A podium is a platform used to raise something to a short distance above its surroundings. It derives from the Greek πόδι, in architecture a building can rest on a large podium. Podia can be used to people, for instance the conductor of an orchestra stands on a podium as do many public speakers. Common parlance has shown a use of podium in American English to describe a lectern. In sports, a type of podium is used to honor the top three competitors in such as the Olympics. In the Olympics a three-level podium is used, the highest level in the center holds the gold medalist. To their right is a lower platform for the silver medalist. At the 2016 Summer Games in Rio, the Silver, in many sports, results in the top three of a competition are often referred to as podiums or podium finishes. In some individual sports, podiums is a statistic, referring to the number of top three results an athlete has achieved over the course of a season or career. The word may be used, chiefly in the United States, as a verb, to podium, meaning to attain a podium place.
Podia were first used at the 1930 British Empire Games in Hamilton and subsequently during the 1932 Summer Olympic Games in Los Angeles, the winner stands in the middle, with the second placed driver to his right and the third place driver to his left. Also present are the selected by the race organisers who will present the trophies. In many forms of motorsport, the three top-placed drivers in a stand on a podium for the trophy ceremony. The recordings are versions of the national anthems, ensuring the podium ceremony does not exceeded its allocated time. Should a driver experience problems with his car on a lap in Formula One. The drivers will generally refrain from spraying if a fatality or major accident occurs during the event. Also, in countries where alcohol sponsorship or drinking is prohibited, alcoholic beverages may be replaced by other drinks, the NASCAR Sprint Cup Series, the highest level of stock car racing in the United States, does not use a podium in post-game events or statistics.
Instead, the team celebrates in victory lane, and top-five
A tire or tyre is a ring-shaped vehicle component that covers the wheels rim to protect it and enable better vehicle performance. Most tires, such as those for automobiles and bicycles, provide traction between the vehicle and the road providing a flexible cushion that absorbs shock. The materials of modern tires are synthetic rubber, natural rubber and wire, along with carbon black. They consist of a tread and a body, the tread provides traction while the body provides containment for a quantity of compressed air. Before rubber was developed, the first versions of tires were bands of metal fitted around wooden wheels to prevent wear and tear. Pneumatic tires are used on many types of vehicles, including cars, motorcycles, trucks, heavy equipment, and aircraft. Metal tires are used on locomotives and railcars, and solid rubber tires are still used in various non-automotive applications, such as some casters, lawnmowers. The etymology of tire is that the word is a form of attire. The spelling tyre does not appear until the 1840s when the English began shrink fitting railway car wheels with malleable iron, traditional publishers continued using tire.
The Times newspaper in Britain was still using tire as late as 1905, the spelling tyre began to be commonly used in the 19th century for pneumatic tires in the UK. However, over the course of the 20th century, tyre became established as the standard British spelling, the earliest tires were bands of leather, placed on wooden wheels, used on carts and wagons. The tire would be heated in a fire, placed over the wheel and quenched, causing the metal to contract. A skilled worker, known as a wheelwright, carried out this work, the outer ring served to tie the wheel segments together for use, providing a wear-resistant surface to the perimeter of the wheel. The word tire thus emerged as a variant spelling to refer to the bands used to tie wheels. The first patent for what appears to be a standard pneumatic tire appeared in 1847 lodged by the Scottish inventor Robert William Thomson, this never went into production. The first practical pneumatic tire was made in 1888 on May Street, Belfast, by Scots-born John Boyd Dunlop and it was an effort to prevent the headaches of his 10-year-old son Johnnie, while riding his tricycle on rough pavements.
His doctor, Sir John Fagan, had prescribed cycling as an exercise for the boy, Fagan participated in designing the first pneumatic tires. In Dunlops tire patent specification dated 31 October 1888, his interest is only in its use in cycles, in September 1890, he was made aware of an earlier development but the company kept the information to itself
Rory Byrne is a South African semi-retired engineer and car designer, most famous for being the chief designer at the Benetton and Scuderia Ferrari Formula One teams. Byrne-designed cars have won ninety-nine Grands Prix, seven constructors titles and this makes Byrne the third most successful Formula One designer, behind rivals Adrian Newey and Colin Chapman. Byrne became interested in racing at Witwatersrand University in Johannesburg, South Africa, firstly as a competitor. It was in period that he first began to design racing cars. His first car, a Formula Ford racer, was competitive, following his success in 1972 Byrne relocated to England to pursue a career in racing car design. An introduction to Ted Toleman in 1977 offered the opportunity for the thirty-three-year-old who was by now an established figure in British motor racing. Toleman was owner of a Formula 2 team and hired the South African as its designer, several seasons of increasingly respectable results culminated in first and second place in the 1980 European Formula 2 championship.
