Ferrari N. V. is an Italian sports car manufacturer based in Maranello. Founded by Enzo Ferrari in 1939 as Auto Avio Costruzioni, the company built its first car in 1940, however the companys inception as an auto manufacturer is usually recognized in 1947, when the first Ferrari-badged car was completed. Ferrari is the worlds most powerful according to Brand Finance. In May 2012 the 1962 Ferrari 250 GTO became the most expensive car in history, Fiat S. p. A. acquired 50 percent of Ferrari in 1969 and expanded its stake to 90 percent in 1988. In October 2014 Fiat Chrysler Automobiles announced its intentions to separate Ferrari S. p. A. from FCA, through the remaining steps of the separation, FCAs interest in Ferraris business was distributed to shareholders of FCA, with 10 percent continuing to be owned by Piero Ferrari. The spin-off was completed on 3 January 2016, Ferrari road cars are generally seen as a symbol of speed and wealth. Enzo Ferrari was not initially interested in the idea of producing road cars when he formed Scuderia Ferrari in 1929, Scuderia Ferrari literally means Ferrari Stable and is usually used to mean Team Ferrari.
Ferrari bought and fielded Alfa Romeo racing cars for gentlemen drivers, in September 1939 Enzo Ferrari left Alfa Romeo under the provision that he would not use the Ferrari name in association with races or racing cars for at least four years. A few days he founded Auto Avio Costruzioni, headquartered in the facilities of the old Scuderia Ferrari, the new company ostensibly produced machine tools and aircraft accessories. In 1940 Ferrari did in fact produce a race car – the Tipo 815 and it was the first Ferrari car and debuted at the 1940 Mille Miglia, but due to World War II it saw little competition. In 1943 the Ferrari factory moved to Maranello, where it has remained ever since, the factory was bombed by the Allies and subsequently rebuilt including a works for road car production. The first Ferrari-badged car was the 1947125 S, powered by a 1.5 L V12 engine, Enzo Ferrari reluctantly built, the Scuderia Ferrari name was resurrected to denote the factory racing cars and distinguish them from those fielded by customer teams.
In 1960 the company was restructured as a corporation under the name SEFAC S. p. A. Early in 1969, Fiat took a 50 percent stake in Ferrari, new model investment further up in the Ferrari range received a boost. In 1988, Enzo Ferrari oversaw the launch of the Ferrari F40, the last new Ferrari to be launched before his death that year, in 1989 the company was renamed as Ferrari S. p. A. From 2002 to 2004, Ferrari produced the Enzo, their fastest model at the time and it was to be called the F60, continuing on from the F40 and F50, but Ferrari was so pleased with it, they called it the Enzo instead. It was initially offered to loyal and reoccurring customers, each of the 399 made had a tag of $650,000 apiece. On 15 September 2012,964 Ferrari cars (worth over $162 million attended the Ferrari Driving Days event at Silverstone Circuit, on 29 October 2014, the FCA group, resulting from the merger between manufacturers Fiat and Chrysler, announced the split of its luxury brand, Ferrari
Water cooling is a method of heat removal from components and industrial equipment. As opposed to air cooling, water is used as the heat conductor, the main mechanism for water cooling is convective heat transfer. Cooling water is the water removing heat from a machine or system, cooling water may be recycled through a recirculating system or used in a single pass once-through cooling system. Recirculating systems may be if they rely upon cooling towers or cooling ponds to remove heat or closed if heat removal is accomplished with negligible evaporative loss of cooling water. Environmental regulations emphasize the reduced concentrations of waste products in non-contact cooling water, the advantages of using water cooling over air cooling include waters higher specific heat capacity and thermal conductivity. This allows water to heat over greater distances with much less volumetric flow. The water jacket around an engine is very effective at deadening mechanical noises. Water accelerates corrosion of parts and is a favorable medium for biological growth.
