The Ferrari 599 is an Italian sports car produced by Ferrari. It was the brands flagship, replacing the 575M Maranello in 2006 as a 2007 model. Styled by Pininfarina under the direction of Ferraris Frank Stephenson, the 599 GTB debuted at the Geneva Motor Show in February 2006 and it is named for its total engine displacement, Gran Turismo Berlinetta nature, and the Fiorano Circuit test track used by Ferrari. The Tipo F140 C6.0 L V12 engine produces a maximum 620 PS and its 608 N·m of torque was a record for Ferraris GT cars. Most of the modifications to the engine were done to allow it to fit in the Fioranos engine bay, a traditional 6-speed manual transmission as well as Ferraris 6-speed called F1 SuperFast is offered. The Fiorano sees the debut of Ferraris new traction control system, the vast majority of the 599 GTBs have been equipped with the semi-automatic gearbox as opposed to the manual 6-speed gearbox. Only 30 examples have been produced with a manual gearbox of which 20 were destined to the United States and 10 remained in Europe.
0-100 km/h in 3.7 seconds 0-200 km/h in 11.0 seconds Top speed, the ride height has been lowered, which lowers the cars center of gravity. The package includes optimised tyres featuring a compound that offers improved grip, the cars electronics have changed. The gearboxs shifts are faster in high-performance settings, while new engine software improved accelerator response, the exhaust silencer was modified to produce more marked and thrilling sound under hard usage while still delivering just the right comfort levels at cruising speed. The exterior and interior were upgraded with more carbon fiber components, on 8 April 2010, Ferrari announced official details of the 599 GTO. Its engine produces 670 PS at 8250 rpm, with 620 N·m of torque at 6500 rpm, Ferrari claims the 599 GTO can reach 100 km/h in under 3.3 seconds and has a top speed of over 335 km/h. At 1,605 kilograms, the 599 GTO weighs almost 100 kg less than the standard GTB, production is limited to 599 cars. Of these, approximately 125 were produced for the United States market, Ferrari has given only two other models that used the GTO designation, the 1962250 GTO and the 1984288 GTO.
Unlike the previous GTOs however, the 599 GTO was not designed for homologation in any racing series, the convertible version of the 599, the SA Aperta, was introduced 2010 Paris Motor Show as a unique limited edition in honor of designers Sergio Pininfarina and Andrea Pininfarina. The SA Aperta used the performance engine from the 599 GTO. The 599XX is a car designed for use only and is not street legal. The rev limiter is raised to 9000 rpm, with the engine rated for 730 PS at 9000 rpm, weight is reduced by reducing the weight of the engine unit components, the use of composite materials, and the use of carbon-fiber body parts and brake pads
In an internal combustion engine, the cylinder head sits above the cylinders on top of the cylinder block. It closes in the top of the cylinder, forming the combustion chamber and this joint is sealed by a head gasket. In most engines, the head provides space for the passages that feed air and fuel to the cylinder, the head can be a place to mount the valves, spark plugs, and fuel injectors. With a chain drive to a camshaft, the extra length of chain needed for an overhead cam design could give trouble from wear. Early sidevalve engines were in use at a time of simple fuel chemistry, low octane ratings and this made their combustion chamber design less critical and there was less need to design their ports and airflow carefully. One difficulty experienced at this time was that the low compression ratio implied a low expansion ratio during the power stroke, exhaust gases were thus still hot, hotter than a contemporary engine, and this led to frequent trouble with burnt exhaust valves. A major improvement to the engine was the advent of Ricardos turbulent head design.
This reduced the space within the chamber and the ports. Most importantly, it used turbulence within the chamber to thoroughly mix the fuel and this, of itself, allowed the use of higher compression ratios and more efficient engine operation. Despite common knowledge, the limit on performance is not the gas flow through the valves. With high speed engines and high compression, the limiting difficulty becomes that of achieving complete and efficient combustion, efficient engines thus tend towards the pent roof or hemi designs, where the valves are brought close in to the centre of the space. Where fuel quality is low and octane rating is poor, compression ratios will be restricted, in these cases, the sidevalve engine still has much to offer. Such engines remained in production into the 1990s, only being replaced when the fuels available in the field became more likely to be diesel than petrol. In the overhead valve design, the head contains the poppet valves. In the overhead camshaft design, the head contains the valves, spark plugs and inlet/exhaust tracts just like the OHV engine.
