Scuderia Ferrari S. p. A. competing as Scuderia Ferrari is the official name of the racing division of luxury Italian auto manufacturer and competes in Formula One racing. It is the oldest surviving and most successful Formula One team, the team was founded by Enzo Ferrari, initially to race cars produced by Alfa Romeo, though by 1947 Ferrari had begun building its own cars. As a constructor, Ferrari has a record 16 Constructors Championships, Alberto Ascari, Juan Manuel Fangio, Mike Hawthorn, Phil Hill, John Surtees, Niki Lauda, Jody Scheckter, Michael Schumacher and Kimi Räikkönen have won a record 15 Drivers Championships for the team. Since Räikkönens title in 2007 the team narrowly lost out on the 2008 drivers title with Felipe Massa, Schumacher is the teams most successful driver. Joining the team in 1996 and departing in 2006 he won five titles and 72 Grands Prix for the team. His titles came consecutively between 2000 and 2004, including the constructors title of 1999 consecutively being won until the end of 2004, this was the teams most successful period.
Currently, World Champions Kimi Räikkönen and Sebastian Vettel are the two race drivers. The team is known for its passionate support base known as the tifosi. The Italian Grand Prix at Monza is regarded as the home race. The Scuderia Ferrari team was founded by Enzo Ferrari on 16 November 1929 and became the team of Alfa Romeo. In 1938, Alfa Romeo management made the decision to enter racing under its own name, establishing the Alfa Corse organisation, Enzo Ferrari disagreed with this change in policy and was finally dismissed by Alfa in 1939. The terms of his leaving forbade him from motorsport under his own name, in 1939 Ferrari started work on a racecar of his own, the Tipo 815. The 815s, designed by Alberto Massimino, were thus the first Ferrari cars, World War II put a temporary end to racing, and Ferrari concentrated on an alternative use for his factory during the war years, doing machine tool work. After the war, Ferrari recruited several of his former Alfa colleagues and established a new Scuderia Ferrari, the team owns and operates a test track on the same site, the Fiorano Circuit built in 1972, which is used for testing road and race cars.
The team is named after its founder, Enzo Ferrari, Scuderia is Italian for a stable reserved for racing horses and is commonly applied to Italian motor racing teams. In 1947 Ferrari constructed the 12-cylinder,1.5 L Tipo 125, a Formula One version of the Tipo 125, the Ferrari 125 F1 was developed in 1948 and entered in several Grand Prix, at the time a World Championship had not yet been established. In 1950, the Formula One World Championship was established, and it is the only team to have competed in every season of the World Championship, from its inception to the current day. The company switched to the large-displacement naturally aspirated formula for the 275,340, after the 1951 Formula One season the Alfa team withdrew from F1, causing the authorities to adopt the Formula Two regulations due to the lack of suitable F1 cars
By population, Spain is the sixth largest in Europe and the fifth in the European Union. Spains capital and largest city is Madrid, other urban areas include Barcelona, Seville, Bilbao. Modern humans first arrived in the Iberian Peninsula around 35,000 years ago, in the Middle Ages, the area was conquered by Germanic tribes and by the Moors. Spain is a democracy organised in the form of a government under a constitutional monarchy. It is a power and a major developed country with the worlds fourteenth largest economy by nominal GDP. Jesús Luis Cunchillos argues that the root of the span is the Phoenician word spy. Therefore, i-spn-ya would mean the land where metals are forged, two 15th-century Spanish Jewish scholars, Don Isaac Abravanel and Solomon ibn Verga, gave an explanation now considered folkloric. Both men wrote in two different published works that the first Jews to reach Spain were brought by ship by Phiros who was confederate with the king of Babylon when he laid siege to Jerusalem.
This man was a Grecian by birth, but who had given a kingdom in Spain. He became related by marriage to Espan, the nephew of king Heracles, Heracles renounced his throne in preference for his native Greece, leaving his kingdom to his nephew, from whom the country of España took its name. Based upon their testimonies, this eponym would have already been in use in Spain by c.350 BCE, Iberia enters written records as a land populated largely by the Iberians and Celts. Early on its coastal areas were settled by Phoenicians who founded Western Europe´s most ancient cities Cadiz, Phoenician influence expanded as much of the Peninsula was eventually incorporated into the Carthaginian Empire, becoming a major theater of the Punic Wars against the expanding Roman Empire. After an arduous conquest, the peninsula came fully under Roman Rule, during the early Middle Ages it came under Germanic rule but later, much of it was conquered by Moorish invaders from North Africa. In a process took centuries, the small Christian kingdoms in the north gradually regained control of the peninsula.
