The Lancia Aurelia is a car produced by Italian manufacturer Lancia from 1950 to the summer of 1958. It is noted for using the first production V6 engine, several body styles were offered—4-door saloon, 2-door GT coupé, 2-door spider/convertible —as well as a chassis to be custom bodied by external coachbuilders. Establishing a post-war Lancia tradition, the car was named after a Roman road, the Aurelia was designed under the direction of engineer Vittorio Jano. Its engine, the first production V6 engine, a 60° design developed by Francesco de Virgilio—who was between 1943 and 1948 a Lancia engineer, and who worked under Jano. During production, capacity grew from 1.8 L to 2.5 L. Prototype engines used a bore and stroke of 68 mm x 72 mm for 1569 cc and it was an all-alloy pushrod design with a single camshaft between the cylinder banks. A hemispherical combustion chamber and in-line valves were used, a single Solex or Weber carburettor completed the engine. Some uprated 1991 cc models were fitted with twin carburettors, at the rear was an innovative combination transaxle with the gearbox, clutch and inboard-mounted drum brakes.
The front suspension was a sliding design, with rear semi-trailing arms replaced by a de Dion tube in the Fourth series. The Aurelia was first car to be fitted with radial tires as standard equipment, initially 165SR400 Michelin X and the sports models fitted 165HR400 Pirelli Cinturato. B21 engine technical specifications Bore,72. 00mm, Solex 30 AAI,23 and 24mm venturis. The very first Aurelias were the B10 berlinas and they used a 1754 cc version of the V6 which produced 56 hp. The B21 was released in 1951 with a larger 1991 cc 70 hp engine, a 2-door B20 GT coupé appeared that same year. It had a wheelbase and a Ghia-designed, Pininfarina-built body. The same 1991 cc engine produced 75 hp in the B20, in all,500 first series Aurelias were produced. The second series Aurelia coupé pushed power up to 80 hp from the 1991 cc V6 with a compression ratio. Other changes included better brakes and minor styling tweaks, such as chromed bumpers instead of the ones used in the earlier car. A new dashboard featured two larger instrument gauges, the suspension was unchanged from the first series.
A new B22 sedan was released in 1952 with dual Webers, the third series appeared in 1953 with a larger 2451 cc version of the engine
Auto racing is a sport involving the racing of automobiles for competition. Almost as soon as automobiles had been invented, races of various sorts were organised, by the 1930s specialist racing cars had developed. There are now numerous different categories, each with different rules and it was won by the carriage of Isaac Watt Boulton. Internal combustion auto racing events began soon after the construction of the first successful gasoline-fueled automobiles, the first organized contest was on April 28,1887, by the chief editor of Paris publication Le Vélocipède, Monsieur Fossier. It ran 2 kilometres from Neuilly Bridge to the Bois de Boulogne, on July 22,1894, the Parisian magazine Le Petit Journal organized what is considered to be the worlds first motoring competition, from Paris to Rouen. One hundred and two competitors paid a 10-franc entrance fee, the first American automobile race is generally held to be the Thanksgiving Day Chicago Times-Herald race of November 28,1895. Press coverage of the event first aroused significant American interest in the automobile, brooklands, in Surrey, was the first purpose-built motor racing venue, opening in June 1907.
It featured a 4.43 km concrete track with high-speed banked corners, One of the oldest existing purpose-built automobile racing circuits in the United States, still in use, is the 2. 5-mile -long Indianapolis Motor Speedway in Speedway, Indiana. It is the largest capacity venue of any variety worldwide, with a top capacity of some 257. NASCAR was founded by Bill France, Sr. on February 21,1948, the first NASCAR Strictly Stock race ever was held on June 19,1949, at Daytona Beach, Florida. From 1962, sports cars temporarily took a seat to GT cars. From 1972 through 2003, NASCARs premier series was called the Winston Cup Series, the changes that resulted from RJRs involvement, as well as the reduction of the schedule from 48 to 31 races a year, established 1972 as the beginning of NASCARs modern era. The IMSA GT Series evolved into the American Le Mans Series, the European races eventually became the closely related Le Mans Series, both of which mix prototypes and GTs. The best-known variety of racing, Formula One, which hosts the famous Monaco Grand Prix.