The number of heads in an engine is a function of the engine configuration. Almost all inline engines today use a cylinder head that serves all the cylinders. A V engine has two heads, one for each cylinder bank of the V
The Ferrari F12berlinetta is a front mid-engine, rear-wheel-drive grand tourer produced by Italian sports car manufacturer Ferrari. The F12berlinetta, debuted at the 2012 Geneva Motor Show, replaces the 599 series grand tourers. The naturally aspirated 6.3 litre Ferrari V12 engine in the F12berlinetta has won the International Engine of the Year Awards 2013 in the Best Performance category, the F12berlinetta was named The Supercar of the Year 2012 by car magazine Top Gear. In 2014 it was awarded the XXIII Premio Compasso doro ADI, accepting the award was Ferrari’s Senior Vice President of Design, Flavio Manzoni. The F12berlinetta uses a 6,262 cc, naturally aspirated 65° V12 engine of the Ferrari F140 engine family. This allows the F12berlinetta to accelerate from 0 to 100 km/h in an officially reported 3.1 seconds,0 to 200 km/h in 8.5 seconds and a top speed of 211 mph. The engine of the F12berlinetta has been designed to be more efficient than that of the 599, the engine management system is fitted with Ferraris HELE start-stop system to reduce fuel consumption when idling.
Ferrari reports that the F12berlinetta can achieve 18 mpg‑imp – a 30% improvement over the 599 –, compared to similar models, the F12berlinetta uses shortened gear ratios to match the power of the engine. The F12berlinetta is built around a space frame chassis co-developed with Scaglietti. The chassis is made up of 12 different aluminium alloys and improves structural rigidity by 20% over the 599, the centre of gravity has been lowered by around 25 mm. The F12berlinettas weight distribution is 48% front, 52% rear, the cars stability and traction control and other settings are controlled by the Manettino dial mounted on the steering wheel. The F12berlinetta is fitted with Michelin Pilot Super Sport tyres, with the tyre codes 255/35 ZR20 at the front, the F12berlinetta makes use of aerodynamic techniques based on Ferraris 599XX and Formula One programmes, developed with wind tunnel and CFD testing. A notable feature is the Aero Bridge, an air channel running from the bonnet, through the flanks and along the sides of the vehicle, creating an effect that increases downforce.
Another feature is Active Brake Cooling ducts, which open to cooling air only when the brakes are hot. The F12berlinetta produces 123 kg of downforce at 200 km/h – an increase of 76% over the 599 GTB – and has a coefficient of 0.299. Ferrari F12berlinetta has a power to weight ratio of 2.06 kg per horsepower, the body of the F12berlinetta is designed by the Ferrari Styling Centre and Pininfarina, and shares some styling elements with other recent Ferrari models. This includes a front grille similar to the FF and headlights shared with the FF and 458 Italia, the interior, based on the FF, features new Frau leather upholstery with aluminium and carbon fibre trim, and has increased luggage space compared to the 599. The body computer system is developed by Magneti Marelli Automotive Lighting, Ferrari revealed a lightweight, track-focused version of the F12berlinetta in October 2015
The Ferrari FF is a grand tourer presented by Ferrari on March 1,2011 at the Geneva Motor Show. It is Ferraris first production four-wheel drive model, the body style has been described as a shooting-brake, a type of sporting hatchback/estate car with two doors. It replaced the 612 Scaglietti grand tourer, the FF has a top speed of 335 km/h and it accelerates from zero to 100 km/h in 3.7 seconds. Ferrari states that the FF was the worlds fastest four-seat automobile upon its release to the public, the FF costs US$300,000, with 800 being produced during the first year. The FF is equipped with a 7-speed dual-clutch semi-automatic paddle shift system similar to the California, the 458 Italia, and the F12berlinetta. It functions only when the dial on the steering wheel is in the comfort or snow positions. Ferraris first use of 4RM was in a prototype created in the end of the 80s and this system is based around a second, gearbox, taking power from the front of the engine. This gearbox has only two forward gears plus reverse, so the system is active in 1st to 4th gears.