Dissolved minerals in water supplies are concentrated by evaporation to leave deposits called scale. Cooling water often requires addition of chemicals to minimize corrosion and insulating deposits of scale, an open water cooling system makes use of evaporative cooling, lowering the temperature of the remaining water. This method was common in internal combustion engines, until scale buildup was observed from dissolved salts. Modern open cooling systems continuously waste a fraction of recirculating water as blowdown to remove dissolved solids at low enough to prevent scale formation. Some open systems use inexpensive tap water, but this requires higher rates than deionized or distilled water. Purified water systems still require blowdown to remove accumulation of byproducts of chemical treatment to prevent corrosion, modern automotive cooling systems are slightly pressurized, often to 15 psi. This raises the boiling-point of the coolant and reduces evaporation, the use of water cooling carries the risk of damage from freezing.
Automotive and many other engine cooling applications require the use of a water, antifreeze inhibits corrosion from dissimilar metals and can increase the boiling point, allowing a wider range of water cooling temperatures. Its distinctive odor alerts operators to cooling system leaks and problems that would go unnoticed in a cooling system. The heated coolant mixture can be used to warm the air conditioning system inside the car by means of the heater core, other less common chemical additives are products to reduce surface tension
Intercoolers increase the efficiency of the induction system by reducing induction air heat created by the supercharger or turbocharger and promoting more thorough combustion. This removes the heat of compression occurs in any gas when its pressure is raised or its unit mass per unit volume is increased. A decrease in intake air charge temperature sustains use of a more dense intake charge into the engine, the lowering of the intake charge air temperature eliminates the danger of pre-detonation of the fuel/air charge prior to timed spark ignition. This preserves the benefits of more fuel/air burn per engine cycle, the inter prefix in the device name originates from historic compressor designs. In the past, aircraft engines were built with charge air coolers that were installed between multiple stages of forced induction, thus the designation of inter, modern automobile designs are technically designated aftercoolers because of their placement at the end of the supercharging chain. In a vehicle fitted with two-stage turbocharging, it is possible to have both an intercooler and an aftercooler, the JCB Dieselmax land speed record-holding car is an example of such a system.
In general, an intercooler or aftercooler is said to be a charge-air cooler, intercoolers can vary dramatically in size and design, depending on the performance and space requirements of the entire supercharger system. Common spatial designs are front mounted intercoolers, top mounted intercoolers, each type can be cooled with an air-to-air system, air-to-liquid system, or a combination of both. Turbochargers and superchargers are engineered to force more air mass into an intake manifold. Intercooling is a used to compensate for heating caused by supercharging. Increased air pressure can result in a hot intake charge. Increased intake charge temperature can increase the cylinder combustion temperature, causing detonation, excessive wear. Passing a compressed and heated intake charge through an intercooler reduces its temperature and pressure, if the device is properly engineered, the relative decrease in temperature is greater than the relative loss in pressure, resulting a net increase in density.
This increases system performance by recovering some losses of the inefficient compression process by rejecting heat to the atmosphere, intercoolers that exchange their heat directly with the atmosphere are designed to be mounted in areas of an automobile with maximum air flow. These types are mainly mounted in front mounted systems, side-mounted intercoolers are generally smaller, mainly due to space constraints, and sometimes two are used to gain the performance of a larger, single intercooler. Air is directed through the intercooler through the use of a hood scoop, in the case of the PSA cars, the air flows through the grille above the front bumper, through under-hood ducting. Top mounted intercoolers sometimes suffer from heat diffusion due to proximity with the engine, warming them, some World Rally Championship cars use a reverse-induction system design whereby air is forced through ducts in the front bumper to a horizontally mounted intercooler. Because FMIC systems require open bumper design for optimal performance, the system is vulnerable to debris
Steel is an alloy of iron and other elements, primarily carbon, that is widely used in construction and other applications because of its high tensile strength and low cost. Steels base metal is iron, which is able to take on two forms, body centered cubic and face centered cubic, depending on its temperature. It is the interaction of those allotropes with the elements, primarily carbon. In the body-centred cubic arrangement, there is an atom in the centre of each cube. Carbon, other elements, and inclusions within iron act as hardening agents that prevent the movement of dislocations that otherwise occur in the lattices of iron atoms. The carbon in steel alloys may contribute up to 2. 1% of its weight. Steels strength compared to pure iron is possible at the expense of irons ductility. With the invention of the Bessemer process in the mid-19th century and this was followed by Siemens-Martin process and Gilchrist-Thomas process that refined the quality of steel. With their introductions, mild steel replaced wrought iron, further refinements in the process, such as basic oxygen steelmaking, largely replaced earlier methods by further lowering the cost of production and increasing the quality of the product.
