Pininfarina S. p. A. is an Italian car design firm and coachbuilder in Cambiano, Italy. It was founded by Battista Pinin Farina in 1930. On December 14,2015, Mahindra Group, Pininfarina is employed by a wide variety of automobile manufactures to design vehicles. Since the 1980s Pininfarina has designed high-speed trains, trams, rolling stocks, automated light rail cars, people movers, airplanes, with the 1986 creation of Pininfarina Extra they have consulted on industrial design, interior design and graphic design. Pininfarina was run by Battistas son Sergio Pininfarina until 2001, his grandson Andrea Pininfarina until his death in 2008, after Andreas death his younger brother Paolo Pininfarina was appointed as CEO. At its height in 2006 the Pininfarina Group employed 2,768 with subsidiary company offices throughout Europe, as well as in Morocco, as of 2012 with the end of series automotive production, employment has shrunk to 821. Pininfarina is registered and publicly traded on the Borsa Italiana, on December 14,2015, Mahindra Group, announced a deal to acquire Pininfarina S. p. A. in a deal worth about 168 million euros.
That first year the firm employed eighteen and built 50 automobile bodies, on May 22,1930 papers were filed to become a corporation, Società anonima Carrozzeria Pinin Farina headquartered in Turin, Italy, at 107 Corso Trapani. During the 1930s, the company built bodies for Lancia, Alfa Romeo, Isotta-Fraschini, Hispano Suiza, Fiat and this development happened in the mid-1930s when others saw the frameless construction as the end of the independent coachbilder. In 1939, World War II ended automobile production, but the company had 400 employees building 150 bodies a month, the war effort against the Allies brought work making ambulances and searchlight carriages. The Pininfarina factory was destroyed by Allied bombers ending the firms operations, after the war, Italy was banned from the 1946 Paris Motor Show. The Paris show was attended by 809,000 visitors, lines of people stretched from the gate all the way to the Seine. The managers of the Grand Palais said of the display, the devil Pininfarina, but to the press, at the end of 1945 the Cisitalia 202 Coupé was designed.
An elegantly proportioned design with a low hood, it is the car that usually is given credit for establishing Pininfarinas reputation, the Pininfarina design was honored in the Museum of Modern Arts landmark presentation Eight Automobiles in 1951. A total of 170 Coupés where produced by Pininfarina, the publicity of the Museum of Modern Art exhibit brought Pininfarina to the attention of Nash-Kelvinator managers. The subsequent cooperation with Nash Motors resulted in production of Pininfarina designs. In 1952, Mr. Farina visited the U. S, the Nash-Healey sports car body was, completely designed and assembled in limited numbers from 1952 to 1954 at Pininfarinas Turin facilities. Nash heavily advertised its link to the famous Italian designer, much as Studebaker promoted its longtime association with Raymond Loewy, there were 99 Broughams built in 1959 and 101 in 1960. A similar arrangement was repeated in the late 1980s when Pininfarina designed the Cadillac Allanté at the San Giusto Canavese factory, the car bodies were assembled and painted in Italy before being flown from the Turin International Airport to Detroit for final vehicle assembly
Governments and private organizations have developed car classification schemes that are used for innumerable purposes including regulation and categorization, among others. This article details commonly used classification schemes in use worldwide, vehicles can be categorized in numerous ways. Regulatory agencies may establish a vehicle classification system for determining a tax amount, in the United Kingdom, a vehicle is taxed according to the vehicles construction, weight, type of fuel and emissions, as well as the purpose for which it is used. Other jurisdictions may determine vehicle tax based upon environmental principles, such as the user pays principle, another standard for road vehicles of all types that is used internationally, is ISO 3833-1977. In the United States, since 2010 the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety uses a scheme it has developed that takes into account a combination of both shadow and weight. The United States Federal Highway Administration has developed a scheme used for automatically calculating road use tolls.