The last Moorish kingdom fell in the same year Columbus reached the Americas, a global empire began which saw Spain become the strongest kingdom in Europe, the leading world power for a century and a half, and the largest overseas empire for three centuries. Continued wars and other problems led to a diminished status. The Napoleonic invasions of Spain led to chaos, triggering independence movements that tore apart most of the empire, eventually democracy was peacefully restored in the form of a parliamentary constitutional monarchy. Spain joined the European Union, experiencing a renaissance and steady economic growth
2013 Monaco Grand Prix
The 2013 Monaco Grand Prix was a Formula One motor race that took place on 26 May 2013 at the Circuit de Monaco, a street circuit that runs through the principality of Monaco. The race was won by Nico Rosberg for Mercedes AMG Petronas, the race was the sixth round of the 2013 season, and marked the seventy-second time the Monaco Grand Prix has been held. Rosberg had started the race from pole and it was the second time in the season that the super-soft compound was used at a race weekend, as was the case with the soft tyre compound. Lewis Hamilton locked up badly at turn 8, with his teammate, Nico Rosberg and Massa both crashed into the barriers at turn 1, and with Massas crash being on Saturday mornings Free Practice session, he was unable to compete in qualifying. Adrian Sutil crashed into the barrier at turn 2. The three qualifying sessions were held on 25 May, q1 and Q2 were rain-affected, with mostly dry conditions for Q3. Force Indias Paul di Resta, Caterhams Charles Pic, Saubers Esteban Gutiérrez, Marussias Max Chilton and Jules Bianchi, Bianchi stopped on track with an engine issue before setting a timed lap.
Massa did not run a lap as his car was still being repaired following a crash in Free Practice Session No.3, giedo van der Garde became the first Caterham driver to advance to the second round of qualifying in the 2013 season. Mercedes Nico Rosberg took pole position for the Monaco Grand Prix with a time of 1m13. 876s, Mercedes Lewis Hamilton and Red Bulls Sebastian Vettel set the next two fastest times during the final round of qualifying. Rosberg led from pole ahead of teammate Lewis Hamilton at the start and Red Bulls Sebastian Vettel. Marussias Bianchi started from pit lane after an issue on the starting grid and van der Garde had contact which forced Maldonado to pit the Williams for a new front wing. On lap 9, Charles Pic pulled over near the pit entry with a fire in the Caterham. Ferraris Felipe Massa had a large shunt going into Sainte Devote, very similar to his crash in the free practice session on Saturday. The safety car was deployed for the first time in the 2013 season, Hamilton dropped to fourth place after leaving too much of a gap to the Red Bulls.
On lap 45, Maldonado and Chilton touched near Tabac sending Maldonado into the barriers, the race was red flagged to repair damage to the barriers and remove Maldonados wrecked Williams. The race resumed behind the safety car with Rosberg leading Vettel, during the red flag stop, Sergio Pérez was given the position by Alonso, who was trying to avoid a penalty caused by an earlier incident at the chicane. Lotus Grosjean crashed into the back of Toro Rossos Ricciardo exiting the tunnel, after the race, it was announced that Grosjean would receive a 10-place grid penalty for the Canada Grand Prix because of the crash. Pérez touched the barriers near the Nouvelle Chicane after trying to overtake Räikkönen on lap 69, fernando Alonso, teammate Jenson Button and Räikkönen himself complained about Pérezs aggressive driving during the race, even though he didnt receive any penalties
SpA is a multinational company based in Milan, formerly listed on the Milan Stock Exchange since 1922. It was acquired in 2015 by ChemChina, the company is one of the largest tyre manufacturers behind Bridgestone, Michelin and Goodyear. It is present in over 160 countries, has 20 manufacturing sites in 14 countries, Pirelli has been sponsoring sport competitions since 1907 and is the exclusive tyre supplier for the Formula One Championship for 2011–2019 and for the FIM World Superbike Championship. Pirelli is now a pure tyre manufacturing company, in the past it has launched fashion project and operated in renewable energy and sustainable mobility. Founded in Milan in 1872 by Giovanni Battista Pirelli, the company specialised in rubber and derivative processes. Thereafter, Pirellis activities were focused on the production of tyres and cables. In 2005, Pirelli sold its division to Goldman Sachs. In the 1950s, Alberto Pirelli commissioned the building of a skyscraper, Pirelli Tower, in 1974, Pirelli invented the wide radial tyre, upon a request from the Lancia rally racing team for a tyre strong enough to withstand the power of the new Lancia Stratos.