The connection between this gearbox and each front wheel is via independent haldex-type clutches, without a differential, due to the difference in ratios the clutches continually slip and only transmit, at most, 20% of the engines torque. A detailed description of the system has been published, the FF shares the design language of contemporary Ferraris, including the pulled-back headlights of the 458 Italia, and the twin circular taillights seen on the 458 as well as the 599 GTB Fiorano. Distinctive styling elements include a large egg-crate grille, defined side skirts, the shooting brake configuration is a departure from the conventional wedge shape of modern Ferraris, and the FF has been likened to the similarly-shaped 1962 Ferrari 250 GT SWB Drogo race car. The combination of hatchback-like shooting-brake design and collapsible rear seats gives the Ferrari FF a boot capacity of between 450 litres to 800 litres, car&Driver China magazine gives the FF the title of “Most Beautiful Super Car 2011” at Shangai Auto Show.
Oriental TV nominated the FF “Most Popular Imported Car Model at 2011 Shanghai Auto Show”, the FF won Top Gear magazines Estate Car of the Year 2011 award. The FF won Top Gear Indian magazines Luxury Car of The Year 2012 award. According to Friday,31 May 2013 US Department of Energy, Ferrari FF,12 cyl.6.3 L, Auto is 2013 Least Fuel Efficient Car in the midsize class, with 13 mpg‑US Official Ferrari FF Website
LaFerrari is a limited production hybrid sports car built by Ferrari. LaFerrari literally means The Ferrari in most Romance languages, in the sense that it is the definitive Ferrari, on December 3,2016, a LaFerrari auctioned off for $7 million making this car the most valuable 21st century automobile ever sold at auction. LaFerrari Concept Manta, LaFerrari Concept Tensostruttura were unveiled in Ferrari Museum Maranello, the LaFerrari is based on findings from testing of the FXX and on research being conducted by the Millechili Project at the University of Modena. Association with the Millechili Project led to speculation during development that the car would weigh under 1,000 kg, only 499 units have been built, and each cost more than 1 million US dollars. An additional 500th car was made to be sold at an auction. The vehicle was unveiled at the 2013 Geneva Auto Show, followed by Auto Shanghai 2013,2013 Tour Auto Optic 2000,2013 Supercar Chronicle, the LaFerrari Aperta is a limited version of the LaFerrari.
200 cars will be sold, the additional nine Ferrari LaFerrari are reserved for selected distribution during the 70th anniversary celebrations of Ferrari, the LaFerrari Aperta comes with a removable carbon-fibre hard top and a removable soft top. The vehicle was unveiled in 2016 Paris Auto Show, like past convertible Ferrari models, it may use the Aperta label to denote its retractable roof. According to Ferrari, all units have already sold to customers via invitation. LaFerrari is the first mild hybrid from Ferrari, providing the highest power output of any Ferrari whilst decreasing fuel consumption by 40 percent, the KERS system adds extra power to the combustion engines output level for a total of 963 PS and a combined torque of 900 N·m. Ferrari claims CO2 emissions of 330 g/km, the engines bore and stroke is 94×75.2 mm with a compression ratio of 13.5,1 and a specific power output of 94 kW per litre. It is connected to a 7-speed dual-clutch transmission and the car is rear-wheel drive, Ferrari LaFerrari has a power to weight ratio of 1.3 kg per horsepower.
The car is equipped with carbon-ceramic Brembo discs on the front and rear, with the car sitting on Pirelli P Zero Corsa tires measuring 265/30 R19 and it has a double wishbone suspension in the front and a multi-link suspension in the rear. Ferrari claims that the car has lapped its Fiorano Test Circuit in 1,19.70 which is faster than any other road-legal car Ferrari has ever produced. LaFerrari received no input from Pininfarina, making it the first Ferrari since the Bertone-styled 1973 Dino 308 GT4 not to have Pininfarina bodywork or other styling and this decision is a rare exception to the collaboration between Ferrari and Pininfarina that began in 1951. However, Ferrari has stated that two new models designed jointly with Pininfarina have yet to be unveiled and that there are no plans to end relations with Pininfarina. The cockpit stands out for its essentiality and the sportiness of the shapes, there is a steering wheel with integrated controls and gear levers directly fixed to the steering column, a solution that allows better use in all conditions.
