2007 Bahrain Grand Prix
The 2007 Gulf Air Bahrain Grand Prix was a Formula One motor race and was the third round of the 2007 Formula One season. It was held on 15 April at the Bahrain International Circuit in Sakhir, in practice 1 and 2, Kimi Räikkönen topped the charts. Vitantonio Liuzzi got a surprise 8th-place result in 1st practice, felipe Massa won the Grand Prix from Lewis Hamilton, who made history to become the first driver ever to finish on the podium in all his first three races. The Italian teams nearest competition was the two McLarens of Lewis Hamilton and Fernando Alonso who were third and fourth respectively, Hamilton just under a slower than Räikkönens time. Räikkönen was fastest again in the session, clocking a time of 1,33.527. Qualifying was played out in temperatures of over 34 °C and despite a small shower of rain just after the practice session was over. Williams Alexander Wurz was the first out onto the circuit with former Williams drivers David Coulthard and Jenson Button following him. Like the first practice session on Friday, the two Ferraris set the pace, both recording laps under 1,33.000, the only two cars to do so during Part One of Qualifying.
The two Toyotas of Ralf Schumacher and Jarno Trulli left the pits first for Part Two of qualifying, who only just made the cut for the second round of qualifying, was slowest in the session, over two seconds slower than Massas time. Joining the Brit was fellow Honda driver Rubens Barrichello, Ralf Schumacher, Heikki Kovalainen and the two BMW Saubers were first out in the final Part of qualifying, with Massa setting the early pace. The final part of the session saw Massa improve his time, Hamilton came second, just under three tenths slower than Massa, putting him on the front row in his third Formula One race. At the start, the two maintained their positions with Alonso passing Räikkönen into the second corner to take third. Further back, Adrian Sutil, Jenson Button and Scott Speed were involved in a collision in turn four, with Button and Speed out on the spot, the Safety Car was brought out to clear up the wreckage. Vitantonio Liuzzi had a penalty on lap nine for overtaking under a safety car.
On the same lap, Rosberg had an off-track excursion, losing a place to Coulthard in the process, the front two stayed in the same positions after the first round of stops, but Räikkönen got back past Alonso to take third. Alonso began to ground, and was passed by Heidfeld. He stayed behind the BMW for the remainder of the race, the Renaults began to struggle, with Coulthard managing to overtake Fisichella. However, both Red Bulls retired in quick succession, promoting Trulli and Fisichella to the points, Massa won the Grand Prix,2.3 seconds in front of rookie Hamilton
Italy, officially the Italian Republic, is a unitary parliamentary republic in Europe. Located in the heart of the Mediterranean Sea, Italy shares open land borders with France, Austria, San Marino, Italy covers an area of 301,338 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate and Mediterranean climate. Due to its shape, it is referred to in Italy as lo Stivale. With 61 million inhabitants, it is the fourth most populous EU member state, the Italic tribe known as the Latins formed the Roman Kingdom, which eventually became a republic that conquered and assimilated other nearby civilisations. The legacy of the Roman Empire is widespread and can be observed in the distribution of civilian law, republican governments, Christianity. The Renaissance began in Italy and spread to the rest of Europe, bringing a renewed interest in humanism, exploration, Italian culture flourished at this time, producing famous scholars and polymaths such as Leonardo da Vinci, Galileo and Machiavelli. The weakened sovereigns soon fell victim to conquest by European powers such as France and Austria.
Despite being one of the victors in World War I, Italy entered a period of economic crisis and social turmoil. The subsequent participation in World War II on the Axis side ended in defeat, economic destruction. Today, Italy has the third largest economy in the Eurozone and it has a very high level of human development and is ranked sixth in the world for life expectancy. The country plays a prominent role in regional and global economic, military and diplomatic affairs, as a reflection of its cultural wealth, Italy is home to 51 World Heritage Sites, the most in the world, and is the fifth most visited country. The assumptions on the etymology of the name Italia are very numerous, according to one of the more common explanations, the term Italia, from Latin, was borrowed through Greek from the Oscan Víteliú, meaning land of young cattle. The bull was a symbol of the southern Italic tribes and was often depicted goring the Roman wolf as a defiant symbol of free Italy during the Social War. Greek historian Dionysius of Halicarnassus states this account together with the legend that Italy was named after Italus, mentioned by Aristotle and Thucydides.
