Edmund Eddie Irvine Jr. is a retired British racing driver from Northern Ireland. He was a Formula One driver between 1993 and 2002, and runner-up in the 1999 World Drivers Championship, driving for Scuderia Ferrari. He began his career at the age of seventeen when he entered the Formula Ford Championship, achieving success, before progressing to the Formula Three. He made his Formula One debut in 1993 with Jordan Grand Prix and he scored his first podium in 1995 with Jordan, before moving to Ferrari in 1996. His most successful season was in 1999 when he took four victories and he moved to Jaguar Racing in 2000, scoring the teams first podium in 2001 and his final podium in 2002. Irvine retired from motorsport at the end of the 2002 season. Since retiring, Irvine became a personality in Great Britain. He was linked with the takeover of the Jordan and Minardi Formula One teams in 2005, Irvine expanded his interests in the property market, having built up an investment portfolio during his racing career.
Irvine was born on 10 November 1965 in Newtownards, County Down in Northern Ireland, to Edmund Sr. and he grew up in the village of Conlig and was educated at Regent House Grammar School in Newtownards. He has one sister, who acted as Irvines physiotherapist until 1999. Irvines first taste of motorsport came when his family spent their holidays attending the British Grand Prix and his father raced in single-seaters for fun. His childhood hero was countryman John Watson, Irvine began to compete with racing cars in 1983. He was initially interested in racing, but his parents thought the sport too dangerous and was encouraged by his father to race in Formula Ford. Irvine worked unpaid in his fathers scrapyard, in return for which and he won his first race at Brands Hatch in 1984, and an award for best driver. In 1987 he joined the Van Diemen team and won the Esso Formula Ford series, the RAC Formula Ford series, in the winter of 1987, Marlboro organised a test in which the fastest driver would be offered a drive for the following British Formula 3 season.
Irvine was that driver and joined West Surrey Racing for 1988 and it was a season without any success and Irvine ended it in fifth place. He raced at the Macau Grand Prix for the first time and started the race from pole position, in 1989 Irvine competed in the International Formula 3000 Championship with Pacific Racing. Irvine finished the season in place, ahead of teammate JJ Lehto in thirteenth
Gerhard Berger is an Austrian former Formula One racing driver. He competed in Formula One for 14 seasons, twice finishing 3rd overall in the championship and he won ten Grands Prix, achieved 48 podiums,12 poles and 21 fastest laps. With 210 starts he is amongst the most experienced Formula One drivers of all time and he led 33 of the 210 races he competed in and retired from 95 of them. His first and last victories were the first and last victories for the Benetton team and he was a race winner with Ferrari and with McLaren. When at McLaren, Berger drove alongside Ayrton Senna, contributing to the teams 1990 and 1991 constructors titles, between 2006 and 2008 Berger owned 50% of the Scuderia Toro Rosso Formula One team. Gerhard Berger was born in Wörgl and his father Johann worked in his own truck company with Gerhard working for his father and before being promoted to a driver. Berger, a race winner in European Formula Three, moved up to Formula One in 1984 driving for the ATS team. Berger was fortunate to be alive after a road accident shortly after entering Formula One.
A week after the 1984 season ended, he was driving home in his BMW 323i through the hills above Salzburg when his car was rammed from behind, Berger was thrown clear of the BMW through the rear window. By chance, the first car on the scene was occupied by two surgeons who specialised in back injuries. The doctors realised the extent of his injuries and made sure he was not moved, following emergency surgery, and a stay in hospital in Innsbruck, he made a full recovery. Although he had some good drives, Berger would finish the season in 20th place having scored 3 points in the last two races of the year in South Africa and Australia and it was not until joining Benetton in 1986 that his F1 career took off. Berger was on course for a victory at his home race. Berger out-qualified team-mate Teo Fabi 12–4 in 1986 though Fabi, who as a Rookie had qualified on the pole for the 1983 Indianapolis 500, took pole at the faster Österreichring and Monza circuits. Berger established himself as a very fast driver in Formula One that year, recording the fastest speed trap of the season and this remains the fastest straight line speed attained by a turbocharged car in the first turbo era.
