. Michelin acquired naming rights to the facility in 2018. In 1969, David Sloyer, Earl Walker, Arthur Montgomery purchased a 750 acres plot of farmland in Braselton, with the intent to build a world-class road racing facility; when a Can-Am race had to be canceled due to flood damage, the series organizers chose Road Atlanta to replace it. The track began to take form taking only six months to excavate and pave the road course; the first race was held on September 13, 1970.
Vic Elford, in a Chaparral 2J, won pole and Tony Dean, in a Porsche 908/02, won the 300 km Can-Am event, with Stirling Moss as the Grand Marshal. Throughout the 1970s, more top-level series came to Road Atlanta, including Can-Am, Formula 5000, IMSA Camel GT, Trans-Am; the Sports Car Club of America held their annual national championship, the SCCA Runoffs, at Road Atlanta from 1970 to 1993. The first road race in NASCAR Busch Grand National Series history took place at Road Atlanta in 1986; the track was sold in 1978, was passed from one owner to the next—culminating in bankruptcy in 1993 under the Whittington Brothers. A partnership between business executives Frank Drendel, Jim Kanely, Eddie Edwards, George Nuse, Bill Waddell was formed to purchase the track; the next three years were spent making gradual improvements to the facility. New buildings were constructed, others were renovated, the track was widened and resurfaced and the grounds were landscaped. In November 1996, the track was purchased by Don Panoz, who would make Braselton the base of operations for his motorsports-related ventures.
Panoz introduced the first major changes to the track, removing the Dip and creating a chicane at the end of the long back straight. These changes brought the track up to FIA standards. A new pit and paddock area was constructed on the infield side of the track, allowing for larger events, a 10,000-seat terrace area was constructed around the new Turn 10 complex. In 1998, major racing resumed at Road Atlanta with the first edition of the Petit Le Mans endurance race; the race attracted worldwide attention, included entries from the Le Mans-winning Porsche factory team. The race would be the first race of the American Le Mans Series and included a spectacular accident where a Porsche 911 GT1 backflipped and flew into the side barriers. Petit has continued to be an annual event at Road Atlanta, a marquee event in the ALMS. Prior to the 2007 Petit Le Mans, the entire track surface was repaved; the works included moving the walls in the esses away from the track, with the intention of improved driver safety and better sight lines for spectators.
In the late winter of 2007/2008, the circuit was again modified with the reconfiguration of turns 4 and 12, for the ostensible safety benefit of motorcycle racers. In April 2008, Road Atlanta hosted the 4th stage of the Tour de Georgia, one of the largest cycling stage races in the United States; the stage was run using standard racing bikes instead of the more aerodynamic time trial bikes. Slipstream Chipotle won the stage with a time of 19:38.86, while Astana and Team High Road finished second and third respectively. Used in local cycling events, the circuit is run counterclockwise, owing to safety issues from the downhill Turn 11 to Turn 12, creating a steep climb from Turn 12 to Turn 11, a much safer route for cycling; the October 2008 Petit Le Mans had a four-day crowd of 113,000 people with an average weekend crowd of nearly 80,000 fans. The race entry list includes a number of returning cars. In September 2012, the track was purchased by IMSA Holdings as part of its acquisition of Panoz Motor Sports Group.