The name Italia originally applied only to a part of what is now Southern Italy – according to Antiochus of Syracuse, but by his time Oenotria and Italy had become synonymous, and the name applied to most of Lucania as well. The Greeks gradually came to apply the name Italia to a larger region, excavations throughout Italy revealed a Neanderthal presence dating back to the Palaeolithic period, some 200,000 years ago, modern Humans arrived about 40,000 years ago. Other ancient Italian peoples of undetermined language families but of possible origins include the Rhaetian people and Cammuni. Also the Phoenicians established colonies on the coasts of Sardinia and Sicily, the Roman legacy has deeply influenced the Western civilisation, shaping most of the modern world
A mid-engine layout describes the placement of an automobile engine between the rear and front axles. The mid-engine layout makes ABS brakes and traction control systems work better, the mid-engine layout may make a vehicle safer, since an accident can occur if a vehicle cannot stay in its own lane around a curve or is unable to stop quickly enough. This balance is harder to achieve when the weight of the engine is located far to the front or far to the rear of the vehicle. Some automobile designs strive to balance the fore and aft weight distribution by means, such as putting the engine in the front. Another benefit comes when the mass of the engine is located close to the back of the seats. It makes it easier for the suspension to absorb the force of bumps so the riders feel a smoother ride, but in sports cars the engine position is once again used to increase performance and the potentially smoother ride is usually more than offset by stiffer shock absorbers. The largest drawback of mid-engine cars is restricted rear passenger space, the engine in effect pushes the passenger compartment forward towards the front axle.
The mid-engine layout was common in buses in the 1950s and 1960s. The Ferrari Mondial is to date the only example of a true mid-engined convertible with seating for 4. A version of the Lotus Evora with a roof panel is anticipated. Like any layout where the engine is not front-mounted and facing the wind and this has been a problem in some cars, but this issue seems to have been largely solved in newer designs. For example, the Saleen S7 employs large engine-compartment vents on the sides, mid engined cars are more dangerous than front-engined cars if the driver loses control - although this may be initially harder to provoke due to the superior balance - and the car begins to spin. Conversely, a car is more likely to break away in a progressive. The term mid-engine has usually been applied to cars having the engine located between the driver and the drive axles. This layout is referred to here as RMR layout and racing cars typically have this mid-engine layout, as these vehicles handling characteristics are more important than other features, such as capacity.
Additionally the mechanical layout and packaging of an RMR car is substantially different from that of a front engine or rear engine car, in handling and vehicle layout FMR is substantially the same as FR. Some vehicles could be classified as FR or FMR depending on the installed engine. Historically most classical FR cars such as the Ford Models T and A would qualify as a FMR engine car, not all manufacturers use the Front-Mid designation
Internal combustion engine
An internal combustion engine is a heat engine where the combustion of a fuel occurs with an oxidizer in a combustion chamber that is an integral part of the working fluid flow circuit. In an internal combustion engine the expansion of the high-temperature and high-pressure gases produced by combustion applies direct force to some component of the engine, the force is applied typically to pistons, turbine blades, rotor or a nozzle. This force moves the component over a distance, transforming chemical energy into mechanical energy. The first commercially successful internal combustion engine was created by Étienne Lenoir around 1859, firearms are a form of internal combustion engine. Working fluids can be air, hot water, pressurized water or even liquid sodium, ICEs are usually powered by energy-dense fuels such as gasoline or diesel, liquids derived from fossil fuels. While there are many applications, most ICEs are used in mobile applications and are the dominant power supply for vehicles such as cars, aircraft.
Typically an ICE is fed with fossil fuels like natural gas or petroleum products such as gasoline, there is a growing usage of renewable fuels like biodiesel for compression ignition engines and bioethanol or methanol for spark ignition engines. Hydrogen is sometimes used, and can be made from fossil fuels or renewable energy. Various scientists and engineers contributed to the development of internal combustion engines, in 1791, John Barber developed a turbine. In 1794 Thomas Mead patented a gas engine, in 1794 Robert Street patented an internal combustion engine, which was the first to use liquid fuel, and built an engine around that time. In 1798, John Stevens built the first American internal combustion engine, in 1807, Swiss engineer François Isaac de Rivaz built an internal combustion engine ignited by electric spark. In 1823, Samuel Brown patented the first internal combustion engine to be applied industrially, in 1860, Belgian Jean Joseph Etienne Lenoir produced a gas-fired internal combustion engine.
