Luca Cordero di Montezemolo
Luca Cordero di Montezemolo is an Italian businessman, former Chairman of Ferrari, and formerly Chairman of Fiat S. p. A. and President of Confindustria and FIEG. He comes from a family from the region of Piedmont in Italy. First he graduated in law from La Sapienza University in 1971, afterward, he studied for a masters in International commercial law at Columbia University in the City of New York. He is one of the founders and former president of NTV, in 2009, Montezemolo founded Future Italy, a free market think tank that joined Civic Choice in the 2013 parliamentary election. His uncle, Admiral Giorgio Cordero dei Marchesi di Montezemolo was a commander in the Regia Marina in World War II and his grandfather and great-grandfather Carlo were both Generals in the Italian Army. His surname is actually Cordero di Montezemolo and the usage is either the full surname or just Montezemolo. Montezemolos sporting career began at the wheel of a Giannini Fiat 500 which he raced together with his friend Cristiano Rattazzi, Montezemolo briefly drove for the famous privately owned Lancia rally team known as HF Squadra Corse.
During his involvement with the team, Ferrari won the Formula One World Championship with Niki Lauda in 1975 and 1977, in 1976 Montezemolo was promoted to become head of all FIAT racing activities, and in 1977 he advanced to become a senior manager of FIAT. Throughout the 1980s, Montezemolo occupied a number of positions in the FIAT empire, including managing director of the drinks company Cinzano, in 1982, he managed Americas Cup challenge of Team Azzurra, the first Italian yacht club to enter the event. In 1985, he became manager of the Organizing Committee for 1990 World Cup Italia, in November 1991, FIAT Chairman Gianni Agnelli appointed Montezemolo president of Ferrari, which had been struggling since Enzo Ferraris death. Montezemolo made it his goal to win the Formula One World Constructors Championship once again. Montezemolo quickly made changes at the Italian team, signing up Niki Lauda as consultant, during the 1990s he resurrected the Ferrari road car business from heavy debts into solid profit.
He took on the presidency of Maserati when Ferrari acquired it in 1997, under Montezemolo and executive director Jean Todt, the Ferrari Formula One team won the World Drivers Championship in 2000, the first time since 1979. The previous year,1999, they had won the Constructors Championship for the first time since 1983, on 27 May 2004, Montezemolo became president of Italian business lobby Confindustria. Days later, following the death of Umberto Agnelli on 28 May, since 20 December 2004, he has been president of the LUISS, the Free International University for Social Studies Guido Carli in Rome. Montezemolo has often reported to have aspirations of a career in Italian politics, most recently the office of Prime Minister. On 29 July 2008, Montezemolo founded the Formula One Teams Association which he presided over from 2008 to 2010, the Committee used to meet on a regular basis to discuss improvements to Formula One. FOTA was formally dissolved in 2014, in April 2010, John Elkann replaced Montezemolo as Chairman of Fiat S. p. A
By using split crankpins or ignoring minor vibrations, any V angle is possible. The 180° configuration is referred to as a flat-twelve engine or a boxer although it is in reality a 180° V since the pistons can. This is not important in a car if all-out performance is the only goal. Since cost and fuel economy are usually important even in luxury and racing cars and it is often used in marine engines where great power is required, and the hull width is limited, but a longer vessel allows faster hull speed. In twin-propeller boats, two V12 engines can be enough to sit side-by-side, while three V12 engines are sometimes used in high-speed three-propeller configurations. Large, fast cruise ships can have six or more V12 engines, after World War II, the compact, more powerful, and vibration-free turboprop and turbojet engines replaced the V12 in aircraft applications. The first V-type engine was built in 1889 by Daimler, to a design by Wilhelm Maybach, by 1903 V8 engines were being produced for motor boat racing by the Société Antoinette to designs by Léon Levavasseur, building on experience gained with in-line four-cylinder engines.