The intention was to combine American Le Mans Series. NASCAR K&N series has announced a return to the track in October 2013 as part of the K&N East series. In December 2017, the track hosted its first 24 Hours of LeMons event, the Kim Harmon Scrotium 500; the series is scheduled to return in 2018. Starting in 2019, the track will become Michelin Raceway Road Atlanta after Michelin and IMSA Holdings announced the naming rights agreement. Road Atlanta has been featured as one of the main drivable courses in the Xbox video game Forza Motorsport and its sequels, in the 1999 PC racing simulator Sports Car GT; the track was digitally created for Electronic Arts' F1 series "modded" to be compatible with multiple PC games. Scratch-made versions of the track have been created for rFactor and Papyrus' NASCAR Racing 2003 Season, it appears in the PlayStation 2 game Le Mans 24 Hours and on iRacing.com. AMA/FIM-MotoAmerica Suzuki Superbike Series WWW. Motoamerica.com IMSA WeatherTech SportsCar ChampionshipPetit Le MansIMSA Continental Tire Sports Car Challenge IMSA Cooper Tires Prototype Lites IMSA Porsche GT3 Cup Challenge presented by Yokohama Formula DDrift AtlantaTrans-Am Series Historic Sportscar RacingThe MittyLamborghini Super Trofeo North America American Endurance Racing 24 Hours of LeMons presented by Yokohama TireRack.com ChampCar Endurance Series Nati
Internal combustion engine
An internal combustion engine is a heat engine where the combustion of a fuel occurs with an oxidizer in a combustion chamber, an integral part of the working fluid flow circuit. In an internal combustion engine, the expansion of the high-temperature and high-pressure gases produced by combustion applies direct force to some component of the engine; the force is applied to pistons, turbine blades, rotor or a nozzle. This force moves the component over a distance, transforming chemical energy into useful mechanical energy; the first commercially successful internal combustion engine was created by Étienne Lenoir around 1859 and the first modern internal combustion engine was created in 1876 by Nikolaus Otto. The term internal combustion engine refers to an engine in which combustion is intermittent, such as the more familiar four-stroke and two-stroke piston engines, along with variants, such as the six-stroke piston engine and the Wankel rotary engine. A second class of internal combustion engines use continuous combustion: gas turbines, jet engines and most rocket engines, each of which are internal combustion engines on the same principle as described.
Firearms are a form of internal combustion engine. In contrast, in external combustion engines, such as steam or Stirling engines, energy is delivered to a working fluid not consisting of, mixed with, or contaminated by combustion products. Working fluids can be air, hot water, pressurized water or liquid sodium, heated in a boiler. ICEs are powered by energy-dense fuels such as gasoline or diesel fuel, liquids derived from fossil fuels. While there are many stationary applications, most ICEs are used in mobile applications and are the dominant power supply for vehicles such as cars and boats. An ICE is fed with fossil fuels like natural gas or petroleum products such as gasoline, diesel fuel or fuel oil. There is a growing usage of renewable fuels like biodiesel for CI engines and bioethanol or methanol for SI engines. Hydrogen is sometimes used, can be obtained from either fossil fuels or renewable energy. Various scientists and engineers contributed to the development of internal combustion engines.
In 1791, John Barber developed the gas turbine. In 1794 Thomas Mead patented a gas engine. In 1794, Robert Street patented an internal combustion engine, the first to use liquid fuel, built an engine around that time. In 1798, John Stevens built the first American internal combustion engine. In 1807, French engineers Nicéphore and Claude Niépce ran a prototype internal combustion engine, using controlled dust explosions, the Pyréolophore; this engine powered a boat on France. The same year, the Swiss engineer François Isaac de Rivaz built an internal combustion engine ignited by an electric spark. In 1823, Samuel Brown patented the first internal combustion engine to be applied industrially. In 1854 in the UK, the Italian inventors Eugenio Barsanti and Felice Matteucci tried to patent "Obtaining motive power by the explosion of gases", although the application did not progress to the granted stage. In 1860, Belgian Jean Joseph Etienne Lenoir produced a gas-fired internal combustion engine. In 1864, Nikolaus Otto patented the first atmospheric gas engine.
In 1872, American George Brayton invented the first commercial liquid-fuelled internal combustion engine. In 1876, Nikolaus Otto, working with Gottlieb Daimler and Wilhelm Maybach, patented the compressed charge, four-cycle engine. In 1879, Karl Benz patented a reliable two-stroke gasoline engine. In 1886, Karl Benz began the first commercial production of motor vehicles with the internal combustion engine. In 1892, Rudolf Diesel developed compression ignition engine. In 1926, Robert Goddard launched the first liquid-fueled rocket. In 1939, the Heinkel He 178 became the world's first jet aircraft. At one time, the word engine meant any piece of machinery—a sense that persists in expressions such as siege engine. A "motor" is any machine. Traditionally, electric motors are not referred to as "engines". In boating an internal combustion engine, installed in the hull is referred to as an engine, but the engines that sit on the transom are referred to as motors. Reciprocating piston engines are by far the most common power source for land and water vehicles, including automobiles, ships and to a lesser extent, locomotives.