In 1864, Nikolaus Otto patented the first atmospheric gas engine, in 1872, American George Brayton invented the first commercial liquid-fuelled internal combustion engine. In 1876, Nikolaus Otto, working with Gottlieb Daimler and Wilhelm Maybach, patented the compressed charge, in 1879, Karl Benz patented a reliable two-stroke gas engine. In 1892, Rudolf Diesel developed the first compressed charge, compression ignition engine, in 1926, Robert Goddard launched the first liquid-fueled rocket. In 1939, the Heinkel He 178 became the worlds first jet aircraft, at one time, the word engine meant any piece of machinery — a sense that persists in expressions such as siege engine. A motor is any machine that produces mechanical power, electric motors are not referred to as Engines, combustion engines are often referred to as motors. In boating an internal combustion engine that is installed in the hull is referred to as an engine, reciprocating piston engines are by far the most common power source for land and water vehicles, including automobiles, ships and to a lesser extent, locomotives
A spring is an elastic object used to store mechanical energy. Springs are usually out of spring steel. There are a number of spring designs, in everyday usage the term often refers to coil springs. When a spring is compressed or stretched from its resting position, the rate or spring constant of a spring is the change in the force it exerts, divided by the change in deflection of the spring. That is, it is the gradient of the force versus deflection curve, an extension or compression springs rate is expressed in units of force divided by distance, for example lbf/in or N/m. A torsion spring is a spring that works by twisting, when it is twisted about its axis by an angle, a torsion springs rate is in units of torque divided by angle, such as N·m/rad or ft·lbf/degree. The inverse of spring rate is compliance, that is, if a spring has a rate of 10 N/mm, the stiffness of springs in parallel is additive, as is the compliance of springs in series. Springs are made from a variety of materials, the most common being spring steel.
Small springs can be wound from pre-hardened stock, while larger ones are made from annealed steel, some non-ferrous metals are used including phosphor bronze and titanium for parts requiring corrosion resistance and beryllium copper for springs carrying electrical current. Simple non-coiled springs were used throughout history, e. g. the bow. In the Bronze Age more sophisticated spring devices were used, as shown by the spread of tweezers in many cultures, coiled springs appeared early in the 15th century, in door locks. The first spring powered-clocks appeared in that century and evolved into the first large watches by the 16th century, in 1676 British physicist Robert Hooke discovered Hookes law which states that the force a spring exerts is proportional to its extension. Compression spring – is designed to operate with a compression load, flat spring – this type is made of a flat spring steel. Machined spring – this type of spring is manufactured by machining bar stock with a lathe and/or milling operation rather than a coiling operation, since it is machined, the spring may incorporate features in addition to the elastic element.
Machined springs can be made in the load cases of compression/extension, torsion. Serpentine spring - a zig-zag of thick wire - often used in modern upholstery/furniture, the most common types of spring are, Cantilever spring – a spring which is fixed only at one end. Coil spring or helical spring – a spring is of two types, Tension or extension springs are designed to become longer under load and their turns are normally touching in the unloaded position, and they have a hook, eye or some other means of attachment at each end. Compression springs are designed to become shorter when loaded and their turns are not touching in the unloaded position, and they need no attachment points
Formula One is the highest class of single-seat auto racing that is sanctioned by the Fédération Internationale de lAutomobile. The FIA Formula One World Championship has been the form of racing since the inaugural season in 1950. The formula, designated in the name, refers to a set of rules, the F1 season consists of a series of races, known as Grands Prix, held worldwide on purpose-built F1 circuits and public roads. The results of each race are evaluated using a system to determine two annual World Championships, one for drivers, one for constructors. The racing drivers are required to be holders of valid Super Licences, the races are required to be held on tracks graded 1, the highest grade a track can receive by the FIA. Most events are held in locations on purpose-built tracks, but there are several events in city centres throughout the world. Formula One cars are the fastest road racing cars in the world. Formula One cars race at speeds of up to approximately 375 km/h with engines currently limited in performance to a maximum of 15,000 RPM, the cars are capable of lateral acceleration in excess of five g in corners.