There are two categories depending on whether the vehicle carries passengers or commodities. Vehicles that carry commodities are further subdivided by number of axles and number of units, the United States Environmental Protection Agency has developed a classification scheme used to compare fuel economy among similar vehicles. Passenger vehicles are classified based on a total interior passenger. Trucks are classified based upon their gross vehicle weight rating, heavy duty vehicles are not included within the EPA scheme. A similar set of classes is used by the Canadian EPA, in Australia, the Federal Chamber of Automotive Industries publishes its own classifications. This is a table listing several different methods of vehicle classification. Straddling the boundary between car and motorbike, these vehicles have engines under 1.0 litre, typically only two passengers, and are sometimes unorthodox in construction. Some microcars are three-wheelers, while the majority have four wheels, microcars were popular in post-war Europe, where their appearance led them to be called Bubble cars.
More recent microcars are often electric powered, the size of ultracompact cars will be less than minicars, but have engine greater than 50cc displacement and able to transport 1 or 2 persons. Ultracompact cars cannot use standard, because of strict safety standards for minicars. The regulation about running capacity and safety performance of cars will be published in early autumn. Today, there are smaller than ultracompact cars, called category-1 motorized vehicles which it has 50cc displacement or less
The Ferrari F12berlinetta is a front mid-engine, rear-wheel-drive grand tourer produced by Italian sports car manufacturer Ferrari. The F12berlinetta, debuted at the 2012 Geneva Motor Show, replaces the 599 series grand tourers. The naturally aspirated 6.3 litre Ferrari V12 engine in the F12berlinetta has won the International Engine of the Year Awards 2013 in the Best Performance category, the F12berlinetta was named The Supercar of the Year 2012 by car magazine Top Gear. In 2014 it was awarded the XXIII Premio Compasso doro ADI, accepting the award was Ferrari’s Senior Vice President of Design, Flavio Manzoni. The F12berlinetta uses a 6,262 cc, naturally aspirated 65° V12 engine of the Ferrari F140 engine family. This allows the F12berlinetta to accelerate from 0 to 100 km/h in an officially reported 3.1 seconds,0 to 200 km/h in 8.5 seconds and a top speed of 211 mph. The engine of the F12berlinetta has been designed to be more efficient than that of the 599, the engine management system is fitted with Ferraris HELE start-stop system to reduce fuel consumption when idling.
Ferrari reports that the F12berlinetta can achieve 18 mpg‑imp – a 30% improvement over the 599 –, compared to similar models, the F12berlinetta uses shortened gear ratios to match the power of the engine. The F12berlinetta is built around a space frame chassis co-developed with Scaglietti. The chassis is made up of 12 different aluminium alloys and improves structural rigidity by 20% over the 599, the centre of gravity has been lowered by around 25 mm. The F12berlinettas weight distribution is 48% front, 52% rear, the cars stability and traction control and other settings are controlled by the Manettino dial mounted on the steering wheel. The F12berlinetta is fitted with Michelin Pilot Super Sport tyres, with the tyre codes 255/35 ZR20 at the front, the F12berlinetta makes use of aerodynamic techniques based on Ferraris 599XX and Formula One programmes, developed with wind tunnel and CFD testing. A notable feature is the Aero Bridge, an air channel running from the bonnet, through the flanks and along the sides of the vehicle, creating an effect that increases downforce.
Another feature is Active Brake Cooling ducts, which open to cooling air only when the brakes are hot. The F12berlinetta produces 123 kg of downforce at 200 km/h – an increase of 76% over the 599 GTB – and has a coefficient of 0.299. Ferrari F12berlinetta has a power to weight ratio of 2.06 kg per horsepower, the body of the F12berlinetta is designed by the Ferrari Styling Centre and Pininfarina, and shares some styling elements with other recent Ferrari models. This includes a front grille similar to the FF and headlights shared with the FF and 458 Italia, the interior, based on the FF, features new Frau leather upholstery with aluminium and carbon fibre trim, and has increased luggage space compared to the 599. The body computer system is developed by Magneti Marelli Automotive Lighting, Ferrari revealed a lightweight, track-focused version of the F12berlinetta in October 2015
A hatchback is a car body configuration with a rear door that swings upward to provide access to a cargo area. Hatchbacks may feature fold-down second row seating, where the interior can be reconfigured to prioritize passenger vs. cargo volume. Hatchbacks may feature two- or three-box design, while early examples of the body configuration can be traced to the 1930s, the Merriam-Webster dictionary dates the term itself to 1970. The hatchback body style has been marketed worldwide on cars ranging in size from superminis to small family cars, Hatchbacks may be described as three-door or five-door cars. A model range may include multiple configurations, as with the 2001–2007 Ford Focus which offered sedan, the models typically share a platform and bodywork forward of the A-pillar. Hatchbacks may have a rigid parcel shelf, liftable with the tailgate. Both station wagons and hatchbacks typically feature a two-box design configuration, with one shared, interior volume for passengers, further distinctions are highly variable, Both configurations typically feature A, B & C pillars, station wagons more likely feature a D pillar.