At that time, racing tyres were either slick tyres made with the cross ply technique, or radial tyres, both were unusable for the Lancia Stratos, as the radials were destroyed within 10 km, and the slicks too stiff. Lancia asked Pirelli for a solution, and in 1975 Pirelli created a wide tyre with a reduced sidewall height like a slick, Porsche started using the same tyres with the Porsche 911 Turbo. In 1988, Pirelli acquired the Armstrong Rubber Company, which was headquartered in New Haven, Connecticut, in 2002 the company started a range of Pirelli branded clothing and eyewear. In March 2015, it was announced that Pirelli shareholders has accepted a €7.1 billion bid from ChemChina for the company, the transaction was completed and the company was delisted in November 2015. The list of Pirelli main shareholders As of September 2016 The list of Pirelli Board of Directors, the Pirelli Calendar is published annually, and regularly features famous actresses and fashion models. The Pirelli Internetional Award is given annually for the best international multimedia involving the communication of science, power is nothing without control is the well known slogan of Pirelli Tyre Company, and is featured in numerous television and print advertisements.
Pirelli is the main sponsor of Italian football club Inter Milan. Pirelli has a history of sponsoring football teams, Pirelli is well known for its long term primary sponsorship of the Italian football team Inter Milan. Pirelli previously appeared as a sponsor on the shirts of the Maltese football club Valletta for a short time, Pirellis sponsorship of football teams is not limited to Europe, South America is a key market and as a result successful clubs have been sponsored by the tyre company. The Brazilian team Palmeiras, Uruguayan team Peñarol and Argentinian side Vélez Sársfield all had Pirelli as a shirt sponsor, when English Football League One side Burton Albion Football Club built their new stadium in 2005, Pirelli became the title sponsor of the new ground
Shell Oil Company
Shell Oil Company is the United States-based subsidiary of Royal Dutch Shell, a multinational oil major of Anglo-Dutch origins, which is amongst the largest oil companies in the world. Approximately 22,000 Shell employees are based in the U. S, the U. S. head office is in Houston, Texas. Shell is the leader through approximately 25,000 Shell-branded gas stations in the U. S. which serve as Shells most visible public presence. At its gas stations Shell provides diesel fuel, gasoline and LPG, Shell products include oils and car services as well as exploration and refining of petroleum products. The Shell Oil Refinery in Martinez, the first Shell refinery in the United States, supplies Shell, Shell gasolines previously included the RU2000 and SU2000 lines but they have been superseded by the V-Power line. In 1997, Shell and Texaco entered into two refining/marketing joint ventures, one combined their Midwestern and Western operations and was known as Equilon. The other, known as Motiva, combined the Eastern and Gulf Coast operations of Shell Oil and Star Enterprise, after Texaco merged with Chevron in 2001, Shell purchased Texacos shares in the joint ventures.
In the year 2016, Shell Nederland Raffinaderij BV said that it has started a new unit at the large Pernis refinery in Rotterdam. Until the mid-1980s Shells business in the United States was substantially independent, limited direct involvement from the main office in The Hague and having its stock Shell Oil traded on the New York Stock Exchange were factors.7 billion. Despite the acquisition, Shell Oil remained an independent business. This was due in part to legal reasons as Royal Dutch Shell feared that there could be onerous liability problems if a closer control of Shell Oils affairs was exercised by the parent company. One consequence of independence was that the Shell logo used in the U. S. was slightly different from that used in the rest of the world. In the 1980s Shell Oils independence began to erode as the parent company took a more hands-on approach in running the business. The logo used in the United States is the same as used elsewhere since June 1,1998. Aera Energy —joint venture with ExxonMobil operating in California, Motiva Enterprises —joint venture with Saudi Refining.