In single-seater, the wheels are not covered, and the cars often have aerofoil wings front, in Europe and Asia, open-wheeled racing is commonly referred to as Formula, with appropriate hierarchical suffixes. In North America, the Formula terminology is not followed, the sport is usually arranged to follow an international format, a regional format, and/or a domestic, or country-specific, format. In North America, the used in the National Championship have traditionally been similar though less sophisticated than F1 cars. The series most famous race is the Indianapolis 500, the other major international single-seater racing series is GP2
A transverse engine is an engine mounted in a vehicle so that the engines crankshaft axis is perpendicular to the long axis of the vehicle. Many modern front wheel drive vehicles use this engine mounting configuration, the Critchley light car, made by the Daimler Motor Company in 1899, had a transverse engine with belt drive to the rear axle. A1911 front-wheel drive car had an engine with a clutch at each end. The first successful transverse-engine cars were the two-cylinder DKW Front series of cars, after the Second World War, SAAB used the configuration in their first model, the Saab 92, in 1947. The arrangement was used for Borgwards Goliath and Hansa brand cars. However, it was with Alec Issigoniss Mini, introduced by the British Motor Corporation in 1959, Issigonis incorporated the cars gearbox into the engines sump, producing a drivetrain unit narrow enough to install transversely in a car only four feet wide. Coupled to the much greater interior space afforded by the layout this made the Mini a genuine alternative to the small family car.
This design reached its ultimate extent starting with Dante Giacosas elaboration of it for Fiat and he connected the engine to its gearbox by a shaft and set the differential off-center so that it could be connected to the gearbox more easily. The axleshafts from the differential to the wheels therefore differed in length, Giacosas lay-out was first used in the Autobianchi Primula in 1964 and in the wide-selling Fiat 128. With the gearbox mounted separately to the engine cars were by neccesity larger than the Mini. The Giacosa lay-out provided superior refinement, easier repair and was better-suited to adopting five-speed transmissions than the original Issigonis in-sump design, now most small and small/medium-sized cars built throughout the world use this arrangement. The Lamborghini Miura used a transverse, mid-mounted 4 and this has allowed for improved safety in a frontal impact, due to more front to back engine compartment space being created. The result is a front crumple zone. Transverse engines have widely used in buses.
In the United States they were offered in the early 1930s by Twin Coach and they were used in the British Leyland Atlantean and in many transit buses and nearly all modern double decker buses. They have widely used by Scania, MAN, Volvo. Motorcycles with a V-twin engine mounted with its crankshaft mounted in line with the frame, most Ducatis since the 1970s and most Harley-Davidsons, are said to have longitudinal engines. This convention uses the longest horizontal dimension of the engine as its axis instead of the line of the crankshaft, modern Motorcycle Technology, How Every Part of Your Motorcycle Works
The Fiat Dino is a front-engine, rear-wheel-drive sports car produced by Fiat between 1966 and 1973. The Dino name refers to the Ferrari Dino V6 engine, produced by Fiat, the Dino road cars came to be because of Enzo Ferraris need to homologate a V6 engine for Formula 2 racing cars. In 1965 the Commission Sportive Internationale de la FIA had drawn up new rules, in his memory, V6-engined Ferrari sports prototype racing cars had been named Dino since the late 1950s. The conversion of this engine for road use and series production was entrusted to the engineer Aurelio Lampredi. Even on the block casting, the name FIAT was visible which was not in line with the newly created DINO make. Curiously the Spider type approval identified it as a 2+1 seater, option lists for both models were limited to radio, metallic paint, leather upholstery, and for the Spider a vinyl-covered hardtop with roll-bar style stainless steel trim. The car was offered with an all-aluminium DOHC2.0 L V6, the same 2. 0-litre engine was used in mid-engined, Ferrari-built Dino 206 GT, which was introduced in pre-production form at the 1967 Turin Motor Show and went on sale in 1968.