The bridge which exists between the two seats, designed like a wing, is home to other instruments linked to the dual-clutch gearbox
A fuel is any material that can be made to react with other substances so that it releases chemical or nuclear energy as heat or to be used for work. The concept was applied solely to those materials capable of releasing chemical energy but has since been applied to other sources of heat energy such as nuclear energy. The heat energy released by reactions of fuels is converted into mechanical energy via a heat engine, other times the heat itself is valued for warmth, cooking, or industrial processes, as well as the illumination that comes with combustion. Fuels are used in the cells of organisms in a known as cellular respiration. Hydrocarbons and related oxygen-containing molecules are by far the most common source of fuel used by humans, fuels are contrasted with other substances or devices storing potential energy, such as those that directly release electrical energy or mechanical energy. The first known use of fuel was the combustion of wood or sticks by Homo erectus near 2,000,000 years ago, throughout most of human history fuels derived from plants or animal fat were only used by humans.
Charcoal, a derivative, has been used since at least 6,000 BCE for melting metals. It was only supplanted by coke, derived from coal, as European forests started to become depleted around the 18th century, charcoal briquettes are now commonly used as a fuel for barbecue cooking. Coal was first used as a fuel around 1000 BCE in China, coal was used to drive ships and locomotives. By the 19th century, gas extracted from coal was being used for lighting in London. In the 20th and 21st centuries, the use of coal is to generate electricity. Fossil fuels were rapidly adopted during the revolution, because they were more concentrated and flexible than traditional energy sources. They have become a part of our contemporary society, with most countries in the world burning fossil fuels in order to produce power. Currently the trend has been towards renewable fuels, such as biofuels like alcohols, chemical fuels are substances that release energy by reacting with substances around them, most notably by the process of combustion.
Most of the energy released in combustion was not stored in the chemical bonds of the fuel. Chemical fuels are divided in two ways, first, by their physical properties, as a solid, liquid or gas. Secondly, on the basis of their occurrence and secondary, solid fuels include wood, peat, Hexamine fuel tablets, and pellets made from wood, wheat and other grains. Solid-fuel rocket technology uses solid fuel, solid fuels have been used by humanity for many years to create fire
A petrol engine is an internal combustion engine with spark-ignition, designed to run on petrol and similar volatile fuels. In most petrol engines, the fuel and air are usually pre-mixed before compression, the process differs from a diesel engine in the method of mixing the fuel and air, and in using spark plugs to initiate the combustion process. In a diesel engine, only air is compressed, and the fuel is injected into very hot air at the end of the compression stroke, and self-ignites. The first practical petrol engine was built in 1876 in Germany by Nikolaus August Otto, although there had been attempts by Étienne Lenoir, Siegfried Marcus, Julius Hock. The first petrol engine was prototyped in 1882 in Italy by Enrico Bernardi. British engineer Edward Butler constructed the first petrol combustion engine. Butler invented the spark plug, ignition magneto, coil ignition and spray jet carburetor, with both air and fuel in a closed cylinder, compressing the mixture too much poses the danger of auto-ignition — or behaving like a diesel engine.
Spark plugs are typically set statically or at idle at a minimum of 10 degrees or so of crankshaft rotation before the piston reaches T. D, higher octane petrol burns slower, therefore it has a lower propensity to auto-ignite and its rate of expansion is lower. Thus, engines designed to run high-octane fuel exclusively can achieve higher compression ratios, Petrol engines run at higher rotation speeds than diesels, partially due to their lighter pistons, connecting rods and crankshaft and due to petrol burning more quickly than diesel. However the lower compression ratios of petrol engines give petrol engines lower efficiency than diesel engines, Bedford OB bus Bedford M series lorry GE 57-ton gas-electric boxcab locomotive Petrol engines may run on the four-stroke cycle or the two-stroke cycle. For details of working cycles see, Four-stroke cycle Two-stroke cycle Wankel engine Common cylinder arrangements are from 1 to 6 cylinders in-line or from 2 to 16 cylinders in V-formation. Flat engines – like a V design flattened out – are common in airplanes and motorcycles and were a hallmark of Volkswagen automobiles into the 1990s.