He won the 1985 Spa 24 Hours partnering Italian touring car ace Roberto Ravaglia and fellow Formula One driver, Marc Surer of Switzerland. Until the mid-1980s when teams began stopping their drivers competing in categories of racing, it was not uncommon for a Grand Prix driver to race in sports. However, by 1985 Formula One drivers were not permitted race in any other category within 24 hours of the start of a Grand Prix
John Barnard is a race car designer and is working with Terence Woodgate designing high specification carbon fibre furniture. In 1968 Barnard was recruited by Lola Cars in Huntingdon as a designer and began working on many of the chassis manufacturers projects, including Formula Vee racers. While at Lola, Barnard was introduced to Patrick Head, who helped Frank Williams found the Williams Formula One team, the two engineers became good friends and Head was best man at Barnards wedding in the early 1970s. By 1975 Barnard had been hired by Parnelli Jones to work with Maurice Philippe designing the teams Formula One racer which campaigned from 1974 to 1976, the cars best finish was 4th by Mario Andretti at the 1975 Swedish Grand Prix. After Philippe left Vels Parnelli Jones Racing, Barnard modified the design for the Indycar circuit, further Indycar designs followed and in 1980 the Barnard-designed Chaparral 2K chassis took Johnny Rutherford to the prestigious Indianapolis 500 and the CART drivers title.
At the 1981 Italian Grand Prix at Monza, the strength of the MP4/1 was given a public test when John Watson suffered a massive crash in his MP4/1 coming out of the second Lesmo turn. Many feared the worst for the Irishman as crashes like that in Formula One often led to the death of the driver. However, the strength of the Carbon Fibre monocoque saw Watson survive unhurt to the surprise and delight of many, not the least being Watson himself, within months the design had been copied by many of McLarens rivals. In 1983, Barnard pioneered the coke-bottle shape of sidepods still visible to this day, the 1984 season saw McLaren drivers Lauda and Prost win an amazing 12 of 16 races with the TAG-Porsche powered McLaren MP4/2. By the time Barnard left McLaren for Ferrari at the end of 1986 his cars had won 31 Grands Prix for the team. The 80° V6 TAG engine had been financed by Mansour Ojjeh of Techniques dAvant Garde and was built by Porsche to Barnards specification for the MP4/1E, by 1986, the working relationship between Barnard and McLaren boss Ron Dennis had deteriorated.
This led to speculation that Barnard would leave the team and it came as no surprise when it was announced before the 1986 German Grand Prix that he would be joining Ferrari in 1987. The Scuderia had not won a Grand Prix since Michele Alboreto had won the 1985 German Grand Prix, Ferrari finished 4th in the Constructors Championship in 1987 and 2nd in 1988. While at Ferrari, Barnard ruffled a few feathers with his way of doing things and he put a ban on the teams long-standing tradition of having wine at the mechanics lunch table during testing, something that proved unpopular with the teams mostly Italian mechanics. In 1989 Barnard pioneered the electronic gear shift mechanism – now known as a semi-automatic gearbox – which was operated via two paddles on the steering wheel and this revolutionary system had proved fragile in testing since early in 1988 and many in F1 were expecting it to fail. However, new team recruit Nigel Mansell took the new V12 powered Ferrari 640 to victory first time out at the Brazilian Grand Prix in Rio de Janeiro, Barnard had instigated his second technical revolution, and by 1995 every team was running a copy of the Ferrari gearbox.