The team with Rory Byrne as its designer was now ready to make the jump into Formula One. The first Byrne-designed car to appear at a grand prix was the Hart-powered TG181, lacking the finances to reach the first three long-haul races Toleman entered Formula One at the San Marino Grand Prix. It was in the off-season of 1983/84 that Toleman signed Ayrton Senna – a move that almost made Byrne, the teams steady progress towards the front of the grid was given a boost in 1985 when the Benetton family announced plans to purchase Toleman. After a brief spell with the abortive Reynard F1 project in 1991 Byrne returned to Benetton that fall, what he found was a changed team now firmly under the control of Flavio Briatore and with hotshot Michael Schumacher installed as number one driver. Byrnes B193 car was a substantial technical advancement on the previous car, incorporating a semi-automatic gearbox, four-wheel steering. The car took a win in the hands of Schumacher. It was immediately obvious at the first race of 1994 that Byrnes B194 chassis would be the car to beat.
Critics suggested that the domination was more a result of an uncharacteristic slump by Williams star designer Adrian Newey. A late-season charge by Williams robbed Byrne of his first constructors title, with the accusations of cheating behind them, the Benetton team secured both titles before the season was finished – finally Byrne had what he wanted most. His car had won the Formula One constructors crown, with the hugely influential Schumacher leaving Benetton for Ferrari at the end of the season, the team began to fragment. Byrne announced that he would retire in 1996, Benetton technical director Ross Brawn was hired and Ferrari approached Rory Byrne to replace the teams existing chief designer John Barnard who refused to re-locate to Italy
Monocoque, structural skin, is a structural system where loads are supported through an objects external skin, similar to an egg shell. The word monocoque is a French term for single shell or single hull, a true monocoque carries both tensile and compressive forces within the skin and can be recognised by the absence of a load carrying internal frame. By contrast, a semi-monocoque is a combining a tensile stressed skin. Other semi-monocoques not to be confused with true monocoques include vehicle unibodies, which tend to be composites, early aircraft were constructed using frames, typically of wood or steel tubing, which could be covered with fabric such as irish linen or cotton. The skin added nothing to the strength of the airframe and was dead weight beyond providing a smooth sealed surface. This reduced drag so effectively it was able to win most of the races it was entered into, however, it was prone to damage from moisture and delamination. While all metal aircraft from the Junkers firm had appeared as early as 1915, the first metal monocoques were built by Claudius Dornier, while working for Zeppelin-Lindau.
After failed attempts with several large flying boats in which a few components were monocoques, the aluminum alloy monocoque chassis was first used in the 1962 Lotus 25 Formula 1 race car. The term monocoque is frequently misused when referring to unibody cars, in motor racing, the safety of the driver depends on the car body which must meet stringent regulations and a few cars have been built with monocoque structures. Tanks and other armored vehicles such as the German Fuchs 2 and this reduces weight for a given amount of armor compared to vehicles to which armor has been attached to an underlying frame. A monocoque-framed motorcycle was developed by the Spanish motorcycle manufacturer, Ossa won four Grand Prix races with the monocoque bike before their rider was killed during the 1970 Isle of Man TT, causing the Ossa factory to withdraw from Grand Prix competition. Notable designers such as Eric Offenstadt and Dan Hanebrink created unique monocoque designs in the early 1970s, the 1973 Isle of Man TT was won by Peter Williams on the monocoque-framed Norton John Player Special that he helped design.