Jean-Pierre Gabriel in Les Ferraris de Turin notes that, La declaration de Ferrari ne reposait sur aucun fondament technique—Ferraris statement had no technical basis, the real reason for this difference was a mistake in between quotes made in SAE and BHP power output. In 1969, both Ferrari and Fiat introduced new 2. 4-litre Dino models, the Fiat Dino 2400 premiered in October 1969 at the Turin Motor show, besides the larger engine, another notable improvements was independent rear suspension. The V6 now put out 180 PS, and used a cast iron instead of the light alloy engine block. Tyres, and up-sized brake discs and callipers, both models were now badged Dino 2400. On the coupé the previous silver honeycomb grille with the round Fiat logo on its centre had been replaced by a new black grille, at the rear there were different tail lights. The spider sported a new grille with two horizontal bars, 5-bolts instead of knock-off wheels, as well as a new bumpers with rubber strips. Inside only the coupé received a redesigned dashboard and new cloth seats, with optional leather seat upholstery, front seat headrests were standard on the coupé.
Spider and coupé bodies were produced respectively by Pininfarina and Bertone,2. 0-litre and early 2. 4-litre cars were assembled by Fiat in Rivalta di Torino. Starting from December 1969 the Fiat Dino was assembled in Maranello on Ferraris production line, alongside the 246 GT. Between 1966 and 1969 there were 3,6702. 0-litre coupés and 1,1632. 0-litre spiders made, with only 420 built, of the total 7,803 Fiat Dino produced, 74% were the popular coupés and only 26% were spiders. The Fiat Dino coupe used a unibody construction
Internal combustion piston engines are usually arranged so that the cylinders are in lines parallel to the crankshaft. Where they are in a line, this is referred to as an inline or straight engine. Where engines have a number of cylinders, the cylinders are commonly arranged in two lines, placed at an angle to each other as a vee engine. Each line is referred to as a cylinder bank, the angle between cylinder banks is described as the bank angle. Engines with six cylinders are common as either straight or vee engines. With more cylinders than this, the vee configuration is more common, fewer cylinders are more usually arranged as an inline engine. There are exceptions to this, straight-8 engines were found on some luxury cars with the bonnet length to house them. A few V4 engines have produced, usually where an extra-compact engine was required. Although twin-cylinder engines are now rare for cars, they are commonly used for motorcycles. An obvious advantage to an engine is that it can be shorter in length.
This allows a torsionally stiffer construction for both the crankshaft and crankcase, the most important advantage though is less obvious, a multi-plane engine can be arranged to have better balance and less vibration. The W or broad arrow arrangement uses three banks, usually a W-12 with three banks of four cylinders. Narrow-angle vee engines, such as the Lancia V4 and the Volkswagen VR6, have such a bank angle that their cylinders are combined into a single cylinder block. These are still described as vee engines, although they may be described as having two or one cylinder bank. In a radial engine, cylinders are arranged radially in a circle, simple radials use one row of cylinders. Larger radials use two rows, or even four, most radials are air-cooled with separate cylinders and so there are no banks as such. Most radials have odd numbers of cylinders in each row, a few rare radial engines, such as the Armstrong Siddeley Deerhound and the Zvezda M503 have arranged their multiple rows so as to align their cylinders into banks
Cast iron is a group of iron-carbon alloys with a carbon content greater than 2%. Its usefulness derives from its low melting temperature. Carbon ranging from 1. 8–4 wt%, and silicon 1–3 wt% are the main alloying elements of cast iron, Iron alloys with less carbon content are known as steel. While this technically makes the Fe–C–Si system ternary, the principle of cast iron solidification can be understood from the simpler binary iron–carbon phase diagram, cast iron tends to be brittle, except for malleable cast irons. It is resistant to destruction and weakening by oxidation, the earliest cast iron artefacts date to the 5th century BC, and were discovered by archaeologists in what is now Jiangsu in China. Cast iron was used in ancient China for warfare, during the 15th century, cast iron became utilized for artillery in Burgundy, and in England during the Reformation. The first cast iron bridge was built during the 1770s by Abraham Darby III, cast iron is used in the construction of buildings.