In 1904, the Putney Motor Works completed a new V12 marine racing engine—the first V12 engine produced for any purpose, a single camshaft mounted in the central V operated the valves directly. As in many engines, the camshaft could be slid longitudinally to engage a second set of cams. Starting is by pumping a charge into each cylinder and switching on the trembler coils, a sliding camshaft gave direct reversing. The camshaft has fluted webs and main bearings in graduated thickness from the largest at the flywheel end, displacing 1,120 cu in, the engine weighed 950 pounds and developed 150 bhp. Little is known of the achievements in the 40-foot hull for which it was intended. One V12 Dörwald marine engine was still running in a Hong Kong junk in the late-1960s. Two more V12s appeared in the 1909-1910 motor boat racing season, the Lamb Boat & Engine Company of Clinton, Iowa built a 1,559 cu in engine for the companys 32-foot Lamb IV. It weighed in at 2,114 pounds, no weight is known for the massive 3,464 cu in F-head engine built by the Orleans Motor Company.
Output is quoted as nearly 400 bhp, by 1914, when Panhard built two 2,356 cu in engines with four-valve cylinder heads the V12 was well established in motor boat racing. In October 1913, Louis Coatalen, chief engineer of the Sunbeam Motor Car Company entered a V12 powered car in the Brooklands short, the engine displaced 9 L, with bore and stroke of 80 x 150 mm. An aluminum crankcase carried two blocks of three cylinders each along each side, with a 60 degree included angle, the cylinders were of iron, with integral cylinder heads with L-shaped combustion chambers
A grand tourer is a performance and luxury automobile capable of high speed and long-distance driving. The most common format is a two-door coupé with either a two-seat or a 2+2 arrangement, the grand touring concept is eurocentric, the definition implies material differences in performance at speed and amenities between elite automobiles and those of ordinary motorists. In post-war United States, the Interstate Highway System and wide availability of powerful Straight-six, European GTs did find success penetrating the American personal luxury car market, notably the Mercedes-Benz SL-Class. Grand touring car design evolved from vintage and pre-World War II fast touring cars, italy developed the first gran turismo cars. The small, light-weight and aerodynamic coupé, named the Berlinetta, independent carrozzeria provided light and flexible fabric coachwork for powerful short-wheelbase fast-touring chassis by manufacturers such as Alfa Romeo. Later, Carrozzeria Touring of Milan would pioneer sophisticated Superleggera aluminium bodywork, the additional comfort of an enclosed cabin was beneficial for the Mille Miglia road-race held in Italys often wintry north.
An improved and supercharged version, the 6C1750 GTC Gran Turismo Compressore, from the basic Fiat 508 Balilla touring chassis came the SIATA and Fiat aerodynamic gran turismo-style Berlinetta Mille Miglias of 1933 and 1935. The first recognised motor race for gran turismo cars was the 1949 Coppa Inter-Europa held at Monza, the Fiat based 1100 cc four-cylinder Cisitaila was no match on the race track for Ferraris new hand-built 2000 cc V12, and Ferrari dominated, taking the first three places. An 1100 cc class was created, but not in time to save Cisitalias business fortunes—the companys bankrupt owner Piero Dusio had already decamped to Argentina. The Maserati A61500 won the 1500 cc class at the 1949 Coppa-Europa and it was driven by Franco Bordoni, former fighter ace of the Regia Aeronautica who had debuted as a pilota da corsa at the 1949 Mille Miglia. The body of the A61500 was an elegant two-door fast-back coupe body, the first car constructed in Ferraris name, the V12125 S, a racing sports car, debuted in 1947 at the Piacenza racing circuit.