Rotary engines of the Wankel design are used in some automobiles and motorcycles. Where high power-to-weight ratios are required, internal combustion engines appear in the form of combustion turbines or Wankel engines. Powered aircraft uses an ICE which may be a reciprocating engine. Airplanes can instead use jet engines and helicopters can instead employ turboshafts. In addition to providing propulsion, airliners may employ a separate ICE as an auxiliary power unit. Wankel engines are fitted to many unmanned aerial vehicles. ICEs drive some of the large electric generators, they are found in the form of combustion turbines in combined cycle power plants with a typical electrical output in the range of 100 MW to 1 GW. The high temperature exhaust is used to superheat water to run a steam turbine. Thus, the efficiency is higher because more energy is extracted from the fuel than what could be extracted by the co
Spain the Kingdom of Spain, is a country located in Europe. Its continental European territory is situated on the Iberian Peninsula, its territory includes two archipelagoes: the Canary Islands off the coast of Africa, the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean Sea. The African enclaves of Ceuta, Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera make Spain the only European country to have a physical border with an African country. Several small islands in the Alboran Sea are part of Spanish territory; the country's mainland is bordered to the south and east by the Mediterranean Sea except for a small land boundary with Gibraltar. With an area of 505,990 km2, Spain is the largest country in Southern Europe, the second largest country in Western Europe and the European Union, the fourth largest country in the European continent. By population, Spain is the fifth in the European Union. Spain's capital and largest city is Madrid. Modern humans first arrived in the Iberian Peninsula around 35,000 years ago. Iberian cultures along with ancient Phoenician, Greek and Carthaginian settlements developed on the peninsula until it came under Roman rule around 200 BCE, after which the region was named Hispania, based on the earlier Phoenician name Spn or Spania.
At the end of the Western Roman Empire the Germanic tribal confederations migrated from Central Europe, invaded the Iberian peninsula and established independent realms in its western provinces, including the Suebi and Vandals. The Visigoths would forcibly integrate all remaining independent territories in the peninsula, including Byzantine provinces, into the Kingdom of Toledo, which more or less unified politically and all the former Roman provinces or successor kingdoms of what was documented as Hispania. In the early eighth century the Visigothic Kingdom fell to the Moors of the Umayyad Islamic Caliphate, who arrived to rule most of the peninsula in the year 726, leaving only a handful of small Christian realms in the north and lasting up to seven centuries in the Kingdom of Granada; this led to many wars during a long reconquering period across the Iberian Peninsula, which led to the creation of the Kingdom of Leon, Kingdom of Castile, Kingdom of Aragon and Kingdom of Navarre as the main Christian kingdoms to face the invasion.
Following the Moorish conquest, Europeans began a gradual process of retaking the region known as the Reconquista, which by the late 15th century culminated in the emergence of Spain as a unified country under the Catholic Monarchs. Until Aragon had been an independent kingdom, which had expanded toward the eastern Mediterranean, incorporating Sicily and Naples, had competed with Genoa and Venice. In the early modern period, Spain became the world's first global empire and the most powerful country in the world, leaving a large cultural and linguistic legacy that includes more than 570 million Hispanophones, making Spanish the world's second-most spoken native language, after Mandarin Chinese. During the Golden Age there were many advancements in the arts, with world-famous painters such as Diego Velázquez; the most famous Spanish literary work, Don Quixote, was published during the Golden Age. Spain hosts the world's third-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Spain is a secular parliamentary democracy and a parliamentary monarchy, with King Felipe VI as head of state.
It is a major developed country and a high income country, with the world's fourteenth largest economy by nominal GDP and sixteenth largest by purchasing power parity. It is a member of the United Nations, the European Union, the Eurozone, the Council of Europe, the Organization of Ibero-American States, the Union for the Mediterranean, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the Schengen Area, the World Trade Organization and many other international organisations. While not an official member, Spain has a "Permanent Invitation" to the G20 summits, participating in every summit, which makes Spain a de facto member of the group; the origins of the Roman name Hispania, from which the modern name España was derived, are uncertain due to inadequate evidence, although it is documented that the Phoenicians and Carthaginians referred to the region as Spania, therefore the most accepted etymology is a Semitic-Phoenician one.