Cast iron is made by re-melting pig iron, often along with quantities of iron, limestone, carbon. Phosphorus and sulfur may be burnt out of the iron, but this burns out the carbon. Depending on the application and silicon content are adjusted to the desired levels, other elements are added to the melt before the final form is produced by casting. Cast iron is melted in a special type of blast furnace known as a cupola. After melting is complete, the molten cast iron is poured into a furnace or ladle. Cast irons properties are changed by adding various alloying elements, or alloyants, next to carbon, silicon is the most important alloyant because it forces carbon out of solution. A low percentage of silicon allows carbon to remain in solution forming iron carbide, a high percentage of silicon forces carbon out of solution forming graphite and the production of grey cast iron. Other alloying agents, chromium, molybdenum and vanadium counteracts silicon, promotes the retention of carbon and copper increase strength, and machinability, but do not change the amount of graphite formed.
The carbon in the form of graphite results in an iron, reduces shrinkage, lowers strength. Sulfur, largely a contaminant when present, forms iron sulfide, the problem with sulfur is that it makes molten cast iron viscous, which causes defects. To counter the effects of sulfur, manganese is added because the two form into manganese sulfide instead of iron sulfide, the manganese sulfide is lighter than the melt so it tends to float out of the melt and into the slag
Ferrari 156 F1
Phil Hill won the 1961 World Championship of Drivers and Ferrari secured the 1961 International Cup for F1 Manufacturers, both victories achieved with the 156. The 1961 version was affectionately dubbed sharknose due to its air intake nostrils. Then-Ferrari factory policy inevitably saw all the remaining sharknose 156s scrapped by the end of the 1963 season, such a 156 is exhibited in the Galleria Ferrari at Maranello, probably a replica. A similar intake duct styling was applied to the six SP series Ferraris in 1961 and 1962 that were designed by Carlo Chiti. Ferrari started the season with a 65-degree Dino engine, replaced by a new engine with the V-angle increased to 120-degrees, a V-6 engine with 120-degree bank is smoother at producing power because every 120-degree rotation of engine crankshaft produces a power pulse. This change increased the power by 10 hp, bore and stroke were 73.0 mm ×58.8 mm with a displacement of 1,476.60 cc and a claimed 190 hp at 9500 rpm. For 1962, a 24-valve version was planned with 200 hp at 10,000 rpm, at the 1962 British Grand Prix, Phil Hill raced a new version with a six-speed transmission mounted in front of the engine.
In August, at the German Grand Prix, Lorenzo Bandini tested a variant with modified front and rear suspension. The updated Ferrari 156, used in the 1963 and 1964 seasons, but had a rather conventional intake, somewhat larger than the Ferrari 158 introduced in 1964. In 1963 the 12-valve version fitted with Bosch direct-fuel injection instead of carburetors achieved that power level, the last victory for the Ferrari 156 was achieved by Italian Lorenzo Bandini in the 1964 Austrian Grand Prix
Lancia is an Italian automobile manufacturer founded in 1906 by Vincenzo Lancia as Lancia & C. It became part of the Fiat Group in 1969, the current company, the company has a strong rally heritage and is noted for using letters of the Greek alphabet for its model names. Lancia vehicles are no longer sold outside of Italy, and comprise only the Ypsilon supermini range, fabbrica Automobili was founded on 29 November 1906 in Turin by Fiat racing drivers, Vincenzo Lancia and his friend, Claudio Fogolin. The first car manufactured by Lancia was the Tipo 51 or 12 HP and it had a small four-cylinder engine with a power output of 28 hp. In 1910 Lancia components were exported to the United States where they were assembled, in 1915, Lancia manufactured its first truck, the Jota that continued as a dedicated series. In 1937, Vincenzo died of an attack and both his wife, Adele Miglietti Lancia, and his son, Gianni Lancia, took over control of the company. They persuaded Vittorio Jano to join as an engineer, Jano had already made a name for himself by designing various Alfa Romeo models, including some of its most successful race cars ever such as the 6C, P2 and P3.