Today, steel is one of the most common materials in the world and it is a major component in buildings, tools, automobiles, machines and weapons. Modern steel is generally identified by various grades defined by assorted standards organizations, the noun steel originates from the Proto-Germanic adjective stakhlijan, which is related to stakhla. The carbon content of steel is between 0. 002% and 2. 1% by weight for plain iron–carbon alloys and these values vary depending on alloying elements such as manganese, nickel, tungsten, carbon and so on. Basically, steel is an alloy that does not undergo eutectic reaction. In contrast, cast iron does undergo eutectic reaction, too little carbon content leaves iron quite soft and weak. Carbon contents higher than those of steel make an alloy, commonly called pig iron, while iron alloyed with carbon is called carbon steel, alloy steel is steel to which other alloying elements have been intentionally added to modify the characteristics of steel. Common alloying elements include, nickel, molybdenum, titanium, tungsten and niobium.
Additional elements are important in steel, sulfur and traces of oxygen and copper. Alloys with a higher than 2. 1% carbon content, depending on other element content, cast iron is not malleable even when hot, but it can be formed by casting as it has a lower melting point than steel and good castability properties
A fuel is any material that can be made to react with other substances so that it releases chemical or nuclear energy as heat or to be used for work. The concept was applied solely to those materials capable of releasing chemical energy but has since been applied to other sources of heat energy such as nuclear energy. The heat energy released by reactions of fuels is converted into mechanical energy via a heat engine, other times the heat itself is valued for warmth, cooking, or industrial processes, as well as the illumination that comes with combustion. Fuels are used in the cells of organisms in a known as cellular respiration. Hydrocarbons and related oxygen-containing molecules are by far the most common source of fuel used by humans, fuels are contrasted with other substances or devices storing potential energy, such as those that directly release electrical energy or mechanical energy. The first known use of fuel was the combustion of wood or sticks by Homo erectus near 2,000,000 years ago, throughout most of human history fuels derived from plants or animal fat were only used by humans.
Charcoal, a derivative, has been used since at least 6,000 BCE for melting metals. It was only supplanted by coke, derived from coal, as European forests started to become depleted around the 18th century, charcoal briquettes are now commonly used as a fuel for barbecue cooking. Coal was first used as a fuel around 1000 BCE in China, coal was used to drive ships and locomotives. By the 19th century, gas extracted from coal was being used for lighting in London. In the 20th and 21st centuries, the use of coal is to generate electricity. Fossil fuels were rapidly adopted during the revolution, because they were more concentrated and flexible than traditional energy sources. They have become a part of our contemporary society, with most countries in the world burning fossil fuels in order to produce power. Currently the trend has been towards renewable fuels, such as biofuels like alcohols, chemical fuels are substances that release energy by reacting with substances around them, most notably by the process of combustion.
Most of the energy released in combustion was not stored in the chemical bonds of the fuel. Chemical fuels are divided in two ways, first, by their physical properties, as a solid, liquid or gas. Secondly, on the basis of their occurrence and secondary, solid fuels include wood, peat, Hexamine fuel tablets, and pellets made from wood, wheat and other grains. Solid-fuel rocket technology uses solid fuel, solid fuels have been used by humanity for many years to create fire
The Ferrari F40 is a mid-engine, rear-wheel drive, two-door coupé sports car built from 1987 to 1992, with the LM and GTE race car versions continuing production until 1994 and 1996 respectively. The successor to the Ferrari 288 GTO, it was designed to celebrate Ferraris 40th anniversary and was the last Ferrari automobile personally approved by Enzo Ferrari, at the time it was Ferraris fastest, most powerful, and most expensive car for sale. 1,311 F40s were manufactured in total, as early as 1984, the Maranello factory had begun development of an evolution model of the 288 GTO intended to compete against the Porsche 959 in FIA Group B. However, when the FIA brought an end to the Group B category for the 1986 season, Enzo Ferrari was left with five 288 GTO Evoluzione development cars, and no series in which to campaign them. Enzos desire to leave a legacy in his final supercar allowed the Evoluzione program to be developed to produce a car exclusively for road use. The F40 is for the most enthusiastic of our owners who want nothing and it isnt a laboratory for the future, as the 959 is.