Down the centuries there have been a number of accounts and hypotheses: The Renaissance scholar Antonio de Nebrija proposed that the word Hispania evolved from the Iberian word Hispalis, meaning "city of the western world". Jesús Luis Cunchillos argues that the root of the term span is the Phoenician word spy, meaning "to forge metals". Therefore, i-spn-ya would mean "the land where metals are forged", it may be a derivation of the Phoenician I-Shpania, meaning "island of rabbits", "land of rabbits" or "edge", a reference to Spain's location at the end of the Mediterranean. The word in question means "Hyrax" due to Phoenicians confusing the two animals. Hispania may derive from the poetic use of the term Hesperia, reflecting the Greek perception of Italy as a "western land" or "land of the setting sun" (Hesperia
Italy the Italian Republic, is a country in Southern Europe. Located in the middle of the Mediterranean Sea, Italy shares open land borders with France, Austria and the enclaved microstates San Marino and Vatican City. Italy covers an area of 301,340 km2 and has a temperate seasonal and Mediterranean climate. With around 61 million inhabitants, it is the fourth-most populous EU member state and the most populous country in Southern Europe. Due to its central geographic location in Southern Europe and the Mediterranean, Italy has been home to a myriad of peoples and cultures. In addition to the various ancient peoples dispersed throughout modern-day Italy, the most famous of which being the Indo-European Italics who gave the peninsula its name, beginning from the classical era and Carthaginians founded colonies in insular Italy and Genoa, Greeks established settlements in the so-called Magna Graecia, while Etruscans and Celts inhabited central and northern Italy respectively; the Italic tribe known as the Latins formed the Roman Kingdom in the 8th century BC, which became a republic with a government of the Senate and the People.
The Roman Republic conquered and assimilated its neighbours on the peninsula, in some cases through the establishment of federations, the Republic expanded and conquered parts of Europe, North Africa and the Middle East. By the first century BC, the Roman Empire emerged as the dominant power in the Mediterranean Basin and became the leading cultural and religious centre of Western civilisation, inaugurating the Pax Romana, a period of more than 200 years during which Italy's technology, economy and literature flourished. Italy remained the metropole of the Roman Empire; the legacy of the Roman Empire endured its fall and can be observed in the global distribution of culture, governments and the Latin script. During the Early Middle Ages, Italy endured sociopolitical collapse and barbarian invasions, but by the 11th century, numerous rival city-states and maritime republics in the northern and central regions of Italy, rose to great prosperity through shipping and banking, laying the groundwork for modern capitalism.
These independent statelets served as Europe's main trading hubs with Asia and the Near East enjoying a greater degree of democracy than the larger feudal monarchies that were consolidating throughout Europe. The Renaissance began in Italy and spread to the rest of Europe, bringing a renewed interest in humanism, science and art. Italian culture flourished, producing famous scholars and polymaths such as Michelangelo, Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael and Machiavelli. During the Middle Ages, Italian explorers such as Marco Polo, Christopher Columbus, Amerigo Vespucci, John Cabot and Giovanni da Verrazzano discovered new routes to the Far East and the New World, helping to usher in the European Age of Discovery. Italy's commercial and political power waned with the opening of trade routes that bypassed the Mediterranean. Centuries of infighting between the Italian city-states, such as the Italian Wars of the 15th and 16th centuries, left the region fragmented, it was subsequently conquered and further divided by European powers such as France and Austria.
By the mid-19th century, rising Italian nationalism and calls for independence from foreign control led to a period of revolutionary political upheaval. After centuries of foreign domination and political division, Italy was entirely unified in 1871, establishing the Kingdom of Italy as a great power. From the late 19th century to the early 20th century, Italy industrialised, namely in the north, acquired a colonial empire, while the south remained impoverished and excluded from industrialisation, fuelling a large and influential diaspora. Despite being one of the main victors in World War I, Italy entered a period of economic crisis and social turmoil, leading to the rise of a fascist dictatorship in 1922. Participation in World War II on the Axis side ended in military defeat, economic destruction and the Italian Civil War. Following the liberation of Italy and the rise of the resistance, the country abolished the monarchy, reinstated democracy, enjoyed a prolonged economic boom and, despite periods of sociopolitical turmoil became a developed country.