Shell Development Emeryville —research facility that operated from 1928–1966 in California, pennzoil Shell Puget Sound Refinery, Washington, was fined $291,000 from 2006 to 2010 for violations of the Clean Air Act making it the second most-fined violator in the Pacific Northwest. As of 2011, it was listed as high priority violator since 2008, in 2008, a lawsuit was filed against Shell Oil Company for alleged Clean Air Act violation. Shell Deer Park facility,20 miles east of Houston, was the nations eighth-largest oil refinery, the facility was the second largest source of air pollution in Harris County, which ranked among the lowest in the nation in several measures of air quality
2013 Chinese Grand Prix
The 2013 Chinese Grand Prix was a Formula One motor race that was held on 14 April 2013 at the Shanghai International Circuit in Shanghai, China. The race was the round of the 2013 season. The race was won by Fernando Alonso, like the 2012 Chinese Grand Prix, tyre supplier Pirelli brought its white-banded medium compound tyre as the harder prime tyre and the yellow-banded soft compound tyre as the softer option tyre. As in previous qualifying sessions, the Caterham and Marussia cars were eliminated in the first round of qualifying, saubers Esteban Gutiérrez and Williamss Valtteri Bottas were eliminated. The fastest time of 1,35.793 was posted by Lewis Hamilton, all cars were comfortably within the 107% cutoff time of 1,42.498. Mark Webber, who had posted the 4th fastest time in Q1, unable to provide the required 1 litre fuel sample, he was penalised by being forced to start at the back of the grid. Eliminated from qualifying were Vergne, Webber, Sutil, Pérez, Lewis Hamilton in the Mercedes once again posted the fastest time of the session to take pole position.
Lotus Renaults Kimi Räikkönen was second and Ferraris Fernando Alonso was third, Hülkenberg opted to preserve his tyres and did not post a time for Q3. Vettel failed to log a time, aborting his attempt after a braking problem, Jenson Button did a token lap to secure the eighth qualifying position. Lewis Hamilton led from the start, ahead of Fernando Alonso, Felipe Massa, Mark Webber was forced to pit for new tyres at the end of the first lap. Paul di Resta and Adrian Sutil lightly collided, with no damage suffered on either cars, on lap 4, Alonso and Massa both passed Hamilton at exactly the same time on the first corner. Daniel Ricciardo was forced to pit a short time before, Nico Rosberg pitted on lap 5. On this same lap, Esteban Gutiérrez misjudged his braking into the hairpin at the end of the long back straight. Gutiérrez was out straight away, while Sutil was able to make it back to the pits, however, as he came in to try and fix the damage, his exhaust caught fire, and he retired from the race.
Nico Hülkenberg found himself leading the race afterwards, ahead of Sebastian Vettel, Jenson Button, Sergio Pérez, eventually on lap 14, Vettel, Hülkenberg, and di Resta pitted. At the same time, Mark Webber hit Jean-Éric Vergne, with both Vergne and Webber being forced to pit. Webbers troubles were not over however, because on the lap, while driving around the hairpin on the back straight, his right rear wheel came off. Then moments later, Räikkönen nudged the back of Pérezs McLaren, however, it wasnt damaged enough for him to pit, and he was able to continue
In motorsport the pole position is the position at the inside of the front row at the start of a racing event. This position is given to the vehicle and driver with the best qualifying time in the trials before the race. This number-one qualifying driver is referred to as the pole sitter, the fastest qualifier was not necessarily the designated pole-sitter. Different sanctioning bodies in motor sport employ different qualifying formats in designating who starts from pole position, often, a starting grid is derived either by current rank in the championship, or based on finishing position of a previous race. In contrast to contemporary motorsport, where only a participant is designated pole-sitter, prior to World War II. The term has its origins in horse racing, in which the fastest qualifying horse would be placed on the part of the course. Originally in Grand Prix racing, grid positions, including pole, were determined by lottery among the drivers, prior to the inception of the Formula 1 World Championship, the first instance of grid positions being determined by qualifying times was at the 1933 Monaco Grand Prix.