Honda experimented with a monocoque Grand Prix racing motorcycle named the NR500 in 1979, in 1987 John Britten developed the Aero-D One, featuring a composite monocoque chassis that weighed only 12 kg. The first time an aluminium monocoque frame appeared on a production motorcycle was the 2000 Kawasaki Ninja ZX-12R. This was Kawasakis flagship production sportbike aimed at being the fastest production motorcycle, various rockets have used pressure-stabilized monocoque designs, such as Atlas and Falcon 1. Balloon tanks are not true monocoques but act in the way as inflatable shells. A balloon tank skin only handles tensile forces while compression is resisted by internal pressure in a way similar to semi-monocoques braced by a solid frame. This becomes obvious when internal pressure is lost and the structure collapses, the Handle is an electric guitar characterized by its hollow sectioned monocoque chassis, created by the award-winning designer Peter Solomon
2005 Chinese Grand Prix
The 2005 Chinese Grand Prix was the final Formula One motor race of the 2005 Formula One season which took place on 16 October 2005 at the Shanghai International Circuit. This was the second Chinese Grand Prix to be held since the events 2004 inception, the race was won by the new World Champion, Renaults Fernando Alonso. McLaren driver Kimi Räikkönen was four seconds behind in second position, toyota driver Ralf Schumacher was third. Renault won the Constructors Championship at this race, they had led McLaren by two points before the start of the race and this was the final race for Antônio Pizzonia, the Minardi and Jordan teams, although both teams continued into 2006 under different names. This was last win for a car equipped with a 6-speed gearbox, during a warm up lap as the cars were lining up on the grid from the pit lane, Christijan Albers and Michael Schumachers cars collided. Both were forced to start from the pits in their teams spare car, Alonso dominated the race, taking a lights-to-flag victory, capping a best ever season for Renault which included victories in both titles.
Renaults number two driver Giancarlo Fisichellas chances of making the podium ended when he received a penalty for obstructive driving in the pits during the second safety car period. He ended the race less than a second behind Ralf Schumacher, red Bull Racings Christian Klien had a career best drive to take fifth position with Felipe Massa, Mark Webber and Jenson Button completing the point scoring finishers. Räikkönen recorded the races fastest lap, a record equalling tenth for the season, qualifying took place on October 15. Bold text indicates the World Champions, Only the top five positions are included for both sets of standings
A transmission is a machine in a power transmission system, which provides controlled application of the power. Often the term refers simply to the gearbox that uses gears and gear trains to provide speed. In British English, the term refers to the whole drivetrain, including clutch, prop shaft, differential. In American English, the term more specifically to the gearbox alone. The most common use is in vehicles, where the transmission adapts the output of the internal combustion engine to the drive wheels. Such engines need to operate at a high rotational speed, which is inappropriate for starting, stopping. The transmission reduces the engine speed to the slower wheel speed. Transmissions are used on bicycles, fixed machines. Often, a transmission has multiple gear ratios with the ability to switch between them as speed varies and this switching may be done manually or automatically. Directional control may be provided, single-ratio transmissions exist, which simply change the speed and torque of motor output.
The output of the transmission is transmitted via the driveshaft to one or more differentials, while a differential may provide gear reduction, its primary purpose is to permit the wheels at either end of an axle to rotate at different speeds as it changes the direction of rotation. Conventional gear/belt transmissions are not the mechanism for speed/torque adaptation. Alternative mechanisms include torque converters and power transformation, automatic transmissions use a valve body to shift gears using fluid pressures in conjunction with an ecm. Early transmissions included the right-angle drives and other gearing in windmills, horse-powered devices, and steam engines, in support of pumping, most modern gearboxes are used to increase torque while reducing the speed of a prime mover output shaft. This means that the shaft of a gearbox rotates at a slower rate than the input shaft. A gearbox can be set up to do the opposite and provide an increase in speed with a reduction of torque. Some of the simplest gearboxes merely change the rotational direction of power transmission.
Many typical automobile transmissions include the ability to select one of several gear ratios, in this case, most of the gear ratios are used to slow down the output speed of the engine and increase torque
A V10 engine is a V engine with 10 cylinders in two banks of five. It is longer than a V8 engine but shorter than an engine or V12 engine. The V10 is essentially the result of mating two even-firing straight-5 engines together, the straight-5 engine shows first and second order rocking motion. Here it should be assumed that the crankshaft with low second-order vibration is used, by mating the straight-5 banks at 90 degrees and using five throws, the balance shafts balance each other and become null. Using an 18° split journal crankshaft the firing order can be even. A 36° degree bank angle and a 108° flying arm crankshaft would allow even firing without a balance shaft and smaller counterweights, but would be impractical. Until recently, the V10 configuration was not a configuration for road cars. For Audi in their Audi R85 and it discontinued in that application after 2003. However,2003 saw the introduction of the Dodge Ram SRT-10, the Viper engine has been tweaked through the years, and for the fifth-generation Viper produces 640 hp in a standard state of tune from its 8.4 liter displacement.