And it wasnt created because Porsche built the 959, power came from an enlarged,2. 9L version of the GTOs IHI twin turbocharged V8 developing 478 bhp. The F40 did without a catalytic converter until 1990 when US regulations made them a requirement for emissions control reasons, the flanking exhaust pipes guide exhaust gases from each bank of cylinders while the central pipe guides gases released from the wastegate of the turbochargers. Engines with catalytic converters bear F120D code, the body was an entirely new design by Pininfarina featuring panels made of Kevlar, carbon fiber, and aluminum for strength and low weight, and intense aerodynamic testing was employed. Weight was further minimized through the use of a plastic windshield, the cars did have air conditioning, but had no sound system, door handles, glove box, leather trim, carpets, or door panels. The first 50 cars produced had sliding Lexan windows, while cars were fitted with wind down windows. The F40 was designed with aerodynamics in mind, for speed the car relied more on its shape than its power.
Frontal area was reduced, and airflow greatly smoothed, but stability rather than terminal velocity was a primary concern, so too was cooling as the forced induction engine generated a great deal of heat. In consequence, the car was somewhat like a racing car with a body. It had a partial undertray to smooth airflow beneath the radiator, front section, and the cabin, and a one with diffusers behind the motor. Nonetheless, the F40 had a low drag coefficient of 0.34 with lift controlled by its spoilers. Although the F40 would not return to IMSA for the following season, in 1994, the car made its debut in international competitions, with one car campaigned in the BPR Global GT Series by Strandell, winning at the 4 Hours of Vallelunga. In 1995, the number of F40s climbed to four, developed independently by Pilot-Aldix Racing and Strandell,10 examples were built, the first two being called F40 LMs, and the remaining 8 being F40 Competizione, as Ferrari felt that the LM tag was too restrictive
Twin-turbo or biturbo refers to a turbocharged engine in which two turbochargers compress the intake charge. Other kinds of turbocharging include sequential turbocharging, and staged turbocharging, the latter is used in diesel automobile racing applications. Paralleled twin-turbo refers to the configuration in which two identical turbochargers function simultaneously, splitting the turbocharging duties equally. Each turbocharger is driven by half of the engines spent exhaust energy, in most applications, the compressed air from both turbos is combined in a common intake manifold and sent to the individual cylinders. Usually, each turbocharger is mounted to its own individual exhaust/turbo manifold, parallel twin turbos applied to V-shaped engines are usually mounted with one turbo assigned to each cylinder bank, providing packaging symmetry and simplifying plumbing over a single turbo setup. When used on engines, parallel twin turbos are commonly applied with two smaller turbos, which can provide similar performance with less turbo lag than a single larger turbo.
Some examples of parallel twin-turbo inline engines are Nissans RB26DETT, BMWs N54, some examples of V formation engines with parallel twin-turbos include Mitsubishis 6A12TT, 6A13TT and 6G72TT, Nissans VG30DETT and VR38DETT, and Audis 1997-2002 S4, 1997-2005 A6, and 2003-2004 RS6. While a parallel twin-turbo set-up theoretically has less lag than a single turbocharger set up. Some ways to counter this are to use a pressure set up with smaller turbos. While this setup sacrifices some top end power, it still has less lag than an engine with a single turbo set up making the same power. Another system would be the use of variable geometry turbochargers and this system changes the angle of the guide vanes depending on the exhaust pressure, giving the system excellent power throughout the rev range. Once used mainly in turbocharged engines, Chrysler was the first to use it in mass-production gasoline-powered vehicles with the Shelby CSX. It is possible to use parallel operation with more than two turbochargers, two such examples are the Bugatti EB110 and Bugatti Veyron, both of which run four turbochargers in parallel.