Today, Italy is considered to be one of the world's most culturally and economically advanced countries, with the sixth-largest worldwide national wealth. Its advanced economy ranks eighth-largest in the world and third in the Eurozone by nominal GDP. Italy owns the third-largest central bank gold reserve, it has a high level of human development, it stands among the top countries for life expectancy. The country plays a prominent role in regional and global economic, military and diplomatic affairs. Italy is a founding and leading member of the European Union and a member of numerous international institutions, including the UN, NATO, the OECD, the OSCE, the WTO, the G7, the G20, the Union for the Mediterranean, the Council of Europe, Uniting for Consensus, the Schengen Area and many more; as a reflection
BMS Scuderia Italia
BMS Scuderia Italia SpA is an Italian auto racing team founded by Italian steel magnate and motorsports enthusiast Giuseppe Lucchini in 1983. Named Brixia Motor Sport and entering the World Touring Car Championship, the team's name was altered to BMS Scuderia Italia upon their entrance into Formula One in 1988. After departing Formula One in 1993, BMS Scuderia Italia has been involved in the touring car racing and sports car racing. Scuderia Italia has been involved with many automobile manufacturers, including Alfa Romeo, Ferrari, Nissan and Aston Martin; the team is competing in the FIA GT Championship with a pair of Ferrari F430s, while their Brixia Racing arm competes in the FIA GT3 European Championship and Italian GT Championship with Aston Martin DBRS9s. In 1983, after being involved in with Osella, Giorgio Francia, Mirabella Racing's efforts in the Italian Group 6 Championship and the World Endurance Championship, Giuseppe Lucchini decided to form his own team. Named after the original Latin name for the team's base of Brescia, Brixia Motor Sport campaigned an Alfa Romeo GTV6 in the Italian Rally Championship before replacing it with a Lancia 037 in 1985.
Brixia returned to Alfa Romeo in 1987 as the team expanded to enter the new Alfa Romeo 75 in both the World Touring Car Championship and the Italian Rally Championship. Alfa Romeo however chose to withdraw from the World Touring Car Championship, Lucchini turned his attention to another World Championship. After abandoning the World Touring Car Championship during the 1987 season, Giuseppe Lucchini set his sights on entering the Formula One World Championship in the coming year. Unable to construct their own car, Lucchini brokered a deal with Dallara owner Gian Paolo Dallara to construct a new car based on their experience as a Formula 3000 entry. Lucchini renamed his team BMS Scuderia Italia and placed Vittorio Palazzani in charge of the new entry. Sergio Rinland designed the new Dallara 188 and served as the team's chief engineer. Cosworth provided their Ford DFZ V8 and Italian Alex Caffi was signed to drive the team's sole entry; the car was late being completed, forcing the team to bring a Dallara Formula 3000 car to the first meeting in Brazil.
The team was unable to score any points, but qualified for fourteen of sixteen races during the year. Caffi earned a best finish of seventh at the Portuguese Grand Prix, one position outside of the points. Returning for 1989, BMS Scuderia Italia entered a second car for the experienced Italian Andrea de Cesaris alongside Caffi; the team's new Dallara 189s were designed by new engineer Mario Tolentino. At the third race of the year, the Monaco Grand Prix, Caffi earned the team's first points finish when he came home in fourth, although the Constructors' Championship recognized Dallara rather than Scuderia Italia; that season, aided by heavy attrition at the Canadian Grand Prix, both drivers earned points. De Cesaris earned the team's first podium as well by finishing in third place, while Caffi was two laps behind in sixth. For the rest of the year, the two were unable to score any more points, although Caffi qualified an outstanding third in the Hungarian Grand Prix and both cars qualified in the top 10 in the season-ending Australian Grand Prix.
De Cesaris and Caffi were thus ranked 17th in the Drivers' Championship, while the combined total of eight points earned Dallara eighth in the Constructors' Championship. In 1990, team manager Patrizio Cantù departed the team and was replaced by former Ferrari engineer Pierpaolo Gardella. Alex Caffi left the team, moving to Arrows. Emanuele Pirro was signed as his replacement, although Gianni Morbidelli was substituted in the first two races of the season when Pirro was unwell; the team struggled throughout the year, unable to earn points in any races and only able to reach the finish in seven of the sixteen Grands Prix, although one of these finishes was disqualified. Disappointed with the Dallara 190, designer Tolentino was replaced by Nigel Cowperthwaite in 1991 for the design of the 191, the team's Ford Cosworth engines were replaced by new Judd V10s. De Cesaris needed replacing, as he had signed to drive for the brand new Jordan team. Finn Jyrki Järvilehto, otherwise known as JJ Lehto, was signed and gained BMS Scuderia Italia their first points since 1989, earning a third-place finish at the San Marino Grand Prix.