The performance of the cars is very dependent on electronics – although traction control and other driving aids have been banned since 2008 – and on aerodynamics, the formula has radically evolved and changed through the history of the sport. F1 had a global television audience of 425 million people during the course of the 2014 season. Grand Prix racing began in 1906 and became the most popular internationally in the second half of the twentieth century. The Formula One Group is the holder of the commercial rights. Its high profile and popularity have created a major merchandising environment, since 2000 the sports spiraling expenditures and the distribution of prize money favoring established top teams have forced complaints from smaller teams and led several teams to bankruptcy. On 23 January 2017 it was confirmed that Liberty Media had completed its $8 billion acquisition of Delta Topco, the Formula One series originated with the European Grand Prix Motor Racing of the 1920s and 1930s.
The formula is a set of rules that all cars must meet. Formula One was a new formula agreed upon after World War II during 1946, the first world championship race was held at Silverstone, United Kingdom in 1950. A championship for constructors followed in 1958, national championships existed in South Africa and the UK in the 1960s and 1970s. Non-championship Formula One events were held for years, but due to the increasing cost of competition
Auto racing is a sport involving the racing of automobiles for competition. Almost as soon as automobiles had been invented, races of various sorts were organised, by the 1930s specialist racing cars had developed. There are now numerous different categories, each with different rules and it was won by the carriage of Isaac Watt Boulton. Internal combustion auto racing events began soon after the construction of the first successful gasoline-fueled automobiles, the first organized contest was on April 28,1887, by the chief editor of Paris publication Le Vélocipède, Monsieur Fossier. It ran 2 kilometres from Neuilly Bridge to the Bois de Boulogne, on July 22,1894, the Parisian magazine Le Petit Journal organized what is considered to be the worlds first motoring competition, from Paris to Rouen. One hundred and two competitors paid a 10-franc entrance fee, the first American automobile race is generally held to be the Thanksgiving Day Chicago Times-Herald race of November 28,1895. Press coverage of the event first aroused significant American interest in the automobile, brooklands, in Surrey, was the first purpose-built motor racing venue, opening in June 1907.
It featured a 4.43 km concrete track with high-speed banked corners, One of the oldest existing purpose-built automobile racing circuits in the United States, still in use, is the 2. 5-mile -long Indianapolis Motor Speedway in Speedway, Indiana. It is the largest capacity venue of any variety worldwide, with a top capacity of some 257. NASCAR was founded by Bill France, Sr. on February 21,1948, the first NASCAR Strictly Stock race ever was held on June 19,1949, at Daytona Beach, Florida. From 1962, sports cars temporarily took a seat to GT cars. From 1972 through 2003, NASCARs premier series was called the Winston Cup Series, the changes that resulted from RJRs involvement, as well as the reduction of the schedule from 48 to 31 races a year, established 1972 as the beginning of NASCARs modern era. The IMSA GT Series evolved into the American Le Mans Series, the European races eventually became the closely related Le Mans Series, both of which mix prototypes and GTs. The best-known variety of racing, Formula One, which hosts the famous Monaco Grand Prix.
In single-seater, the wheels are not covered, and the cars often have aerofoil wings front, in Europe and Asia, open-wheeled racing is commonly referred to as Formula, with appropriate hierarchical suffixes. In North America, the Formula terminology is not followed, the sport is usually arranged to follow an international format, a regional format, and/or a domestic, or country-specific, format. In North America, the used in the National Championship have traditionally been similar though less sophisticated than F1 cars. The series most famous race is the Indianapolis 500, the other major international single-seater racing series is GP2
Automotive design is the profession involved in the development of the appearance, and to some extent the ergonomics, of motor vehicles or more specifically road vehicles. This most commonly refers to automobiles but refers to motorcycles, buses, the functional design and development of a modern motor vehicle is typically done by a large team from many different disciplines included within automotive engineering. Automotive design in context is primarily concerned with developing the visual appearance or aesthetics of the vehicle. Automotive design is practiced by designers who usually have an art background, the task of the design team is usually split into three main aspects, exterior design, interior design, and color and trim design. Graphic design is an aspect of design, this is generally shared amongst the design team as the lead designer sees fit. Design focuses not only on the outer shape of automobile parts. The aesthetic value will need to correspond to ergonomic functionality and utility features as well, though not all the new vehicular gadgets are to be designated as factory standard items, some of them may be integral to determining the future course of any specific vehicular models.