Flat 6s are still used in many modern Porsches, as well as Subarus, less common, but notable in vehicles designed for high speeds is the W formation, similar to having 2 V engines side by side. Alternatives include rotary and radial engines the latter typically have 7 or 9 cylinders in a single ring, Petrol engines may be air-cooled, with fins, or liquid-cooled, by a water jacket and radiator. The coolant was formerly water, but is now usually a mixture of water and either ethylene glycol or propylene glycol, the cooling system is usually slightly pressurized to further raise the boiling point of the coolant. Petrol engines use spark ignition and high current for the spark may be provided by a magneto or an ignition coil. In modern car engines the ignition timing is managed by an electronic Engine Control Unit, the most common way of engine rating is what is known as the brake power, measured at the flywheel, and given in kilowatts or horsepower. This is the mechanical power output of the engine in a usable
The Ferrari FXX is a high-performance race car and prototype built by automobile manufacturer Ferrari in Maranello, Italy. The FXX is based on the street-legal Enzo, production of the FXX began in 2005. The FXX uses some technology developed from the Enzo Ferrari, and combines it with new developments from Ferrari. However, the car is only a part of the overall program, customers pay £2 million, but are only allowed to drive the car on special track days which are approved by Ferrari. After they drive the car, the owners are entitled to be briefed by Ferrari on the cars performance, Ferraris sister company, has developed a similar car, the MC12 Corsa. It is suspected that Ferrari closely guards the FXX due to the car incorporating various advanced technology from Ferraris F1 team that the company does not want released to rivals. An evolution of the Enzo, in essence, the FXX shares some components with the original car, the FXXs engine is based on Enzos, but displacement has been increased to 6,262 cc from 5,998 cc.
Output has been boosted from the Enzos 670 PS, to 820 PS at 8,500 rpm, the gearbox incorporates the latest developments from Ferraris F1 program and has a shift time of under 100 ms. The brake pads were upgraded from the Enzo and it does, retain the Carbon fibre-reinforced Silicon Carbide ceramic composite discs found on the Enzo. The tires are custom-developed 19 inch slicks, Ferrari has built 30, adding one special edition to the 29 that were originally planned. The original 29 have all sold to pre-selected past Ferrari customers. The 30th was retained by Ferrari S. p. A. and presented to Ferraris F1 World Champion driver, Michael Schumacher, when he retired from Formula One racing at the end of 2006. Schumachers FXX differs from others in being black without a stripe, having red trimmed wheels, matte rather than chrome exhaust tips, FXX owners participate in Ferraris testing and brand development programs. As part of the FXX programme, the car is maintained by the Ferrari factory, the purpose of this particular program is to allow Ferraris top customers exclusive access to its most up-to-date technology and to utilize their input in the development of future models.
The model was sold in Europe. Units can be imported, but not owned, in any other continent, the FXX Evolution package was reported to cost 1.5 million euros, including the car, the crew and the services provided by Ferrari. Top Speed,345 kilometres per hour The Ferrari FXX program continued until 2009, the car continued to be improved under the Evolution kit, which continually adjusts specifics to create more power and quicker gear changes, and to lower the cars aerodynamic drag. The V12 engine generates 860 PS at 9500 rpm, giving a top speed of 400 kilometres per hour
The automotive industry is a wide range of companies and organizations involved in the design, manufacturing and selling of motor vehicles, some of them are called automakers. It is one of the worlds most important economic sectors by revenue, the term automotive was created from Greek autos, and Latin motivus to represent any form of self-powered vehicle. This term was proposed by Elmer Sperry, the automotive industry began in the 1890s with hundreds of manufacturers that pioneered the horseless carriage. For many decades, the United States led the world in automobile production. In 1929, before the Great Depression, the world had 32,028,500 automobiles in use, at that time the U. S. had one car per 4.87 persons. After World War II, the U. S. produced about 75 percent of auto production. In 1980, the U. S. was overtaken by Japan, in 2006, Japan narrowly passed the U. S. in production and held this rank until 2009, when China took the top spot with 13.8 million units. With 19.3 million units manufactured in 2012, China almost doubled the U. S. production, with 10.3 million units, from 1970 over 1998 to 2012, the number of automobile models in the U. S. has grown exponentially.