The Ferrari 166 Inter S coupé model won the 1949 Coppa Inter-Europa, regulations stipulated body form and dimensions but did not at this time specify a minimum production quantity. The car was driven by Bruno Sterzi, and is recognized as the first Ferrari gran turismo, Ferraris response for the new Gran Tursimo championship was the road/race Ferrari 212. All versions came with the standard Ferrari five-speed non-synchromesh gearbox and hydraulic drum brakes, all 1951 Ferraris shared a double tube frame chassis design evolved from the 166. Double-wishbone front suspension with leaf spring, and live rear axle with semi-elliptic leaf springs. Even more impressive than the new Ferrari in 1951 was the debut of Lancias Aurelia B20 GT. Lancia had begun production in 1950 of their technically advanced Aurelia sedan, at the 1951 Turin Motor Show, the Pinin Farina-bodied Gran Tursimo B20 Coupé version was unveiled to an enthusiastic motoring public. In the B20 are elements of the Cistalia of 1947, coupés which Pinin undertook on a 6C Alfa Romeo and Maserati in 1948, in addition the B20 had a shorter wheelbase and a higher rear axle ratio, making it a 100 mph car
Ferrari N. V. is an Italian sports car manufacturer based in Maranello. Founded by Enzo Ferrari in 1939 as Auto Avio Costruzioni, the company built its first car in 1940, however the companys inception as an auto manufacturer is usually recognized in 1947, when the first Ferrari-badged car was completed. Ferrari is the worlds most powerful according to Brand Finance. In May 2012 the 1962 Ferrari 250 GTO became the most expensive car in history, Fiat S. p. A. acquired 50 percent of Ferrari in 1969 and expanded its stake to 90 percent in 1988. In October 2014 Fiat Chrysler Automobiles announced its intentions to separate Ferrari S. p. A. from FCA, through the remaining steps of the separation, FCAs interest in Ferraris business was distributed to shareholders of FCA, with 10 percent continuing to be owned by Piero Ferrari. The spin-off was completed on 3 January 2016, Ferrari road cars are generally seen as a symbol of speed and wealth. Enzo Ferrari was not initially interested in the idea of producing road cars when he formed Scuderia Ferrari in 1929, Scuderia Ferrari literally means Ferrari Stable and is usually used to mean Team Ferrari.
Ferrari bought and fielded Alfa Romeo racing cars for gentlemen drivers, in September 1939 Enzo Ferrari left Alfa Romeo under the provision that he would not use the Ferrari name in association with races or racing cars for at least four years. A few days he founded Auto Avio Costruzioni, headquartered in the facilities of the old Scuderia Ferrari, the new company ostensibly produced machine tools and aircraft accessories. In 1940 Ferrari did in fact produce a race car – the Tipo 815 and it was the first Ferrari car and debuted at the 1940 Mille Miglia, but due to World War II it saw little competition. In 1943 the Ferrari factory moved to Maranello, where it has remained ever since, the factory was bombed by the Allies and subsequently rebuilt including a works for road car production. The first Ferrari-badged car was the 1947125 S, powered by a 1.5 L V12 engine, Enzo Ferrari reluctantly built, the Scuderia Ferrari name was resurrected to denote the factory racing cars and distinguish them from those fielded by customer teams.
In 1960 the company was restructured as a corporation under the name SEFAC S. p. A. Early in 1969, Fiat took a 50 percent stake in Ferrari, new model investment further up in the Ferrari range received a boost. In 1988, Enzo Ferrari oversaw the launch of the Ferrari F40, the last new Ferrari to be launched before his death that year, in 1989 the company was renamed as Ferrari S. p. A. From 2002 to 2004, Ferrari produced the Enzo, their fastest model at the time and it was to be called the F60, continuing on from the F40 and F50, but Ferrari was so pleased with it, they called it the Enzo instead. It was initially offered to loyal and reoccurring customers, each of the 399 made had a tag of $650,000 apiece. On 15 September 2012,964 Ferrari cars (worth over $162 million attended the Ferrari Driving Days event at Silverstone Circuit, on 29 October 2014, the FCA group, resulting from the merger between manufacturers Fiat and Chrysler, announced the split of its luxury brand, Ferrari
Front-engine, front-wheel-drive layout
In automotive design, an FWD, or front-engine, front-wheel-drive layout places both the internal combustion engine and driven roadwheels at the front of the vehicle. Historically, this designation was used regardless of whether the engine was behind the front axle line. Most pre-World War II front engine cars would qualify as front-mid engine, using the front-mid designation and this layout is the most traditional form, and remains a popular, practical design. The engine which takes up a deal of space is packaged in a location passengers. The main deficit is weight distribution — the heaviest component is at one end of the vehicle, car handling is not ideal, but usually predictable. Like the rear-engine, rear-wheel-drive layout and rear mid-engine, rear-wheel-drive layout layouts, it places the engine over the drive wheels, improving traction in many applications. As the steered wheels are the wheels, FWD cars are generally considered superior to RWD cars in conditions where there is low traction such as snow, mud.