The stylist responsible for the design of the exterior of the vehicle develops the proportions, Exterior design is first done by a series of digital or manual drawings. Progressively, drawings that are more detailed are executed and approved by appropriate layers of management, Clay and or digital models are developed from, and along with the drawings. The data from these models are used to create a full sized mock-up of the final design. With three- and five-axis CNC milling machines, the model is first designed in a computer program and carved using the machine. Even in times of high-class 3d software and virtual models on power walls, here the emphasis is on ergonomics and the comfort of the passengers. The procedure here is the same as with exterior design, the color and trim designer is responsible for the research and development of all interior and exterior colors and materials used on a vehicle. These include paints, fabric designs, grains, headliner, wood trim, contrast and pattern must be carefully combined to give the vehicle a unique interior environment experience.
Designers work closely with the exterior and interior designers, designers draw inspiration from other design disciplines such as, industrial design, home furnishing and sometimes product design. Specific research is done into global trends to design for two to three model years in the future. Trend boards are created from research in order to keep track of design influences as they relate to the automotive industry. The designer uses this information to develop themes and concepts that are further refined and tested on the vehicle models
A tire or tyre is a ring-shaped vehicle component that covers the wheels rim to protect it and enable better vehicle performance. Most tires, such as those for automobiles and bicycles, provide traction between the vehicle and the road providing a flexible cushion that absorbs shock. The materials of modern tires are synthetic rubber, natural rubber and wire, along with carbon black. They consist of a tread and a body, the tread provides traction while the body provides containment for a quantity of compressed air. Before rubber was developed, the first versions of tires were bands of metal fitted around wooden wheels to prevent wear and tear. Pneumatic tires are used on many types of vehicles, including cars, motorcycles, trucks, heavy equipment, and aircraft. Metal tires are used on locomotives and railcars, and solid rubber tires are still used in various non-automotive applications, such as some casters, lawnmowers. The etymology of tire is that the word is a form of attire. The spelling tyre does not appear until the 1840s when the English began shrink fitting railway car wheels with malleable iron, traditional publishers continued using tire.
The Times newspaper in Britain was still using tire as late as 1905, the spelling tyre began to be commonly used in the 19th century for pneumatic tires in the UK. However, over the course of the 20th century, tyre became established as the standard British spelling, the earliest tires were bands of leather, placed on wooden wheels, used on carts and wagons. The tire would be heated in a fire, placed over the wheel and quenched, causing the metal to contract. A skilled worker, known as a wheelwright, carried out this work, the outer ring served to tie the wheel segments together for use, providing a wear-resistant surface to the perimeter of the wheel. The word tire thus emerged as a variant spelling to refer to the bands used to tie wheels. The first patent for what appears to be a standard pneumatic tire appeared in 1847 lodged by the Scottish inventor Robert William Thomson, this never went into production. The first practical pneumatic tire was made in 1888 on May Street, Belfast, by Scots-born John Boyd Dunlop and it was an effort to prevent the headaches of his 10-year-old son Johnnie, while riding his tricycle on rough pavements.
His doctor, Sir John Fagan, had prescribed cycling as an exercise for the boy, Fagan participated in designing the first pneumatic tires. In Dunlops tire patent specification dated 31 October 1888, his interest is only in its use in cycles, in September 1890, he was made aware of an earlier development but the company kept the information to itself
Bridgestone Corporation is a multinational auto and truck parts manufacturer founded in 1931 by Shojiro Ishibashi in the city of Kurume, Japan. The name Bridgestone comes from a translation and transposition of ishibashi. As of 2015, the company is the largest manufacturer of tires in the world, Bridgestone Group had 141 production facilities in 24 countries as of 2005. The very first Bridgestone tire was produced on 9 April 1930, One year on 1 March 1931, the founder, Shojiro Ishibashi, made the Tabi Socks Tyre Division independent and established the Bridgestone Tire Co. Ltd. in the city of Kurume, Fukuoka Prefecture. Bridgestone was named after the name of the founder, Shojiro Ishibashi, foregoing dependence on European and North American technology, the Bridgestone Tire Co. Ltd. set its eyes on manufacturing tires based largely on Japanese technology. The fledgling company experienced many difficulties in the areas of technology, eventually, improvements were achieved in quality and manufacturing processes which led to the business rapidly expanding in domestic and overseas markets.