The EB110 runs 4 turbos on a 3.5 litre V12 engine, producing 542 hp at 8000 rpm, the Bugatti Veyron Super Sport uses the quad-turbo 8.0 W16 engine that produces 1216 PS. Sequential turbos refer to a set-up in which the motor uses one turbocharger for lower speeds. Typically, larger high-flow turbochargers are not as efficient at low RPM, on the other hand, smaller turbos spool up quickly at low RPM but cannot supply enough air at higher engine speed. During low to mid engine speeds, when available spent exhaust energy is minimal, as RPM increases, the secondary turbocharger is partially activated in order to pre-spool prior to its full utilization. Once a preset engine speed or boost pressure is attained, valves controlling compressor, in this way a full twin-turbocharger setup provides the benefits associated with a large turbo, including maximum power output, without the disadvantage of increased turbo lag
Produced and assembled at Maseratis Turin plant, the Levante went on sale in Europe in May 2016 and in North America in September 2016. The car was first unveiled at the Geneva auto show on 1 March 2016, US models went on sale in April,2016. Early models included Levante and Levante S. Canada models went on sale in September,2016, early models included Levante and Levante S. The Levante features Maseratis 3. 0L V6 engine, in two states of tune, by 2018, a 560-horsepower V8 will be added. There is an 8-Speed ZF automatic transmission from the sixth-generation Maserati Quattroporte, the Levante features Maserati Touch Control with a full color 8. 1-inch TFT touchscreen display, as well as a reconfigurable TFT gauge cluster with full color
In automotive engineering, an exhaust manifold collects the exhaust gases from multiple cylinders into one pipe. The word manifold comes from the Old English word manigfeald and refers to the folding together of multiple inputs and outputs, Exhaust manifolds are generally simple cast iron or stainless steel units which collect engine exhaust gas from multiple cylinders and deliver it to the exhaust pipe. These consist of individual exhaust headpipes for each cylinder, which usually converge into one tube called a collector. Headers that do not have collectors are called zoomie headers and they may be coated with a ceramic-type finish, or painted with a heat-resistant finish, or bare. Chrome plated headers are available but these tend to blue after use, polished stainless steel will color, but less than chrome in most cases. Another form of modification used is to insulate a standard or aftermarket manifold and this decreases the amount of heat given off into the engine bay, therefore reducing the intake manifold temperature.
There are a few types of thermal insulation but three are common, Ceramic paint is sprayed or brushed onto the manifold and cured in an oven. These are usually thin, so have little insulatory properties, however, a ceramic mixture is bonded to the manifold via thermal spraying to give a tough ceramic coating with very good thermal insulation. This is often used on production cars and track-only racers. Exhaust wrap is wrapped completely around the manifold, although this is cheap and fairly simple, it can lead to premature degradation of the manifold. The goal of performance exhaust headers is mainly to decrease flow resistance, the processes occurring can be explained by the gas laws, specifically the ideal gas law and the combined gas law. When an engine starts its exhaust stroke, the piston moves up the cylinder bore and this forms the medium-pressure body component of the exhaust pulse The remaining exhaust gas forms the low-pressure tail component. The effect is known as scavenging, cross-sectional area, and shaping of the exhaust ports and pipeworks influences the degree of scavenging effect, and the engine speed range over which scavenging occurs.