When hill climbing in low traction conditions RR is considered the best two-wheel-drive layout, the cornering ability of a FWD vehicle is generally better, because the engine is placed over the steered wheels. However, as the wheels have the additional demands of steering, if a vehicle accelerates quickly, less grip is available for cornering. Electronic traction control can avoid wheel-spin but largely negates the benefit of extra power and this was a reason for the adoption of the four-wheel-drive quattro system in the high performance Jensen FF and Audi Quattro road cars. Early cars using the FWD layout include the 1929 Cord L-29,1931 DKW F1, the 1948 Citroën 2CV,1949 Saab 92, in the 1980s, the traction and packaging advantages of this layout caused many compact and mid-sized vehicle makers to adopt it in the US. Most European and Japanese manufacturers switched to front wheel drive for the majority of their cars in the 1960s and 1970s, the last to change being VW, Ford of Europe, Toyota was the last Japanese company to switch in the early 1980s. BMW, focussed on luxury vehicles, however retained the layout in even their smaller cars.
There are four different arrangements for this layout, depending on the location of the engine. The earliest such arrangement was not technically FWD, but rather mid-engine, the engine was mounted longitudinally behind the wheels, with the transmission ahead of the engine and differential at the very front of the car. With the engine so far back, the distribution of such cars as the Cord L-29 was not ideal. The 1934 Citroën Traction Avant solved the weight issue by placing the transmission at the front of the car with the differential between it and the engine. Combined with the low slung unibody design, this resulted in handling which was remarkable for the era
A transmission is a machine in a power transmission system, which provides controlled application of the power. Often the term refers simply to the gearbox that uses gears and gear trains to provide speed. In British English, the term refers to the whole drivetrain, including clutch, prop shaft, differential. In American English, the term more specifically to the gearbox alone. The most common use is in vehicles, where the transmission adapts the output of the internal combustion engine to the drive wheels. Such engines need to operate at a high rotational speed, which is inappropriate for starting, stopping. The transmission reduces the engine speed to the slower wheel speed. Transmissions are used on bicycles, fixed machines. Often, a transmission has multiple gear ratios with the ability to switch between them as speed varies and this switching may be done manually or automatically. Directional control may be provided, single-ratio transmissions exist, which simply change the speed and torque of motor output.
The output of the transmission is transmitted via the driveshaft to one or more differentials, while a differential may provide gear reduction, its primary purpose is to permit the wheels at either end of an axle to rotate at different speeds as it changes the direction of rotation. Conventional gear/belt transmissions are not the mechanism for speed/torque adaptation. Alternative mechanisms include torque converters and power transformation, automatic transmissions use a valve body to shift gears using fluid pressures in conjunction with an ecm. Early transmissions included the right-angle drives and other gearing in windmills, horse-powered devices, and steam engines, in support of pumping, most modern gearboxes are used to increase torque while reducing the speed of a prime mover output shaft. This means that the shaft of a gearbox rotates at a slower rate than the input shaft. A gearbox can be set up to do the opposite and provide an increase in speed with a reduction of torque. Some of the simplest gearboxes merely change the rotational direction of power transmission.
Many typical automobile transmissions include the ability to select one of several gear ratios, in this case, most of the gear ratios are used to slow down the output speed of the engine and increase torque
Front-engine, rear-wheel-drive layout
In automotive design, an FR, or front-engine, rear-wheel-drive layout is one where the engine is located at the front of the vehicle and driven wheels are located at the rear. This was the automobile layout for most of the 20th century. Modern designs commonly use the front-engine, front-wheel-drive layout, the first FR car was an 1895 Panhard model, so this layout was known as the Système Panhard in the early years. The layout has the advantage of minimizing mechanical complexity, as it allows the transmission to be placed in-line with the output shaft. In comparison, a vehicle with the engine over the driven wheels eliminates the need for the drive shaft, in order to reduce the relative weight of the drive shaft, the transmission was normally split into two parts, the gearbox and the final drive. The gearbox was produced with its highest gear being 1,1. The final drive, in the axle, would reduce this to the most appropriate speed for the wheels. As power is the product of torque and angular velocity, spinning the shaft faster for any given power reduces the torque, in an era when gasoline was cheap and cars were heavy, the mechanical advantages of the FR drivetrain layout made up for any disadvantage in weight terms.