However, by the time the got to France the problems had been solved, One such advantage of the new system was put to good use by Gerhard Berger after he suffered a fiery crash at the high speed crash at the San Marino Grand Prix. The car had hit the wall at the Tamburello curve at close to 180 mph and with an almost full fuel load had burst into flames, following Mansells second place in France and the cars new found reliability, results improved dramatically
The Ferrari F310, and its evolution, the F310B, were the Formula One racing cars with which the Ferrari team competed in the 1996 and 1997 seasons. It was driven in years by Michael Schumacher and Eddie Irvine. The F310 and F310B won a total of eight Grands Prix,22 podiums,7 pole positions and 172 points, the F310 proved to be a front-running car, but without the outright pace or superb reliability which led to the Williams FW18s dominating 1996. Development proved troublesome, with the cars having to use the 1995 cars parts early in the season whilst structural problems were cured. The name F310 refers to the type, a 3 litre,10 cylinder - a nomenclature consistent with that used for Ferraris F1 cars from 1966 to 1980. The engine was called the 310. The high nose was eventually adopted permanently from the Canadian Grand Prix onwards. In an interview in 2012, Irvine did not have memories of the F310, calling it an awful car a piece of junk and almost undriveable, as did John Barnard. The team nonetheless retained their constructors points
A chassis consists of an internal vehicle frame that supports an artificial object in its construction and use, can provide protection for some internal parts. An example of a chassis is the underpart of a motor vehicle, if the running gear such as wheels and transmission, and sometimes even the drivers seat, are included, the assembly is described as a rolling chassis. In the case of vehicles, the rolling chassis means the frame plus the running gear like engine, drive shaft, differential. An under body, which is not necessary for integrity of the structure, is built on the chassis to complete the vehicle. For commercial vehicles, a rolling chassis consists of an assembly of all the parts of a truck to be ready for operation on the road. The design of a car chassis will be different than one for commercial vehicles because of the heavier loads. Commercial vehicle manufacturers sell chassis only and chassis, as well as chassis cab versions that can be outfitted with specialized bodies and these include motor homes, fire engines, box trucks, etc.
In particular applications, such as buses, a government agency like National Highway Traffic Safety Administration in the U. S. defines the design standards of chassis. An armoured fighting vehicles hull serves as the chassis and comprises the part of the AFV that includes the tracks, drivers seat. This describes the hull, although common usage might include the upper hull to mean the AFV without the turret. The hull serves as a basis for platforms on tanks, armoured carriers, combat engineering vehicles. In an electronic device, the chassis consists of a frame or other supporting structure on which the circuit boards. In the absence of a frame, the chassis refers to the circuit boards and components themselves. The combination of chassis and outer covering is called an enclosure. Vietnam Studies, Department of the Army, Washington, D. C.1978
Ferrari 412 T1
The Ferrari 412 T1 was the type name for the car used by Ferrari in the 1994 season. It was designed by John Barnard and developed by Gustav Brunner, the car was a simple and straightforward design that worked well, powered by a 3.5 litre V12 engine. The car featured heavily sculptured sidepods and a sleek rounded nosecone, the car was continually upgraded with redesigned sidepods and wings throughout the season. So many changes were made that the cars were called the 412 T1B. A new engine named Tipo 043 debuted at the 1994 San Marino Grand Prix qualifying sessions and it was designed from scratch by Claudio Lombardi and Osamu Goto with a wider vee-angle of 75 degrees and a shorter stroke, replacing the old Tipo 041. The 043 became famous for its amount of power and for its characteristic noise. The 412 T1 put Ferrari on the track after several seasons of poor competitiveness in the early 1990s. Gerhard Berger and Jean Alesi proved the cars throughout the season, with a brace of podium finishes.
Ferrari returned to Grand Prix success after a break, with Berger at the 1994 German Grand Prix. For the following year a new car, the 412 T2 came out which received many changes that aided both aero and safety
1995 British Grand Prix
The 1995 British Grand Prix was a Formula One motor race held on 16 July 1995 at Silverstone Circuit, Northamptonshire, England. It was the round of the 1995 Formula One season. The 61-lap race was won by Johnny Herbert for the Benetton team after he started from fifth position, Jean Alesi finished second in a Ferrari, with David Coulthard third in a Williams car. The remaining points-scoring positions were filled by Olivier Panis, Mark Blundell, herberts victory was his first in Formula One, and the Benetton teams fifth of the season. The race was dominated, however, by the fight between World Drivers Championship protagonists, Michael Schumacher and Damon Hill, four laps later, Hill attempted to pass Schumacher, but the two collided and were forced to retire from the race. This promoted Herbert and Coulthard, who were battling for third place, Coulthard passed Herbert, but dropped to third, behind Alesi, after incurring a stop-go penalty for speeding in the pit lane. The Constructors Championship was closer, with Benetton on 48 points leading Ferrari, after a hesitant start to the season, Schumacher had won three of the previous four Grands Prix, and arrived at Silverstone as the man to beat.