Pirro followed this with sixth place at his first point for the team. However, Lehto failed to finish more than half of the races during the year and Pirro struggled to prequalify for several races, so the two were ranked twelfth and eighteenth in the Drivers' Championship. Dallara once again earned eighth in the Constructors' Championship. Giuseppe Lucchini was able to negotiate the use of year-old Ferrari V12 engines for the 1992 season and gained Pierluigi Martini as a replacement for Pirro, released by the team. Reliability increased as the team managed to complete all but four Grands Prix with at least one car. Martini scored the team's only points of the year with two consecutive sixth-place finishes at the Spanish Grand Prix and San Marino Grand Prix, earning him sixteenth in the Drivers' Championship and Dallara tenth in the Constructors' Championship. Giuseppe Lucchini announced that – after friction between Dallara and Ferrari – the cars for 1993 would be constructed by Lola Cars of Britain, with Ferrari remaining as the engine supplier.
(Lola and Larrousse had some success in 1990, but had parted at the end of 1991 as
Didier Theys is a Belgian sports car driver. He is a two-time overall winner of the 24 Hours of Daytona, he was the polesitter and a podium finisher at the 24 Hours of Le Mans. The podium finish in 1999 was a third overall in the factory Audi R8R with co-drivers Emanuele Pirro and Frank Biela. Theys’ first appearance at Le Mans was in 1982, while his last start in the world’s most famous endurance sports car race came 20 years in 2002. Theys won the Belgium Karting championship in 1977, he competed in several feeder formulae: he won several Formula Ford championships in the late 1970s and early 1980s. S. Bosch Super Vee championship in 1986, he was successful in the European Formula Three Championship and Formula 2 in the 1980s. He finished third in the Monaco Formula 3 Grand Prix in 1985. Theys competed in the CART Indy Car Series from 1987 to 1993 with 47 career starts, including the Indianapolis 500 three times, he finished in the top ten 10 times in CART events, his best career finish in that series was a third position in Miami in 1988.
Theys ran the IMSA GT Championship in 1995 on a Ferrari 333SP. He finished fourth in 1996, 11th in 1997 and 6th in the series' final season in 1998. Theys' 1998 victories at Daytona and Sebring came in the Kevin Doran-prepared MOMO Ferrari with co-drivers Mauro Baldi, Arie Luyendyk and Giampiero Moretti, his 2002 Daytona victory came in the Doran Lista Dallara Judd with co-drivers Baldi, Fredy Lienhard and Max Papis. His 1998 season was a record-setter, as in addition to winning Daytona and Sebring, Theys won the Six Hours of Watkins Glen, he finished second overall in the FIA Sportscar Championship that year, winning at Paul Ricard, France. In addition to his Grand-Am driver championship in 2002, Theys finished third in the driver point standings in that series in 2001 and was the runner-up in 2000, he had four victories in his championship 2002 season, established the largest margin of victory in series history in winning the race at Mont-Tremblant, Quebec from the pole that year. Prior to retiring from pro racing in March 2009, Theys competed in the Le Mans Series in Europe with Horag Racing from 2005 through 2008, winning the Monza 1,000 km race in the LMP2 category in 2007 and a similar event at the Nürburgring in 2005 in a Lola Judd.
He finished his pro driving career in the Horag Racing-prepared Lista Office Porsche RS Spyder in the Le Mans Series’ LMP2 division in 2008, finishing second in class at Spa and Silverstone, third at Monza and winning the Michelin Energy Challenge that season. Theys drove a Maserati MC 12 for Doran Racing in the ALMS in 2007, an effort that stunned the GT1 class when it beat the factory Corvettes to win the pole at the Petit Le Mans that year. Upon his retirement from driving professionally, Theys had finished on the podium 61 times in sports car races all over the world, with 18 victories, 22 second-place finishes and 21 third-place finishes through the end of the 2008 season, he has the most professional victories of anyone in a Ferrari 333 SP with 10. He received the prestigious Driver of the Year Award in his native Belgium in 2002. Theys works as a racing driver coach and consultant, he is the Driving Director of DrivingXllence, an automotive event company that allows guests to experience the exhilaration and adrenaline of being behind the wheel of the world’s newest and best Supercars.
Although he never gave up his Belgium citizenship, Theys resides in Scottsdale, Ariz. for many years, still lives there. That municipality honored him with the keys to the city in honor of his GRAND-AM driver championship and second 24 Hours of Daytona victory, he is married to Florence Richardson. 1 Did not drive Didier Theys' IndyCar statistics Didier Theys' ARS statistics Didier Theys career summary at DriverDB.com