Wartime regulations were in effect throughout Japan, and tires came under the jurisdiction of these regulations and this resulted in nearly all of the companys output being used to satisfy military demand. 1945 saw the end of armed conflict, but the company was devastated by the war, the Tokyo headquarters was destroyed during an aerial bombing raid, and all overseas assets were lost. Fortunately, the plants in Kurume and Yokohama escaped unscathed, brushing aside the problems caused by a labour union strike that lasted for forty-six days, the foundations of the company were further reinforced after this. In 1951, Bridgestone was the first company in Japan to begin selling rayon cord tires, and this year saw another Bridgestone building opened in Kyōbashi, which contained the Bridgestone Museum. The company issued shares and was listed on the stock exchange in 1961. A new system of administration was ushered in by Shojiro Ishibashi as the chairman, additions were built onto the Tokyo plant in 1962 to house the new Technical Centre, and a progressive system of research and development was established.
On the product front,1967 saw the sale of the companys first ever radial tire, Bridgestones first overseas plant since the end of the war was opened in Singapore in 1965, and production was commenced in Thailand in 1969. Its Super Filler Radial was placed on the market in 1978, the company was actively engaged in overseas expansion activities at this time. The founder, Shojiro Ishibashi, died on 11 September 1976, on 1 March 1981, the company celebrated its 50th anniversary. New production facilities were established in Thailand, Poland, China. The company changed the name from Bridgestone Tyre Co. Ltd. to Bridgestone Corporation in 1984, in 1988, Bridgestone purchased the Firestone Tire and Rubber Company of Akron, Ohio. Placing considerable financial and personnel resources into rebuilding Firestone after the purchase, Bridgestone achieved surplus annual profits for the year 1992 with BFE, the Firestone Tire and Rubber Company and Bridgestone Tire Company Ltd USA were amalgamated in 1990 and became Bridgestone Firestone North American Holdings Ltd
A shock absorber is a mechanical or hydraulic device designed to absorb and damp shock impulses. It does this by converting the energy of the shock into another form of energy which is dissipated. Most shock absorbers are a form of dashpot and hydraulic shock absorbers are used in conjunction with cushions and springs. An automobile shock absorber contains spring-loaded check valves and orifices to control the flow of oil through an internal piston, one design consideration, when designing or choosing a shock absorber, is where that energy will go. In most shock absorbers, energy is converted to heat inside the viscous fluid, in hydraulic cylinders, the hydraulic fluid heats up, while in air cylinders, the hot air is usually exhausted to the atmosphere. In other types of shock absorbers, such as electromagnetic types, in general terms, shock absorbers help cushion vehicles on uneven roads. In a vehicle, shock absorbers reduce the effect of traveling over rough ground, leading to improved ride quality, while shock absorbers serve the purpose of limiting excessive suspension movement, their intended sole purpose is to damp spring oscillations.
Shock absorbers use valving of oil and gasses to absorb energy from the springs. Spring rates are chosen by the based on the weight of the vehicle. Some people use shocks to modify spring rates but this is not the correct use, along with hysteresis in the tire itself, they damp the energy stored in the motion of the unsprung weight up and down. Effective wheel bounce damping may require tuning shocks to an optimal resistance, spring-based shock absorbers commonly use coil springs or leaf springs, though torsion bars are used in torsional shocks as well. Ideal springs alone, are not shock absorbers, as only store. Vehicles typically employ both hydraulic shock absorbers and springs or torsion bars, in this combination, shock absorber refers specifically to the hydraulic piston that absorbs and dissipates vibration. Now, composite suspension system are used mainly in 2 wheelers, in common with carriages and railway locomotives, most early motor vehicles used leaf springs. However the amount of damping provided by leaf spring friction was limited and variable according to the conditions of the springs and it operated in both directions.
Motorcycle front suspension adopted coil sprung Druid forks from about 1906, and similar designs added rotary friction dampers and these friction disk shock absorbers were fitted to many cars. One of the problems with motor cars was the variation in sprung weight between lightly loaded and fully loaded, especially for the rear springs. What was called for was damping that operated on the rebound, horock came up with a design in 1901 that had hydraulic damping, it worked in one direction only