Hill, on the hand, had won the 1994 British Grand Prix and was eager to repeat the feat in front of his home fans. The McLaren, Jordan and Pacific teams took part in these test sessions, Hill was under some additional pressure going into the weekend, as his wife, was due to give birth to their third child imminently. Morbidelli was kept on as the teams test driver, and returned to racing action at the Pacific Grand Prix in the year. Pre-race discussion centred on the following years driver line-up, with Schumacher rumoured to be moving to Ferrari to replace Berger, Hills future was uncertain, as was his team-mate David Coulthards, due to the McLaren team possessing an option on his services for 1996. Sauber driver Heinz-Harald Frentzen was linked to a vacant position for 1996 in the Williams team. Despite taking a podium finish earlier in the year, Herbert had rarely been close to Schumachers pace and had completed two laps in the two previous Grands Prix. A potential new entry was being discussed, the Japanese racing car constructor Dome was in the process of building a Formula One car with which to enter the World Championship in 1997, several teams had made modifications to their cars in preparation for the event.
Ferrari made changes to the 412T2 chassiss sidepods to improve airflow around the tyres, team principal Ron Dennis re-hired experienced designer Steve Nichols, who had worked for the outfit in the 1980s, in the week before the race. Footwork arrived with revised suspension, whilst the Jordan team ran with brake disc sensors on its car, further down the field, the Forti team introduced the revised version of its FG01 chassis for Roberto Moreno. Lead driver Pedro Diniz had first driven the car in its specification at the preceding French Grand Prix. The revised aerodynamic package included a nose and new sidepods
Agip is a former Italian automotive gasoline, Diesel, LPG, fuel oil, and bitumen retailer established in 1926. It has been a subsidiary of the petroleum company Eni. In 2003, Eni acquired Agip Petroli S. p. A. creating the Refining and Marketing Division, don Sturzo continued the controversy, stating in a public company was the only way for a national energy independence. Coal in Italy was scarce and of poor quality and it was imported from abroad at prices that seriously weighed on currency balance and limited industrial growth. Power plants, which were not very developed and mainly concentrated in the north of the country, the share capital was given for a 60% from the Ministry of the Treasury, for a 20% by Istituto Nazionale Assicurazioni and the remaining 20% by the Social Insurance. The first president was Ettore Conti, contractor in the electricity sector, the establishment of the company was attributed by many analysts to Giuseppe Volpi di Misurata, Ministry of Finance, and Joseph Belluzzo, Ministry for the national economy.
In 1927 the Mining Act was issued, which gave the ownership of the subsoil to the State and imposed the rule that any oil-related activity was subject to authorization and it experienced difficulties after the crisis of 1929, but began to flourish in the 1930s. In 1933, a new law was issued in the field of protectionist refineries, Agip had a facility for refining at Fiume and in 1936 it took over a refinery at Porto Marghera, owned by Volpi di Misurata. Soon after it made an agreement with Montecatini for the creation of the joint enterprise Anic, Anic built two refineries to process the oil extracted in Albania from Azienda Italiana Petroli Albanesi, a subsidiary of Agip. However the Albanian oil was of quality and its processing proved uneconomical. Eni with you on the road
Formula One is the highest class of single-seat auto racing that is sanctioned by the Fédération Internationale de lAutomobile. The FIA Formula One World Championship has been the form of racing since the inaugural season in 1950. The formula, designated in the name, refers to a set of rules, the F1 season consists of a series of races, known as Grands Prix, held worldwide on purpose-built F1 circuits and public roads. The results of each race are evaluated using a system to determine two annual World Championships, one for drivers, one for constructors. The racing drivers are required to be holders of valid Super Licences, the races are required to be held on tracks graded 1, the highest grade a track can receive by the FIA. Most events are held in locations on purpose-built tracks, but there are several events in city centres throughout the world. Formula One cars are the fastest road racing cars in the world. Formula One cars race at speeds of up to approximately 375 km/h with engines currently limited in performance to a maximum of 15,000 RPM, the cars are capable of lateral acceleration in excess of five g in corners.