Since then, the FIA have introduced many different qualifying systems to F1, between 1996 and 2006, the FIA made 6 significant changes to the qualifying procedure, each with the intention of making the battle for pole more interesting to an F1 viewer at home. Traditionally, pole was always occupied by the fastest driver due to low-fuel qualifying, the race-fuel qualifying era between 2003 and 2009 briefly changed this. Despite the changing formats, drivers attempting pole were required between 2003 and 2009 to do qualifying laps with the fuel they would use to start the race the next day. An underfuelled slower car and driver would therefore be able to take pole ahead of a better, in this situation, pole was not always advantageous to have in the race as the under-fueled driver would have to pit for more fuel before their rivals. With the race refueling ban introduced, low-fuel qualifying returned and these decisions are no longer in play. Since the reintroduction of the rule in 2011, this applies to the quickest first session time.
Since 2014, the FIA has awarded a trophy to the driver who wins the most pole positions in the season, indicates that the driver won the World Championship in the same season. IndyCar uses four formats for qualifying, one for most oval tracks, one for Iowa Speedway, one for the Indianapolis 500, and another for road and street circuits. Oval qualifying is almost like the Indianapolis 500, with two laps, instead of four, averaged together with one attempt, although with just one session. At Iowa, each car takes one qualifying lap, and the top six cars advance to the race for the pole position. The result of the race determines positions 1–10
Rear mid-engine, rear-wheel-drive layout
In automotive design, a RMR or Rear Mid-engine, rear-wheel-drive layout is one in which the rear wheels are driven by an engine placed just in front of them, behind the passenger compartment. In contrast to the rear-engined RR layout, the center of mass of the engine is in front of the rear axle and this layout is typically chosen for its low moment of inertia and relatively favorable weight distribution. The layout has a tendency toward being heavier in the rear than the front, since there is little weight over the front wheels, under acceleration, the front of the car is prone to lift and cause understeer. Most rear-engine layouts have historically used in smaller vehicles, because the weight of the engine at the rear has an adverse effect on a larger cars handling, making it tail-heavy. It is felt that the low polar inertia is crucial in selection of this layout, the mid-engined layout uses up central space, making it impractical for any but two-seater sports cars. However, some use this layout, with a small.
This makes it possible to move the right to the front of the vehicle. In modern racing cars, RMR is the configuration and is usually synonymous with mid engine. Due to its distribution and resulting favorable vehicle dynamics, this layout is heavily employed in open-wheel Formula racing cars as well as purpose-built sports racing cars. This configuration was common in very small engined 1950s microcars, because of successes in racing, the RMR platform has been popular for road-going sports cars despite the inherent challenges of design and lack of cargo space. The 1900 NW Rennzweier was one of the first race cars with mid-engine, other known historical examples include the 1923 Benz Tropfenwagen. It was based on a design named the Rumpler Tropfenwagen in 1921 made by Edmund von Rumpler. The Benz Tropfenwagen was designed by Ferdinand Porsche along with Willy Walb and it raced in 1923 and 1924 and was most successful in the Italian Grand Prix in Monza where it stood fourth. Later, Ferdinand Porsche used mid-engine design concept towards the Auto Union Grand Prix cars of the 1930s which became the first winning RMR racers and they were decades before their time, although MR Miller Specials raced a few times at Indianapolis between 1939 and 1947.
The 718 followed similarly in 1958, but it was not until the late 1950s that RMR reappeared in Grand Prix races in the form of the Cooper-Climax, soon followed by cars from BRM and Lotus. Ferrari and Porsche soon made Grand Prix RMR attempts with less initial success, the mid-engined layout was brought back to Indianapolis in 1961 by the Cooper Car Company with Jack Brabham running as high as third and finishing ninth. Cooper did not return, but from 1963 on British built mid-engined cars from constructors like Brabham and Lola competed regularly and in 1965 Lotus won Indy with their Type 38. The first rear mid-engined road car was the 1962 Bonnet / Matra Djet, nearly 1700 were built until 1967
2013 Malaysian Grand Prix
The 2013 Malaysian Grand Prix was a Formula One motor race that was held on 24 March 2013 at the Sepang International Circuit in Selangor, Malaysia. The race was the round of the 2013 season. Sebastian Vettel won the race for Red Bull Racing, having started from pole position and this was the first time the hard compound tyre was used during the 2013 season. Toro Rossos Jean-Eric Vergne, Williams Valtteri Bottas, Marussias Jules Bianchi, Caterhams Charles Pic, Marussias Max Chilton, and Caterhams Giedo van der Garde were eliminated in Q1. Lotus Romain Grosjean, Saubers Nico Hülkenberg, Toro Rossos Daniel Ricciardo, Saubers Esteban Gutierrez, Force Indias Paul di resta, Red Bulls Sebastian Vettel took pole position with a time of 1,49.674. Ferraris Felipe Massa and Fernando Alonso rounded out the three fastest drivers in the session, lotus Kimi Räikkönen qualified 7th but was given a penalty for blocking Mercedes Nico Rosberg and was demoted to 10th. The race began with a track and tricky conditions, especially around Turn 3.