Safety is a state that implies to be protected from any risk, danger, in the automotive industry, safety means that users, operators or manufacturers do not face any risk or danger coming from the motor vehicle or its spare parts. Safety for the automobiles themselves, implies there is no risk of damage. Safety in the industry is particularly important and therefore highly regulated. Automobiles and other vehicles have to comply with a certain number of norms and regulations, whether local or international. The standard ISO26262, is considered as one of the best practice framework for achieving automotive functional safety. In case of safety issues, product defect or faulty procedure during the manufacturing of the motor vehicle and this procedure is called product recall. Product recalls happen in every industry and can be production-related or stem from the raw material, the automotive industry is still particularly concerned about product recalls, which cause considerable financial consequences.
Around the world, there were about 806 million cars and light trucks on the road in 2007, consuming over 980 billion litres of gasoline, the automobile is a primary mode of transportation for many developed economies. The Detroit branch of Boston Consulting Group predicts that, by 2014, meanwhile, in the developed countries, the automotive industry has slowed down. It is expected that this trend will continue, especially as the generations of people no longer want to own a car anymore
Compared to OHV pushrod systems with the same number of valves, the reciprocating components of the OHC system are fewer and have a lower overall mass. Though the system drives the camshafts may be more complex, most engine manufacturers accept that added complexity as a trade-off for better engine performance. The fundamental reason for the OHC valvetrain is that it offers an increase in the ability to exchange induction. Another performance advantage is gained as a result of the better optimised port configurations made possible with overhead camshaft designs, with no intrusive pushrods, the overhead camshaft cylinder head design can use straighter ports of more advantageous cross-section and length. The OHC design allows for higher speeds than comparable cam-in-block designs. The higher engine speeds thus allowed increases power output for a given torque output, in earlier OHC systems, including inter-war Morrises and Wolseleys, oil leaks in the lubrication systems were an issue. Single overhead camshaft is a design in which one camshaft is placed within the cylinder head, in the SOHC design, the camshaft operates the valves directly, traditionally via a bucket tappet, or via an intermediary rocker arm. SOHC cylinder heads are less expensive to manufacture than double overhead camshaft cylinder heads.
Timing belt replacement can be easier since there are fewer camshaft drive sprockets that need to be aligned during the replacement procedure, SOHC designs offer reduced complexity compared to overhead valve designs — when used for multivalve cylinder heads, in which each cylinder has more than two valves. Exhaust and inlet manifolds were both on the side of the engine block. This did, offer excellent access to the spark plugs, in the early 1980s, Toyota and Volkswagen Group used a directly actuated, SOHC parallel valve configuration with two valves for each cylinder. The Toyota system used hydraulic tappets, the Volkswagen system used bucket tappets with shims for valve clearance adjustment. Honda used a similar system in their motorcycles, using the term Unicam for the concept. This system uses one camshaft for each bank of cylinder heads, with the cams operating directly onto the valve and indirectly, through a short rocker arm. This allows a compact, light valvetrain to operate valves in a combustion chamber.
The Unicam valve train was first used in single cylinder dirt bikes, a dual overhead camshaft valvetrain layout is characterised by two camshafts located within the cylinder head, one operating the intake valves and the other one operating the exhaust valves. This design reduces valvetrain inertia more than is the case with a SOHC engine, a DOHC design permits a wider angle between intake and exhaust valves than do SOHC engines. This can allow for a less restricted airflow at higher engine speeds, DOHC with a multivalve design allows for the optimum placement of the spark plug which, in turn, improves combustion efficiency