The performance of the cars is very dependent on electronics – although traction control and other driving aids have been banned since 2008 – and on aerodynamics, the formula has radically evolved and changed through the history of the sport. F1 had a global television audience of 425 million people during the course of the 2014 season. Grand Prix racing began in 1906 and became the most popular internationally in the second half of the twentieth century. The Formula One Group is the holder of the commercial rights. Its high profile and popularity have created a major merchandising environment, since 2000 the sports spiraling expenditures and the distribution of prize money favoring established top teams have forced complaints from smaller teams and led several teams to bankruptcy. On 23 January 2017 it was confirmed that Liberty Media had completed its $8 billion acquisition of Delta Topco, the Formula One series originated with the European Grand Prix Motor Racing of the 1920s and 1930s.
The formula is a set of rules that all cars must meet. Formula One was a new formula agreed upon after World War II during 1946, the first world championship race was held at Silverstone, United Kingdom in 1950. A championship for constructors followed in 1958, national championships existed in South Africa and the UK in the 1960s and 1970s. Non-championship Formula One events were held for years, but due to the increasing cost of competition
1995 Italian Grand Prix
The 1995 Italian Grand Prix was a Formula One motor race held on 10 September 1995 at the Autodromo Nazionale Monza, Italy. It was the race of the 1995 Formula One season. The 53 lap race was won by Johnny Herbert for the Benetton team after starting from eighth position, Mika Häkkinen was second in a McLaren, with Heinz-Harald Frentzen third for Sauber. Pole-sitter David Coulthard spun off on the warm up lap, when the race was stopped after a second lap collision he was able to start the race on pole again. Hill and Michael Schumacher had their second major collision of the season, as Hill attempted to lap Taki Inoues Footwork, Hill crashed into the back of Schumacher when braking for the second chicane, causing both to retire. Schumacher ran over to the Williams to confront Hill whilst the British driver sat in his cockpit and this briefly left the Ferraris running first and second. However, Gerhard Berger suffered a bizarre retirement when a TV camera on Jean Alesis car flew off, alesi led the race with just 7 laps to go but subsequently retired with wheel bearing trouble.
This succession of retirements handed a victory to Johnny Herbert. Massimiliano Papis was on course for his first points finish, until he was overtaken by Jean-Christophe Boullion on the final lap, bold text indicates who still has a theoretical chance of becoming World Champion. Note, Only the top five positions are included for both sets of standings
By using split crankpins or ignoring minor vibrations, any V angle is possible. The 180° configuration is referred to as a flat-twelve engine or a boxer although it is in reality a 180° V since the pistons can. This is not important in a car if all-out performance is the only goal. Since cost and fuel economy are usually important even in luxury and racing cars and it is often used in marine engines where great power is required, and the hull width is limited, but a longer vessel allows faster hull speed. In twin-propeller boats, two V12 engines can be enough to sit side-by-side, while three V12 engines are sometimes used in high-speed three-propeller configurations. Large, fast cruise ships can have six or more V12 engines, after World War II, the compact, more powerful, and vibration-free turboprop and turbojet engines replaced the V12 in aircraft applications. The first V-type engine was built in 1889 by Daimler, to a design by Wilhelm Maybach, by 1903 V8 engines were being produced for motor boat racing by the Société Antoinette to designs by Léon Levavasseur, building on experience gained with in-line four-cylinder engines.