It remained almost universal among car designs until the 1970s, after the Arab oil embargo of 1973 and the 1979 fuel crises, a majority of American FR vehicles were phased out for the FF layout – this trend would spawn the SUV-van conversion market. Throughout the 1980s and 1990s, most American companies set as a priority the eventual removal of rear-wheel drive from their mainstream, chrysler went 100% FF by 1990 and GMs American production went entirely FF by 1997 except the Corvette and Camaro. This configuration is referred to as a transaxle since the transmission. In Europe, front-wheel drive was popularized by small cars like the Mini, Renault 5 and Volkswagen Golf, upscale marques like Mercedes-Benz, BMW, and Jaguar remained mostly independent of this trend, and retained a lineup mostly or entirely made up of FR cars. Japanese mainstream marques such as Toyota were almost exclusively FR until the late 1970s, toyotas first FF vehicle was the Toyota Tercel, with the Corolla and Celica becoming FF while the Camry was designed as an FF from the beginning.
The Supra, Cressida and Century remained FR, luxury division Lexus has a mostly FR lineup. Subarus BRZ is an FR car, currently most cars are FF, including all front-engined economy cars, though FR cars are making a return as an alternative to large sport-utility vehicles. In North America, GM returned to production of FR-based luxury vehicles with the 2003 Cadillac CTS, as of 2012, all but the SRX and XTS are FR-based vehicles. Chevrolet reintroduced the FR-based Camaro in 2009, and the Caprice PPV in 2011, Pontiac had a short run with the FR-based G8 and Pontiac Solstice. A Chevrolet replacement for the G8 called the Chevrolet SS was released in 2013, chrysler and Dodge reintroduced the 300 and Charger on a FR platform
A roadster, sometimes referred to as a spider or spyder, is an open two-seat car with emphasis on sporting appearance or character. Initially an American term for a car with no weather protection. The roadster is a style of racing car driven in United States Auto Club Championship Racing, including the Indianapolis 500 and this type of racing car was superseded by mid-engined cars. In the nineteenth century, the word denoted a horse suitable for traveling. By the end of the century the definition had expanded to include bicycles and tricycles. In 1916, the Society of Automobile Engineers defined a roadster as and it may have additional seats on running boards or in rear deck. Additional seating in the deck was known as a rumble seat or a dickey seat. The main seat for the driver and passenger was usually further back in the chassis than it would have been in a touring car, Roadsters usually had a hooded dashboard. The earliest roadster automobiles had only basic bodies without doors, windshields, by the 1920s they were appointed similarly to touring cars, with doors, simple folding tops, and side curtains.
When roadsters of this era were equipped with seats, the seats folded into the body when not in use. They are popular with collectors, often valued over other open styles, the term roadster as applied to automobiles is American in origin, before World War II, the British equivalent was a two-seat tourer. By the 1970s, the roadster was applied to open two-seat cars of sporting appearance or character. Roadsters had become almost as well-equipped as convertibles, including side windows that retract into the doors, Roadsters of that time included the Alfa Romeo Spider, MGB, and Triumph TR4. A roadster is still defined as a car with two seats, with some roadsters having power tops or retractable hardtops. A few manufacturers and fabricators still offer roadsters that meet the older definitions and these include Morgan, with the windowless Roadster, with the doorless Seven, and Ariel, with the bodyless Atom. The American hot rod is based on pre–World War II roadsters, late run Model Ts and 1932 Fords were the most popular starting points.