The previous generation engine is used by Bristol, in tuned form, in their two-seat Fighter coupe, ford developed a heavy-duty V10 version of their Triton engine to replace the 460 big block in truck applications. It was introduced in the E-Series/Econoline full-size van, the F-Series Super Duty and Excursion SUV furthered the engines popularity. The Triton 6.8 V10 is still in production today, european marques were slower to adopt the V10 configuration. However, high-revving V10 power-plants were incorporated into supercars from Lamborghini, BMW and Audi unveiled ten-cylinder versions of their mid-range saloons. Audi here profited from their Lamborghini ownership, which allowed them to source the Gallardos V10 for their own cars, Volkswagen developed a turbodiesel V10, their Volkswagen Phaeton was the first production sedan to have a V10. A list of post-war V10-engined production cars, The most widespread use of the V10 has been in Formula One racing, alfa Romeo made the first modern Formula One V10 in 1986, although it was never used in a Formula One car.
Later the configuration was introduced by Honda and Renault before the 1989 season, the introduction of the 3.5 liter rule after turbos were outlawed following 1988 made the V10 seem the best compromise between the lower weight of a V8 and the higher power of a V12. V10 engines became commonplace after the reduction from 3.5 to 3 liters in 1995, Renault had a more flat 110° angle in 2002 and 2003, but reverted to a more conventional 72° following the change in rules which dictated that an engine must last two race weekends. The Audi R15 LMP1 Uses a TDI V10 Diesel Engine which made its debut in 200912 Hours of Sebring and this car completed the most laps ever in Le Mans 24 history
Scuderia Ferrari S. p. A. competing as Scuderia Ferrari is the official name of the racing division of luxury Italian auto manufacturer and competes in Formula One racing. It is the oldest surviving and most successful Formula One team, the team was founded by Enzo Ferrari, initially to race cars produced by Alfa Romeo, though by 1947 Ferrari had begun building its own cars. As a constructor, Ferrari has a record 16 Constructors Championships, Alberto Ascari, Juan Manuel Fangio, Mike Hawthorn, Phil Hill, John Surtees, Niki Lauda, Jody Scheckter, Michael Schumacher and Kimi Räikkönen have won a record 15 Drivers Championships for the team. Since Räikkönens title in 2007 the team narrowly lost out on the 2008 drivers title with Felipe Massa, Schumacher is the teams most successful driver. Joining the team in 1996 and departing in 2006 he won five titles and 72 Grands Prix for the team. His titles came consecutively between 2000 and 2004, including the constructors title of 1999 consecutively being won until the end of 2004, this was the teams most successful period.
Currently, World Champions Kimi Räikkönen and Sebastian Vettel are the two race drivers. The team is known for its passionate support base known as the tifosi. The Italian Grand Prix at Monza is regarded as the home race. The Scuderia Ferrari team was founded by Enzo Ferrari on 16 November 1929 and became the team of Alfa Romeo. In 1938, Alfa Romeo management made the decision to enter racing under its own name, establishing the Alfa Corse organisation, Enzo Ferrari disagreed with this change in policy and was finally dismissed by Alfa in 1939. The terms of his leaving forbade him from motorsport under his own name, in 1939 Ferrari started work on a racecar of his own, the Tipo 815. The 815s, designed by Alberto Massimino, were thus the first Ferrari cars, World War II put a temporary end to racing, and Ferrari concentrated on an alternative use for his factory during the war years, doing machine tool work. After the war, Ferrari recruited several of his former Alfa colleagues and established a new Scuderia Ferrari, the team owns and operates a test track on the same site, the Fiorano Circuit built in 1972, which is used for testing road and race cars.