The magnitude of the exhaust scavenging effect is a function of the velocity of the high. Performance headers work to increase the exhaust velocity as much as possible, one technique is tuned-length primary tubes. This technique attempts to time the occurrence of each exhaust pulse, great care must be used when selecting the length and diameter of the primary tubes. Tubes that are too large will cause the exhaust gas to expand and slow down, since engines produce more exhaust gas at higher speeds, the header are tuned to a particular engine speed range according to the intended application. Typically, wide primary tubes offer the best gains in power and torque at higher engine speeds, many headers are resonance tuned, to utilize the low-pressure reflected wave rarefaction pulse which can help scavenging the combustion chamber during valve overlap
Internal combustion engine cooling
Internal combustion engine cooling uses either air or a liquid to remove the waste heat from an internal combustion engine. For small or special purpose engines, air cooling makes for a lightweight, the more complex circulating liquid-cooled engines ultimately reject waste heat to the air, but circulating liquid improves heat transfer from internal parts of the engine. Engines for watercraft may use open-loop cooling, but air and surface vehicles must recirculate a fixed volume of liquid, heat engines generate mechanical power by extracting energy from heat flows, much as a water wheel extracts mechanical power from a flow of mass falling through a distance. Engines are inefficient, so more heat energy enters the engine comes out as mechanical power. Internal combustion engines remove waste heat through cool intake air, hot exhaust gases, Engines with higher efficiency have more energy leave as mechanical motion and less as waste heat. Some waste heat is essential, it guides heat through the engine, much as a water wheel works only if there is some exit velocity in the water to carry it away.
Thus, all heat engines need cooling to operate, Cooling is needed because high temperatures damage engine materials and lubricants. Cooling becomes more important in when the climate very hot. Internal-combustion engines burn fuel hotter than the temperature of engine materials. Engine cooling removes energy fast enough to keep temperatures low so the engine can survive, some high-efficiency engines run without explicit cooling and with only incidental heat loss, a design called adiabatic. Such engines can achieve high efficiency but compromise power output, duty cycle, engine weight, most internal combustion engines are fluid cooled using either air or a liquid coolant run through a heat exchanger cooled by air. Marine engines and some engines have ready access to a large volume of water at a suitable temperature. The water may be used directly to cool the engine, but often has sediment, which can clog coolant passages, or chemicals, such as salt, engine coolant may be run through a heat exchanger that is cooled by the body of water.
Most liquid-cooled engines use a mixture of water and chemicals such as antifreeze, the industry term for the antifreeze mixture is engine coolant. Some antifreezes use no water at all, instead using a liquid with different properties, such as propylene glycol or a combination of propylene glycol, most air-cooled engines use some liquid oil cooling, to maintain acceptable temperatures for both critical engine parts and the oil itself. Most liquid-cooled engines use air cooling, with the intake stroke of air cooling the combustion chamber. An exception is Wankel engines, where parts of the combustion chamber are never cooled by intake. There are many demands on a cooling system, one key requirement is to adequately serve the entire engine, as the whole engine fails if just one part overheats
The Ferrari 488 is a mid-engined sports car produced by the Italian sports car manufacturer Ferrari, introduced in 2015 to replace the previous 458. It is powered by a 3. 9-litre twin-turbocharged V8, smaller in displacement, the 488 GTB was named The Supercar of the Year 2015 by car magazine Top Gear. The 488 GTB is powered by a 3902cc all-aluminium dry sump unit of the Ferrari F154 engine family, the engine produces 670 PS at 8,000 rpm and 760 N·m of torque at 3,000 rpm. This results in a power output of 126.3 kW per litre and specific torque output of 194.8 N·m per litre. The only available transmission for the 488 is an automated manual dual-clutch 7-speed F1 gearbox manufactured for Ferrari by Getrag, improved carbon-ceramic brakes are supplied on the 488, derived from technology used in LaFerrari, constructed with new materials that reduce the time needed to achieve optimum operating temperature. Disc sizes are 398 mm at the front, and 360 mm at the rear and these advancements reportedly reduce stopping distances by 9% over the 458. A new 5-spoke alloy wheel was designed for the 488, measuring 51 centimetres front, front tires measure 245/35 with rears 305/30.