The term roadster applies to front-engined AAA/USAC Championship cars, associated with the Indianapolis 500, the roadster engine and drive shaft are offset from the centerline of the car. This allows the driver to sit lower in the chassis and facilitates a weight offset which is beneficial on oval tracks, one story of why this type of racing car is referred to as a roadster is that a team was preparing a new car for the Indianapolis 500
In 1932, Ferdinand Porsche designed a Grand Prix racing car for the Auto Union company. The high power of the design caused one of the wheels to experience excessive wheel spin at any speed up to 160 km/h. In 1935, Porsche commissioned the engineering firm ZF to design a limited-slip differential to improve performance, the ZF sliding pins and cams became available, and one example was the Type B-70 for early VWs, although technically this was an automatic locking differential, not a limited-slip. The main advantage of a differential is demonstrated by considering the case of a standard differential in off-roading or snow situations where one wheel begins to slip. In such a case with a differential, the slipping or non-contacting wheel will receive the majority of the power. For example, the right tire might begin to spin as soon as 70 N·m of torque is placed on it, since it is on an icy surface. Meanwhile, the tire on the surface will simply spin, absorbing all of the actual power output. The advantages of LSD in high-power, rear wheel drive automobiles were demonstrated during the United States Muscle-Car era from the mid 1960s through the early 1970s, cars of this era normally were rear wheel drive and did not feature independent suspension for the rear tires.
With a live axle, when high torque is applied through the differential and this coined the term one wheel peel. As such, Muscle-Cars with LSD or posi were at an advantage to their wheel-spinning counterparts. Automotive limited-slip differentials all contain a few basic elements, all have a gear train that, like an open differential, allows the output shafts to spin at different speeds while holding the sum of their speeds proportional to that of the input shaft. Second, all have some sort of mechanism that applies a torque that resists the motion of the output shafts. There are many used to create this resisting torque. The type of differential typically gets its name from the design of this resisting mechanism. Examples include viscous and clutch-based LSDs, the amount of limiting torque provided by these mechanisms varies by design and is discussed in the article. A limited-slip differential has a more complex torque-split and should be considered in the case when the outputs are spinning the same speed, the torque difference between the two axles is called Trq d.
Trq d is the difference in torque delivered to the left, the magnitude of Trq d comes from the slip-limiting mechanism in the differential and may be a function of input torque, or the difference in the output speeds. In the case when the vehicle is turning and neither wheel is slipping, in this case the inside wheel will receive more torque than the outside wheel, which can result in understeer
Ferrari 575M Maranello
The Ferrari 575M Maranello is a two-seat, two-door, grand tourer built by Ferrari. Launched in 2002, it is essentially an updated 550 Maranello featuring minor styling changes from Pininfarina, the 575M was replaced by the 599 GTB in the first half of 2006. Two six-speed transmissions were available, a manual gearbox and, for the first time on a Ferrari V12. The model number refers to engine displacement in litres, whilst the M is an abbreviation of modificato. For 2005, the company developed a new GTC handling package and Superamerica version, configuration, 65° V12 engine Displacement,5.2 seconds 0–400 m,12.25 seconds 0-1,000 m,21. The new brakes were based on the companys Formula One technology and they used 15.7 in discs with six-piston calipers in front and 14.2 in discs with four-piston calipers in the rear. Patented Revocromico roof incorporates carbon fibre structure that is hinged on the axis with a luggage compartment lid. With the roof open the window, apart for holding the third stop light.