Cargo volume, Station wagons prioritize passenger and cargo volume, with alongside the cargo volume. Cargo floor contour, Favoring cargo capacity, a station wagon may prioritize a fold-flat floor, Station wagons have two or three rows of seats while hatchbacks have one or two rows of seats. Rear suspension, A station wagon may include reconfigured rear suspension for additional load capacity, Station wagons have numerous tailgate configurations. Typically, a hatch or liftgate does not extend down to the bumper. You could have a 90-degree break in the back and have a station wagon, a liftback is a broad marketing term for a hatchback where the rear cargo door is more horizontal than vertical, with a sharply raked or fastback profile. In comparison with the hatchback the back opening area is sloped and longer and is lifted up to open. Liftback and fastback are often misused, a fastback is described as a hatchback where the rear cargo door flows down continuously from the roof of the car and most of the time is not as raked as the liftback.
In 1946, DeSoto marketed the Suburban as a station wagon, in 1949, Kaiser-Frazer introduced the Vagabond and Traveler hatchbacks. Although these were styled much like the typical 1940s sedan, they incorporated an innovative split rear tailgate, folding rear seats, the design was neither fully a sedan nor a station wagon, but the folding rear seat provided for a large, 8-foot long interior cargo area. These Kaiser-Frazer models have described as America’s First Hatchback. In 1953, Aston Martin marketed the DB2 with a rear tailgate
In both road and rail vehicles, the wheelbase is the distance between the centers of the front and rear wheels. For road vehicles with more than two axles, the wheelbase is defined as the distance between the axle and the centerpoint of the driving axle group. In the case of a truck, the wheelbase would be the distance between the steering axle and a point midway between the two rear axles. The wheelbase of a vehicle equals the distance between its front and rear wheels, at equilibrium, the total torque of the forces acting on a vehicle is zero. So, for example, when a truck is loaded, its center of gravity shifts rearward, the amount the vehicle sinks will depend on counter acting forces like the size of the tires, tire pressure, and the stiffness of the suspension. If the vehicle is accelerating or decelerating, extra torque is placed on the rear or front tire respectively, so, as is common experience, when the vehicle accelerates, the rear usually sinks and the front rises depending on the suspension.
Likewise, when braking the front noses down and the rear rises, because of the effect the wheelbase has on the weight distribution of the vehicle, wheelbase dimensions are crucial to the balance and steering. For example, a car with a greater weight load on the rear tends to understeer due to the lack of the load on the front tires. This is why it is crucial, when towing a single-axle caravan, likewise, a car may oversteer or even spin out if there is too much force on the front tires and not enough on the rear tires. Also, when turning there is lateral torque placed upon the tires which imparts a turning force that depends upon the length of the distances from the CM. Wheelbases provide the basis for one of the most common vehicle size class systems, some luxury vehicles are offered with long-wheelbase variants to increase the spaciousness and therefore the luxury of the vehicle. Prime Minister of the United Kingdom Tony Blair was given a version of the Rover 75 for official use. In contrast, coupé varieties of vehicles such as the Honda Accord are usually built on shorter wheelbases than the sedans they are derived from.