The team is named after its founder, Enzo Ferrari, Scuderia is Italian for a stable reserved for racing horses and is commonly applied to Italian motor racing teams. In 1947 Ferrari constructed the 12-cylinder,1.5 L Tipo 125, a Formula One version of the Tipo 125, the Ferrari 125 F1 was developed in 1948 and entered in several Grand Prix, at the time a World Championship had not yet been established. In 1950, the Formula One World Championship was established, and it is the only team to have competed in every season of the World Championship, from its inception to the current day. The company switched to the large-displacement naturally aspirated formula for the 275,340, after the 1951 Formula One season the Alfa team withdrew from F1, causing the authorities to adopt the Formula Two regulations due to the lack of suitable F1 cars
The Ferrari F2004 was a highly successful Formula One racing car designed by Rory Byrne, Ross Brawn and Aldo Costa for the 2004 Formula One season. It is one of the most dominant cars in the history of Formula One, the car brought a close to Ferraris and Michael Schumachers five-year domination of the sport, leaving the door open for Renault and Fernando Alonso. The car was based on the design principles pioneered in the F2002. The periscope exhausts were smaller and mounted closer to the centre line, the rear wing was enlarged and the rear suspension redesigned to reduce tyre wear. The engine was designed to last a weekend in accordance with the FIAs technical regulations for the season. As a result, the had to be redesigned to be more resilient. The car was as successful as the equally dominant F2002, winning 15 out of 18 races, Michael Schumacher won a single-season record of 13 races and gained a record breaking seventh World Championship, while Ferrari was a clear winner in the Constructors Championship.
After the 2004 season the car was developed further as a testbed for 2005, despite a podium finish in the 2005 Australian Grand Prix, the car was retired to make way for its successor, the F2005, at the 2005 Bahrain Grand Prix. The F2004 was used as the basis for the 2008 Powered by Ferrari A1 Grand Prix car, *10 points scored with the F2004M Ferrari F2002 Ferrari F2003-GA Ferrari F2005
Ferrari 248 F1
The Ferrari 248 F1 is a Formula One car, designed by Aldo Costa and Rory Byrne for the 2006 season. The car was named after its V8 engine,24 is the capacity in decilitres, the 248 model was driven by race drivers Michael Schumacher and Felipe Massa. The 248 F1 was the first Ferrari since the F1-2000 not to wear the number one, the car featured new sponsor decals such as Martini. This was Vodafones last year of sponsorship for the Scuderia as they announced that they would switch to McLaren Mercedes as title sponsor, the car was an update of the previous years F2005. Although the V8 engine is shorter than the V10 used in the F2005, the wheelbase was retained via a new longer gearbox casing. The 248 F1 is the last Ferrari Formula One race car to use the single keel technology, some notable features of the new model are the rear view mirrors, which are now mounted on the edge of the sidepods of the car rather than conventional position beside the cockpit. At the start of the season the car featured a plane front wing.
After the first three races, it was replaced by a plane wing, in order to generate more airflow to the underside. Revised rear bodywork was introduced for the French Grand Prix, with a more waisted lower body around the exhausts. The engine has been reported to have had an output of 730 bhp at the start of the 2006 season. The car performed well in qualifying at the opener, the Bahrain Grand Prix. However the performance of the car was not as fast as the Renault R26 in the first half of the season. This problem continued to affect the car for the Australian Grand Prix, an aerodynamic upgrade introduced for the San Marino Grand Prix brought the pace of the car to approximately level with the Renault. At the United States Grand Prix, in Indianapolis, Ferrari were dominant all weekend and this seemed to represent a genuine turning point for the cars competitiveness. Massa claimed his win at the Turkish Grand Prix and won his home race in Brazil. As a result of the cars improved form and Schumacher were able to close the gap to Renault, the car gave Ferrari 9 race wins and 7 pole positions, and second-place finishes in both the Drivers and Constructors World Championships.