This roof design was used on 2001-designed Vola by Leonardo Fioravanti. The Superamerica used the tune of the V-12 engine, F133 G, rated at 533 hp and Ferrari marketed it as the worlds fastest convertible. The GTC handling package was optional, a total of 559 Superamericas were built, this number followed Enzo Ferraris philosophy that there should always be one fewer car available than what the market demanded. A special 575M was built by Zagato for Japanese Ferrari collector Yoshiyuki Hayashi, in 2003, Ferrari announced the sale of several 575M-based racing cars, known as the 575 GTC. Following the success of Prodrive in running the Ferrari 550, Ferrari wished to offer their own racing car to customers, used primarily in the FIA GT Championship, the 575 GTCs managed to take a single win in their first season, followed by another lone win in 2004. Unfortunately the 575 GTCs were not as capable as the Prodrive-built 550 GTSs, and would fall from use by the end of 2005
The Ferrari 456 and 456M are front-engined grand tourers which were produced by Ferrari from 1992 to 2003. The 456 was a replacement for the defunct front-engined 412 as the companys V12-powered four seater, the updated 456M, which was the last Ferrari model to use pop-up headlamps, was replaced in 2004 by the 612 Scaglietti. Pietro Camardella and Lorenzo Ramaciotti at Pininfarina designed the original 456 which was available in GT, the difference in name signifies the transmission, the former has a six-speed manual and the latter has a four-speed automatic developed in partnership with FF Developments, in Livonia, MI. This was only the automatic transmission ever offered by Ferrari. The 5.5 L 65° V12 engine was derived from the Dino V6 rather than the more conventional 60° V12s used in the 412 and it produced 442 PS with 4 valves per cylinder and Bosch Motronic M2.7 engine management. It could push the 1690 kg car and four passengers to 302 km/h making it the worlds fastest production four-seater, acceleration to 100 km/h was just 5.2 seconds, with a 13.4 second quarter-mile time.
At the time of its development it was the most powerful car ever developed by Ferrari. In 1996 engine was changed with Motronic M5.2 management, the name 456 is derived from the fact that each cylinder displaces 456 cubic centimeters. This was the last Ferrari to use this convention until the 488. Despite its supercar performance, the 456 has an unstressed engine. The chassis is a steel spaceframe construction with a one-piece composite bonnet. The body panels are welded to the chassis by using a special sandwich filler called feran that, approximately 3,289 of all versions were built. These consisted of the versions,456 GT,1,548,456 GTA,403, 456M GT,688. The Modificata 456M appeared in 1998, starting with chassis number 109589, many changes were made to improve aerodynamics and cooling, and the interior – still featuring Connolly Leather – was freshened with new seats and other conveniences. Some readily apparent changes can be seen in the two adjoining pictures, the 456 has a smaller grille with fog lights outside the grille.
The 456 had hood-mounted air scoops which can be removed on the 456M. The undercarriage spoiler on the 456M is fixed, where the older 456 had a spoiler that began its deployment above 105 km/h. The Tour de France Blue with Daytona Seats was the most desirable color, in the final year of production 2002/3 customers could specify their vehicle using the Carrozzeria Scaglietti Program
An engine or motor is a machine designed to convert one form of energy into mechanical energy. Heat engines burn a fuel to heat, which is used to create a force. Electric motors convert electrical energy into motion, pneumatic motors use compressed air. In biological systems, molecular motors, like myosins in muscles, use energy to create forces. The word engine derives from Old French engin, from the Latin ingenium–the root of the word ingenious. Pre-industrial weapons of war, such as catapults and battering rams, were called siege engines, the word gin, as in cotton gin, is short for engine. Most mechanical devices invented during the revolution were described as engines—the steam engine being a notable example. However, the steam engines, such as those by Thomas Savery, were not mechanical engines. In this manner, an engine in its original form was merely a water pump. Devices converting heat energy into motion are commonly referred to simply as engines, examples of engines which exert a torque include the familiar automobile gasoline and diesel engines, as well as turboshafts.
Examples of engines which produce thrust include turbofans and rockets, the term motor derives from the Latin verb moto which means to set in motion, or maintain motion. Thus a motor is a device that imparts motion and engine came to be used largely interchangeably in casual discourse. However, the two words have different meanings, rocketry uses the term rocket motor, even though they consume fuel. A heat engine may serve as a prime mover—a component that transforms the flow or changes in pressure of a fluid into mechanical energy. An automobile powered by a combustion engine may make use of various motors and pumps. Another way of looking at it is that a motor receives power from an external source, simple machines, such as the club and oar, are prehistoric. More complex engines using human power, animal power, water power, wind power and these were used in cranes and aboard ships in Ancient Greece, as well as in mines, water pumps and siege engines in Ancient Rome. The writers of those times, including Vitruvius and Pliny the Elder, treat these engines as commonplace, by the 1st century AD, cattle and horses were used in mills, driving machines similar to those powered by humans in earlier times