The wheelbase on many commercially available bicycles and motorcycles is so short, relative to the height of their centers of mass, in skateboarding the word wheelbase is used for the distance between the two inner pairs of mounting holes on the deck. This is different from the distance between the centers of the two wheel pairs. A reason for this use is that decks are sold with prefabricated holes. It is therefore easier to use the holes for measuring and describing this characteristic of the deck. A common misconception is that the choice of wheelbase is influenced by the height of the skateboarder, the length of the deck would be a better candidate, because the wheelbase affects characteristics useful in different speeds or terrains regardless of the height of the skateboarder
The Ferrari 599 is an Italian sports car produced by Ferrari. It was the brands flagship, replacing the 575M Maranello in 2006 as a 2007 model. Styled by Pininfarina under the direction of Ferraris Frank Stephenson, the 599 GTB debuted at the Geneva Motor Show in February 2006 and it is named for its total engine displacement, Gran Turismo Berlinetta nature, and the Fiorano Circuit test track used by Ferrari. The Tipo F140 C6.0 L V12 engine produces a maximum 620 PS and its 608 N·m of torque was a record for Ferraris GT cars. Most of the modifications to the engine were done to allow it to fit in the Fioranos engine bay, a traditional 6-speed manual transmission as well as Ferraris 6-speed called F1 SuperFast is offered. The Fiorano sees the debut of Ferraris new traction control system, the vast majority of the 599 GTBs have been equipped with the semi-automatic gearbox as opposed to the manual 6-speed gearbox. Only 30 examples have been produced with a manual gearbox of which 20 were destined to the United States and 10 remained in Europe.
0-100 km/h in 3.7 seconds 0-200 km/h in 11.0 seconds Top speed, the ride height has been lowered, which lowers the cars center of gravity. The package includes optimised tyres featuring a compound that offers improved grip, the cars electronics have changed. The gearboxs shifts are faster in high-performance settings, while new engine software improved accelerator response, the exhaust silencer was modified to produce more marked and thrilling sound under hard usage while still delivering just the right comfort levels at cruising speed. The exterior and interior were upgraded with more carbon fiber components, on 8 April 2010, Ferrari announced official details of the 599 GTO. Its engine produces 670 PS at 8250 rpm, with 620 N·m of torque at 6500 rpm, Ferrari claims the 599 GTO can reach 100 km/h in under 3.3 seconds and has a top speed of over 335 km/h. At 1,605 kilograms, the 599 GTO weighs almost 100 kg less than the standard GTB, production is limited to 599 cars. Of these, approximately 125 were produced for the United States market, Ferrari has given only two other models that used the GTO designation, the 1962250 GTO and the 1984288 GTO.
Unlike the previous GTOs however, the 599 GTO was not designed for homologation in any racing series, the convertible version of the 599, the SA Aperta, was introduced 2010 Paris Motor Show as a unique limited edition in honor of designers Sergio Pininfarina and Andrea Pininfarina. The SA Aperta used the performance engine from the 599 GTO. The 599XX is a car designed for use only and is not street legal. The rev limiter is raised to 9000 rpm, with the engine rated for 730 PS at 9000 rpm, weight is reduced by reducing the weight of the engine unit components, the use of composite materials, and the use of carbon-fiber body parts and brake pads
Pininfarina Sintesi was a concept car designed by Pininfarina and unveiled in 2008 at Geneva Motor Show. The name Sintesi means synthesis in the Italian language, the Pininfarina Sintesi was a 4-door 4-seat coupe. The design did not consider the car as a shape that covers the mechanicals, the concept was born from the manufacturer’s need to communicate his way of interpreting the car of the future. With the Sintesi, Pininfarina introduced concepts including Liquid Packaging and Transparent Mobility, Liquid Packaging refers to the concept of putting fuel cells and motors in each wheel. The result is that the space for passengers is much more generous – in proportion to the volume of the car – without detracting from the tapered. That’s why for the Sintesi, designers have developed a new fuel cell powertrain that can be spread out into different locations in the car, Transparent Mobility refers to the communication system where a vehicle can exchange information with other vehicles and traffic technology, through wireless technology.
But at the time, we did not want everything to be limited to a flight of fancy. Which is why we combined and tested our ideas with the innovative technologies provided by our partners in this project. ”The Pininfarina Sintesi won the Red Dot Award for 2008 and this prestigious award ranks among the largest and most renowned design competitions in the world. The exterior design features large windshield surface and front spoiler, both the front and rear doors had a verticale opening system. The total output is around 700 hp, the center tunnel integrates a bio-fuel tank and a reformer capable of producing hydrogen. In terms of performances, the Pininfarina Sintesi has a top speed of 115 mph and can scoot from 0 to 60 mph in just 7.5 seconds
By using split crankpins or ignoring minor vibrations, any V angle is possible. The 180° configuration is referred to as a flat-twelve engine or a boxer although it is in reality a 180° V since the pistons can. This is not important in a car if all-out performance is the only goal. Since cost and fuel economy are usually important even in luxury and racing cars and it is often used in marine engines where great power is required, and the hull width is limited, but a longer vessel allows faster hull speed. In twin-propeller boats, two V12 engines can be enough to sit side-by-side, while three V12 engines are sometimes used in high-speed three-propeller configurations. Large, fast cruise ships can have six or more V12 engines, after World War II, the compact, more powerful, and vibration-free turboprop and turbojet engines replaced the V12 in aircraft applications. The first V-type engine was built in 1889 by Daimler, to a design by Wilhelm Maybach, by 1903 V8 engines were being produced for motor boat racing by the Société Antoinette to designs by Léon Levavasseur, building on experience gained with in-line four-cylinder engines.