248 F1 Technical Specifications 248 F1 Testing Statistics
Auto racing is a sport involving the racing of automobiles for competition. Almost as soon as automobiles had been invented, races of various sorts were organised, by the 1930s specialist racing cars had developed. There are now numerous different categories, each with different rules and it was won by the carriage of Isaac Watt Boulton. Internal combustion auto racing events began soon after the construction of the first successful gasoline-fueled automobiles, the first organized contest was on April 28,1887, by the chief editor of Paris publication Le Vélocipède, Monsieur Fossier. It ran 2 kilometres from Neuilly Bridge to the Bois de Boulogne, on July 22,1894, the Parisian magazine Le Petit Journal organized what is considered to be the worlds first motoring competition, from Paris to Rouen. One hundred and two competitors paid a 10-franc entrance fee, the first American automobile race is generally held to be the Thanksgiving Day Chicago Times-Herald race of November 28,1895. Press coverage of the event first aroused significant American interest in the automobile, brooklands, in Surrey, was the first purpose-built motor racing venue, opening in June 1907.
It featured a 4.43 km concrete track with high-speed banked corners, One of the oldest existing purpose-built automobile racing circuits in the United States, still in use, is the 2. 5-mile -long Indianapolis Motor Speedway in Speedway, Indiana. It is the largest capacity venue of any variety worldwide, with a top capacity of some 257. NASCAR was founded by Bill France, Sr. on February 21,1948, the first NASCAR Strictly Stock race ever was held on June 19,1949, at Daytona Beach, Florida. From 1962, sports cars temporarily took a seat to GT cars. From 1972 through 2003, NASCARs premier series was called the Winston Cup Series, the changes that resulted from RJRs involvement, as well as the reduction of the schedule from 48 to 31 races a year, established 1972 as the beginning of NASCARs modern era. The IMSA GT Series evolved into the American Le Mans Series, the European races eventually became the closely related Le Mans Series, both of which mix prototypes and GTs. The best-known variety of racing, Formula One, which hosts the famous Monaco Grand Prix.
In single-seater, the wheels are not covered, and the cars often have aerofoil wings front, in Europe and Asia, open-wheeled racing is commonly referred to as Formula, with appropriate hierarchical suffixes. In North America, the Formula terminology is not followed, the sport is usually arranged to follow an international format, a regional format, and/or a domestic, or country-specific, format. In North America, the used in the National Championship have traditionally been similar though less sophisticated than F1 cars. The series most famous race is the Indianapolis 500, the other major international single-seater racing series is GP2
In motorsport the pole position is the position at the inside of the front row at the start of a racing event. This position is given to the vehicle and driver with the best qualifying time in the trials before the race. This number-one qualifying driver is referred to as the pole sitter, the fastest qualifier was not necessarily the designated pole-sitter. Different sanctioning bodies in motor sport employ different qualifying formats in designating who starts from pole position, often, a starting grid is derived either by current rank in the championship, or based on finishing position of a previous race. In contrast to contemporary motorsport, where only a participant is designated pole-sitter, prior to World War II. The term has its origins in horse racing, in which the fastest qualifying horse would be placed on the part of the course. Originally in Grand Prix racing, grid positions, including pole, were determined by lottery among the drivers, prior to the inception of the Formula 1 World Championship, the first instance of grid positions being determined by qualifying times was at the 1933 Monaco Grand Prix.
Since then, the FIA have introduced many different qualifying systems to F1, between 1996 and 2006, the FIA made 6 significant changes to the qualifying procedure, each with the intention of making the battle for pole more interesting to an F1 viewer at home. Traditionally, pole was always occupied by the fastest driver due to low-fuel qualifying, the race-fuel qualifying era between 2003 and 2009 briefly changed this. Despite the changing formats, drivers attempting pole were required between 2003 and 2009 to do qualifying laps with the fuel they would use to start the race the next day. An underfuelled slower car and driver would therefore be able to take pole ahead of a better, in this situation, pole was not always advantageous to have in the race as the under-fueled driver would have to pit for more fuel before their rivals. With the race refueling ban introduced, low-fuel qualifying returned and these decisions are no longer in play. Since the reintroduction of the rule in 2011, this applies to the quickest first session time.
Since 2014, the FIA has awarded a trophy to the driver who wins the most pole positions in the season, indicates that the driver won the World Championship in the same season. IndyCar uses four formats for qualifying, one for most oval tracks, one for Iowa Speedway, one for the Indianapolis 500, and another for road and street circuits. Oval qualifying is almost like the Indianapolis 500, with two laps, instead of four, averaged together with one attempt, although with just one session. At Iowa, each car takes one qualifying lap, and the top six cars advance to the race for the pole position. The result of the race determines positions 1–10