Vettel led from the start with Alonso clipping his front wing on the back of the Red Bull, Alonso managed to stay ahead of Red Bulls Webber, but early on lap 2 the front wing broke off and sent Alonso into the gravel at Turn 1. Vettel made a stop for slick tyres and fell back several positions in the still wet conditions. Webber subsequently took over the lead of the race and kept the lead through the series of pit stops. Both Force India drives were forced to retire after captive wheelnut failures, Paul di Resta had a very long stop and Adrian Sutils next stop was plagued with the same issue. The team believes the high temperatures might have caused the issue, jenson Button briefly led the race on laps 33 and 34 after Webber, Vettel and Rosberg pitted, and looked well positioned to pick up some useful points for the under-performing McLaren team. However, a pit stop in which a wheel was incorrectly fitted cost him a whole lap. On lap 44, Webber made his last pit stop and emerged in the lead just ahead of Vettel, the two battled over the next two laps, including a very close call on the front straight, after which Vettel took the lead from this teammate.
On the same lap, TV cameras caught Webber flipping the finger to Vettel, Red Bull team principal Christian Horner earlier came on the radio to say, This is silly Seb. Behind the race leaders it was the Mercedes pair of Lewis Hamilton, Rosberg was the faster of the two at this point, and he repeatedly asked the team to be allowed to pass Hamilton, but team principal Ross Brawn replied, Nico, negative. He explained that Hamilton could go faster, but was under orders to ease off, when Rosberg stayed close to Hamilton, Brawn ordered him to drop back, saying that there was nothing to gain and the priority was to bring both cars home. Vettel went on to finish first and win the race followed by Webber, Rosberg, Grosjean, Räikkönen, Hülkenberg, Pérez, following the race Webber and Vettel had a brief exchange before the podium ceremony
A chassis consists of an internal vehicle frame that supports an artificial object in its construction and use, can provide protection for some internal parts. An example of a chassis is the underpart of a motor vehicle, if the running gear such as wheels and transmission, and sometimes even the drivers seat, are included, the assembly is described as a rolling chassis. In the case of vehicles, the rolling chassis means the frame plus the running gear like engine, drive shaft, differential. An under body, which is not necessary for integrity of the structure, is built on the chassis to complete the vehicle. For commercial vehicles, a rolling chassis consists of an assembly of all the parts of a truck to be ready for operation on the road. The design of a car chassis will be different than one for commercial vehicles because of the heavier loads. Commercial vehicle manufacturers sell chassis only and chassis, as well as chassis cab versions that can be outfitted with specialized bodies and these include motor homes, fire engines, box trucks, etc.
In particular applications, such as buses, a government agency like National Highway Traffic Safety Administration in the U. S. defines the design standards of chassis. An armoured fighting vehicles hull serves as the chassis and comprises the part of the AFV that includes the tracks, drivers seat. This describes the hull, although common usage might include the upper hull to mean the AFV without the turret. The hull serves as a basis for platforms on tanks, armoured carriers, combat engineering vehicles. In an electronic device, the chassis consists of a frame or other supporting structure on which the circuit boards. In the absence of a frame, the chassis refers to the circuit boards and components themselves. The combination of chassis and outer covering is called an enclosure. Vietnam Studies, Department of the Army, Washington, D. C.1978
A podium is a platform used to raise something to a short distance above its surroundings. It derives from the Greek πόδι, in architecture a building can rest on a large podium. Podia can be used to people, for instance the conductor of an orchestra stands on a podium as do many public speakers. Common parlance has shown a use of podium in American English to describe a lectern. In sports, a type of podium is used to honor the top three competitors in such as the Olympics. In the Olympics a three-level podium is used, the highest level in the center holds the gold medalist. To their right is a lower platform for the silver medalist. At the 2016 Summer Games in Rio, the Silver, in many sports, results in the top three of a competition are often referred to as podiums or podium finishes. In some individual sports, podiums is a statistic, referring to the number of top three results an athlete has achieved over the course of a season or career. The word may be used, chiefly in the United States, as a verb, to podium, meaning to attain a podium place.