Lancia is renowned in the world for introducing cars with numerous innovations. These include the Theta of 1913, which was the first European production car to feature a complete system as standard equipment. 1948 saw the first 5 speed gearbox to be fitted to a production car, Lancia premiered the first full-production V6 engine, in the 1950 Aurelia, after earlier industry-leading experiments with V8 and V12 engine configurations. It was the first manufacturer to produce a V4 engine, other innovations involved the use of independent suspension in production cars and rear transaxles, which were first fitted to the Aurelia and Flaminia range. This drive for innovation, constant quest for excellence, fixation of quality, complex construction processes, with little commonality between the various models, the cost of production continued to increase extensively, while demand did not eventually affecting Lancias viability. Gianni Lancia, an engineer was president of Lancia from 1947 to 1955. In 1956 the Pesenti family took control of Lancia with Carlo Pesenti in charge.
Fiat launched a bid in October 1969 which was accepted by Lancia as the company was losing significant sums of money. During the 1970s and 1980s, Lancia had great success in rallying, winning many World Rally Championships, during the 1980s, the company cooperated with Saab Automobile, with the Lancia Delta being sold as the Saab 600 in Sweden. The 1985 Lancia Thema shared a platform with the Saab 9000, Fiat Croma, during the 1990s, all models were closely related to other Fiat models. Starting from 1 February 2007, Fiats automotive operations were reorganised, Fiat Auto became Fiat Group Automobiles S. p. A
Vittorio Jano was an Italian automobile designer of Hungarian descent from the 1920s through 1960s. Jano was born Viktor János in San Giorgio Canavese, in Piedmont, to Hungarian immigrants and he began at the car and truck company Società Torinese Automobili Rapid owned by G. B. In 1911 he moved to Fiat under Luigi Bazzi and he moved with Bazzi to Alfa Romeo in 1923 to replace Giuseppe Merosi as chief engineer. At Alfa Romeo his first design was the 8-cylinder in-line mounted P2 Grand Prix car, in 1932, he produced the sensational P3 model which was raced with great success by Enzo Ferrari when he began Scuderia Ferrari in 1933. Among his designs at Lancia was the Grand Prix effort, the car, the Lancia D50, was introduced in 1954, but 1955s loss of Alberto Ascari and the 1955 Le Mans disaster soured the company to GP racing. Ferrari took over the effort and inherited Jano that same year, Janos contribution to Ferrari was significant. With the encouragement of Enzos son, Janos V6 and V8 engines pushed the older Lampredi, after Dinos death, Janos Dino V6 became the basis for the companys first mid-engined road car, the 1966206 Dino.
The V6 and V8 went on to displace Ferraris V12 focus, like Enzo Ferrari, Jano lost his own son in 1965. He became gravely ill that year and committed suicide in Turin. Grand Prix History – Hall of Fame, Vittorio Jano
World Rally Championship
The World Rally Championship is a rallying series organised by the FIA, culminating with a champion driver and manufacturer. The drivers world championship and manufacturers championship are separate championships. The series currently consists of 13 three-day events driven on surfaces ranging from gravel and tarmac to snow, each rally is split into 15–25 special stages which are run against the clock on closed roads. The World Rally Car is the current car specification in the series and it evolved from Group A cars which replaced the banned Group B supercars. World Rally Cars are built on production 1, the production car, super 2000 and junior entrants race through the stages after the WRC drivers. The 1973 World Rally Championship was the season of the WRC. The first drivers championship was not awarded until 1979, although 1977 and 1978 seasons included an FIA Cup for Drivers, won by Italys Sandro Munari. Swedens Björn Waldegård became the first official champion, edging out Finlands Hannu Mikkola by one point.