The first 488 to be introduced was the 488 GTB 2-seat berlinetta and it was launched on 3 February 2015, in advance of its world première at the March 2015 Geneva Motor Show. The Ferrari 488 Spider is a 2-seat roadster variant of the 488 with a folding hardtop, Ferrari released pictures of the 488 Spider at the end of July 2015, and the car debuted at the Frankfurt Motor Show in September 2015. The Spiders drivetrain is the same of the 488 GTB, including the 670 PS3. 9-litre twin-turbocharged V8, the 488 Spider is only 50 kg heavier than its coupé sibling, and 10 kg lighter than the 458 Spider. The 0–100 km/h sprint is unchanged at 3.0 seconds, while the 0–200 km/h acceleration takes slightly longer at 8.7 seconds, UK sales are expected to begin in late spring 2016. The racing versions of the 488 GTB are the successors to the 458 Italia GTC, both the 488 GTE and GT3 were unveiled at the 2015 Finali Mondiali Ferrari which took place at Mugello. The 488 GTE made its debut in Round 1 of the 2016 WeatherTech SportsCar Championship at the 24 Hours of Daytona on 30–31 January.
The 488 GTE run by Scuderia Corsa finished 10th outright and 4th in the GTLM class, at the 201624 Hours of Le Mans, the car took second place, ran by Risi Competizione. The 488 GT3 made its competition debut in Round 2 of the 2016 Australian GT Championship at the Albert Park Circuit in Melbourne on 17 March. Italian Andrea Montermini and Danish driver Benny Simonsen shared the car for Australian team DeFelice Homes. Over the 4 races that made up the round, Montermini finished 5th in race 1 and 14th in race 3 while Simonsen finished 2nd in race 2 and 6th in the fourth and final race. In February 2017, the 488 GT3 won the 2017 Liqui Moly Bathurst 12 Hour, ran by Maranello Motorsport
A V6 engine is a V engine with six cylinders mounted on the crankshaft in two banks of three cylinders, usually set at either a 60 or 90 degree angle to each other. The V6 is one of the most compact engine configurations, usually ranging from 2.0 L to 4.3 L displacement, shorter than the inline 4, because of its short length, the V6 fits well in the widely used transverse engine front-wheel drive layout. The V6 engine has become widely adopted for medium-sized cars, often as an engine where an inline 4 is standard. Modern V6 engines commonly range in displacement from 2.0 to 4.3 L, though larger and smaller examples have been produced, such as the 1991 Mazda MX3, some of the first V6-powered automobiles were built in 1905 by Marmon. This firm became something of a V-engine specialist, beginning with V2 engines, V4s, V6s, V8s, and, in the 1930s, Marmon was one of the few automakers of the world to offer a V16-powered automobile. From 1908 to 1913 the Deutz Gasmotoren Fabrik produced benzene electric train sets used a V6 as generator engine.
Another V6-powered car was designed in 1918 by Leo Goosen for Buick Chief Engineer Walter L. Marr, only one prototype Buick V6 car was built in 1918, it was long used by the Marr family. The first series-production V6 was introduced by Lancia in 1950 with the Lancia Aurelia model, Lancia sought a smoother and more powerful engine that would fit into an existing narrow engine bay. A Lancia engineer, Francesco De Virgilio, began analyzing the vibration of alternative V-angles for a V6 engine in 1943 and he found that a V6 with its cylinders positioned at a 60° V-angle could be made uniquely smooth-running in comparison with other possible V-angles. There was resistance to his conclusion, because the V6 was a virtually unknown engine type in the 1950s and his design featured four main bearings and six crankpins, resulting in evenly spaced firing intervals and low vibrations. Other manufacturers took note and soon other V6 engines were designed, the use of the sweet spot of 60 degrees V-angle maximized power while minimizing vibration and exterior dimensions of the engine.
In short, GMC introduced a compact V6 design at a time when the engine was considered the pinnacle of 6-cylinder design. To save design time and expense, it was much like a V8 that had two cylinders chopped off. This uneven firing caused harmonic vibrations in the train that were perceived as a rough-running engine by the buyers. GM sold the tooling to Kaiser-Jeep in 1967, later, as a result of the 1973 oil crisis. In 1977, Buick introduced a split pin crankshaft to implement a version of this engine in which cylinders fired consistently every 120°. The V6 does not have the inherent freedom from vibration that the inline-six and flat-six have, counterweights on the crankshaft and a counter rotating balance shaft are required to compensate for the first order rocking motions. This causes an end-to-end rocking motion at crankshaft speed in a straight-three engine and this results in an engine which is short and relatively smooth, but too wide for most engine compartments