Podia were first used at the 1930 British Empire Games in Hamilton and subsequently during the 1932 Summer Olympic Games in Los Angeles, the winner stands in the middle, with the second placed driver to his right and the third place driver to his left. Also present are the selected by the race organisers who will present the trophies. In many forms of motorsport, the three top-placed drivers in a stand on a podium for the trophy ceremony. The recordings are versions of the national anthems, ensuring the podium ceremony does not exceeded its allocated time. Should a driver experience problems with his car on a lap in Formula One. The drivers will generally refrain from spraying if a fatality or major accident occurs during the event. Also, in countries where alcohol sponsorship or drinking is prohibited, alcoholic beverages may be replaced by other drinks, the NASCAR Sprint Cup Series, the highest level of stock car racing in the United States, does not use a podium in post-game events or statistics.
Instead, the team celebrates in victory lane, and top-five
2013 Australian Grand Prix
The 2013 Australian Grand Prix was a Formula One motor race that was held on 17 March 2013 as the opening round of the 2013 championship. The race was held at the Melbourne Grand Prix Circuit in the Melbourne suburb of Albert Park, the race was won by Kimi Räikkönen with Fernando Alonso coming second and Sebastian Vettel coming third. Following the collapse of HRT F1 in December 2012, the grid for the season was reduced to twenty-two entries, the third qualifying period remains unchanged with the ten fastest drivers all advancing to the final ten minutes of qualifying. This forced the stewards to rely on drivers to use the system honestly, tyre supplier Pirelli provided teams with the super-soft and medium compound tyres for the race, compared to the soft and medium selection offered in 2012. Prior to the first qualifying session of the season, Melbourne had experienced a record heatwave and these dry conditions, did not prevail with precipitation occurring over free practice, turning into heavy rainfalls just before qualifying.
After an initial thirty-minute postponement from the official 17,00 start, conditions were tricky, resulting in some drivers taking off-field excursions. Lewis Hamilton lost control of his car during turn 2 and slid into the wall and he was able to reverse back onto the circuit and continue, albeit with minor damage to his rear wing. Felipe Massa spun into the wall after turn 14, escaping with only a front wing. As the track dried out, drivers switched to intermediate tyres, esteban Gutiérrez spun at the same place as Massa had previously, stalling the engine. The incident ended his session and prejudiced the lap times of others drivers. At the end of Q1, six drivers were eliminated, pastor Maldonado qualified seventeenth after going off the circuit, whilst Gutiérrezs crash meant that the Mexican was unable to continue and was subsequently eliminated in eighteenth place. Marussias Jules Bianchi and Max Chilton qualified nineteenth and twentieth respectively, ahead of the Caterhams of Giedo van der Garde and Charles Pic.
The latter failed to set a lap time within 107% of the fastest time, set by Nico Rosberg, with debris from several accidents during Q1 scattered across the track, the break between Q1 and Q2 was extended to allow marshalls to clean up. Over this period, rain intensified forcing a postponement of the session, marshalls resorted to brooms in a bid to remove puddles forming on the poorly drained public road surface. The rain continued, albeit lightly, and stewards ultimately chose to suspend qualifying. The final two sessions were thus rescheduled for Sunday morning, the Q2 session was scheduled to begin at 11,00 while the weather was cool and cloudy with an air temperature of only 15 °C. The track remained damp from overnight rain and was cool 13 °C, in the end, it was Nico Hülkenberg, Adrian Sutil, Jean-Éric Vergne, Daniel Ricciardo, Sergio Pérez and Valtteri Bottas who made it through to Q3. The Red Bulls locked out the front row with Sebastian Vettel on pole, the race began at 17,00 local time, with Nico Hülkenberg unable to take part in the race due to worries over a fuel feed problem in his Sauber C32