Fiat took the title with the Fiat 131 Abarth in 1977,1978 and 1980, Ford with its Escort RS1800 in 1979. Waldegård was followed by German Walter Röhrl and Finn Ari Vatanen as drivers world champions, the 1980s saw the rear-wheel-drive Group 2 and the more popular Group 4 cars be replaced by more powerful four-wheel-drive Group B cars. FISA legalized all-wheel-drive in 1979, but most manufacturers believed it was too complex to be successful, after Audi started entering Mikkola and the new four-wheel-drive Quattro in rallies for testing purposes with immediate success, other manufacturers started their all-wheel-drive projects. Group B regulations were introduced in the 1982, and with only a few restrictions allowed almost unlimited power, Audi took the constructors title in 1982 and 1984 and drivers title in 1983 and 1984. Audis French female driver Michèle Mouton came close to winning the title in 1982,1985 title seemed set to go to Vatanen and his Peugeot 205 T16 but a bad accident at the Rally Argentina left him to watch compatriot and team-mate Timo Salonen take the title instead.
Italian Attilio Bettega had even a severe crash with his Lancia 037 at the Tour de Corse. However, the season took a dramatic turn. At the Rally Portugal, three spectators were killed and over 30 injured after Joaquim Santos lost control of his Ford RS200, at the Tour de Corse, championship favourite Toivonen and his co-driver Sergio Cresto died in a fireball accident after plunging down a cliff. Only hours after the crash, Jean-Marie Balestre and the FISA decided to freeze the development of the Group B cars, more controversy followed when Peugeots Juha Kankkunen won the title after FIA annulled the results of the San Remo Rally, taking the title from fellow Finn Markku Alén. As the planned Group S was cancelled, Group A regulations became the standard in the WRC until 1997, a separate Group A championship had been organized as part of the WRC already in 1986, with Swedens Kenneth Eriksson taking the title with a Volkswagen Golf GTI 16V
Rear mid-engine, rear-wheel-drive layout
In automotive design, a RMR or Rear Mid-engine, rear-wheel-drive layout is one in which the rear wheels are driven by an engine placed just in front of them, behind the passenger compartment. In contrast to the rear-engined RR layout, the center of mass of the engine is in front of the rear axle and this layout is typically chosen for its low moment of inertia and relatively favorable weight distribution. The layout has a tendency toward being heavier in the rear than the front, since there is little weight over the front wheels, under acceleration, the front of the car is prone to lift and cause understeer. Most rear-engine layouts have historically used in smaller vehicles, because the weight of the engine at the rear has an adverse effect on a larger cars handling, making it tail-heavy. It is felt that the low polar inertia is crucial in selection of this layout, the mid-engined layout uses up central space, making it impractical for any but two-seater sports cars. However, some use this layout, with a small.
This makes it possible to move the right to the front of the vehicle. In modern racing cars, RMR is the configuration and is usually synonymous with mid engine. Due to its distribution and resulting favorable vehicle dynamics, this layout is heavily employed in open-wheel Formula racing cars as well as purpose-built sports racing cars. This configuration was common in very small engined 1950s microcars, because of successes in racing, the RMR platform has been popular for road-going sports cars despite the inherent challenges of design and lack of cargo space. The 1900 NW Rennzweier was one of the first race cars with mid-engine, other known historical examples include the 1923 Benz Tropfenwagen. It was based on a design named the Rumpler Tropfenwagen in 1921 made by Edmund von Rumpler. The Benz Tropfenwagen was designed by Ferdinand Porsche along with Willy Walb and it raced in 1923 and 1924 and was most successful in the Italian Grand Prix in Monza where it stood fourth. Later, Ferdinand Porsche used mid-engine design concept towards the Auto Union Grand Prix cars of the 1930s which became the first winning RMR racers and they were decades before their time, although MR Miller Specials raced a few times at Indianapolis between 1939 and 1947.
The 718 followed similarly in 1958, but it was not until the late 1950s that RMR reappeared in Grand Prix races in the form of the Cooper-Climax, soon followed by cars from BRM and Lotus. Ferrari and Porsche soon made Grand Prix RMR attempts with less initial success, the mid-engined layout was brought back to Indianapolis in 1961 by the Cooper Car Company with Jack Brabham running as high as third and finishing ninth. Cooper did not return, but from 1963 on British built mid-engined cars from constructors like Brabham and Lola competed regularly and in 1965 Lotus won Indy with their Type 38. The first rear mid-engined road car was the 1962 Bonnet / Matra Djet, nearly 1700 were built until 1967