In 1904, the Putney Motor Works completed a new V12 marine racing engine—the first V12 engine produced for any purpose, a single camshaft mounted in the central V operated the valves directly. As in many engines, the camshaft could be slid longitudinally to engage a second set of cams. Starting is by pumping a charge into each cylinder and switching on the trembler coils, a sliding camshaft gave direct reversing. The camshaft has fluted webs and main bearings in graduated thickness from the largest at the flywheel end, displacing 1,120 cu in, the engine weighed 950 pounds and developed 150 bhp. Little is known of the achievements in the 40-foot hull for which it was intended. One V12 Dörwald marine engine was still running in a Hong Kong junk in the late-1960s. Two more V12s appeared in the 1909-1910 motor boat racing season, the Lamb Boat & Engine Company of Clinton, Iowa built a 1,559 cu in engine for the companys 32-foot Lamb IV. It weighed in at 2,114 pounds, no weight is known for the massive 3,464 cu in F-head engine built by the Orleans Motor Company.
Output is quoted as nearly 400 bhp, by 1914, when Panhard built two 2,356 cu in engines with four-valve cylinder heads the V12 was well established in motor boat racing. In October 1913, Louis Coatalen, chief engineer of the Sunbeam Motor Car Company entered a V12 powered car in the Brooklands short, the engine displaced 9 L, with bore and stroke of 80 x 150 mm. An aluminum crankcase carried two blocks of three cylinders each along each side, with a 60 degree included angle, the cylinders were of iron, with integral cylinder heads with L-shaped combustion chambers
Jean Alesi is a French racing driver of Italian origin. His father, was a mechanic from Alcamo, during his time in Formula One, Alesi was particularly good in the wet, and was a mercurial and passionate racer, whose emotions sometimes got the better of him. After leaving Formula One, from 2002 to 2006 Alesi raced in the DTM championship, winning some races and he raced in the Speedcar Series in 2008 and 2009, and raced at Le Mans in 2010. He raced in the Indianapolis 500 in 2012 and became the oldest professional driver to perform the rookie test for admission to the competition, for several years he was a commentator for the Italian TV show Pole Position. In 2006 Alesi was awarded Chevalier de la Légion d’honneur, giovanni Alesi was born Avignon, Vaucluse, to expatriate Sicilian parents. His father ran an automotive bodywork repair garage in the town, to avert this, they decided to change their names to Jean and José, respectively. In addition to spending time in the garage, Alesis father provided his first taste of motorsport, being a keen amateur competitor in rallying.
He won the 1987 French Formula 3 title before moving up to International Formula 3000 in 1988, the 1988 season was a disappointment, finishing tenth in the championship with two podium finishes, not helped by problems within the team. However, in 1989 he joined the Jordan Formula 3000 team, both crowns were after duels with his rival Érik Comas. In 1989 Alesi tied on points for the F3000 title with Comas and he raced in the Le Mans 24 hours in the same year, but a fire forced him to retire in the fourth hour of the race. Alesi debuted in the 1989 French Grand Prix at Paul Ricard in a Tyrrell-Ford, replacing Michele Alboreto and finishing fourth, Ken Tyrrell was sufficiently impressed to give him an eighteen-month contract. He drove most of the rest of the season for Tyrrell while continuing his successful Formula 3000 campaign, scoring again at the Italian. While Alesi was seen as a talent of the future, his start as a Formula One driver was somewhat fortuitous, prior to the 1989 French Grand Prix, Ken Tyrrell had signed a deal to run Camel cigarette sponsorship on his previously unsponsored cars.
However this caused problems for Michele Alboreto who was sponsored by rival cigarette brand Marlboro. The sponsorship clash forced Tyrrell to release Alboreto and find another driver, second place in the Monaco Grand Prix followed the second place gained in Phoenix, and by mid-season, top teams were clamouring for his services in 1991. A very confused situation erupted, with Tyrrell, the results dropped away during the rest of the 1990 season, and Alesi finished ninth in the championship, with 13 points. There were signs of Alesis talent such as the Italian Grand Prix at Monza where he qualified the under powered Tyrrell in 5th place less than a slower than Sennas pole time. At both the original and re-start, Alesi passed the more powerful V12 Ferrari of reigning World Champion Alain Prost for 3rd place, unfortunately however, this race showed his relative inexperience when on lap 5 he ended his race by spinning into the barriers at the Rettifilo chicane