In 1904, the Putney Motor Works completed a new V12 marine racing engine—the first V12 engine produced for any purpose, a single camshaft mounted in the central V operated the valves directly. As in many engines, the camshaft could be slid longitudinally to engage a second set of cams. Starting is by pumping a charge into each cylinder and switching on the trembler coils, a sliding camshaft gave direct reversing. The camshaft has fluted webs and main bearings in graduated thickness from the largest at the flywheel end, displacing 1,120 cu in, the engine weighed 950 pounds and developed 150 bhp. Little is known of the achievements in the 40-foot hull for which it was intended. One V12 Dörwald marine engine was still running in a Hong Kong junk in the late-1960s. Two more V12s appeared in the 1909-1910 motor boat racing season, the Lamb Boat & Engine Company of Clinton, Iowa built a 1,559 cu in engine for the companys 32-foot Lamb IV. It weighed in at 2,114 pounds, no weight is known for the massive 3,464 cu in F-head engine built by the Orleans Motor Company.
Output is quoted as nearly 400 bhp, by 1914, when Panhard built two 2,356 cu in engines with four-valve cylinder heads the V12 was well established in motor boat racing. In October 1913, Louis Coatalen, chief engineer of the Sunbeam Motor Car Company entered a V12 powered car in the Brooklands short, the engine displaced 9 L, with bore and stroke of 80 x 150 mm. An aluminum crankcase carried two blocks of three cylinders each along each side, with a 60 degree included angle, the cylinders were of iron, with integral cylinder heads with L-shaped combustion chambers
A dual-clutch transmission, is a type of automatic transmission or automated automotive transmission. It uses two separate clutches for odd and even gear sets and it can fundamentally be described as two separate manual transmissions contained within one housing, and working as one unit. This type of transmission was invented by Frenchman Adolphe Kégresse just before World War II, the control systems were based on purely analogue/discrete digital circuitry with patents filed in July 1981. All of these early AP twin-clutch installations featured a dry clutch. A dual-clutch transmission eliminates the torque converter as used in conventional epicyclic-geared automatic transmissions, the first series production road car with a DCT was the 2003 Volkswagen Golf Mk4 R32. In 2010, on BMW Canadas website for the 3 Series Coupe and it is actually a dual-clutch semiautomatic. In DCTs where the two clutches are arranged concentrically, the outer clutch drives the odd-numbered gears, while the smaller inner clutch drives the even-numbered gears.
Since alternate gear ratios can preselect an odd gear on one gear shaft while the vehicle is being driven in an even gear, DCTs are the fastest-shifting road car transmission available and are even able to shift faster than a professional race car driver using a manual transmission. DCTs can even shift more quickly than cars equipped with single-clutch automated-manual transmissions, with a DCT, shifts can be made more smoothly than with a single-clutch AMT, making a DCT more suitable for conventional road cars. Dual-clutch transmissions use two different types of clutches, either two wet multiplate clutches, bathed in oil —or two dry single-plate clutches. Currently, three variations of clutch installation are used, the second implementation uses two single-plate dry clutches—side-by-side from the perpendicular view, but again sharing the center line of the crankshaft. A variation uses two separate but identical-sized clutches and these are arranged side-by-side when viewed head-on, and share the same plane when viewed perpendicularly.
This latter clutch arrangement is driven by a gear from the engine crankshaft, BorgWarner Inc. supplies wet dual clutches and electrohydraulic control modules for these dual-clutch transmissions, along with complete dual-clutch transmission and transaxle assemblies. BorgWarner, which call their technology DualTronic, entered production for Volkswagen Group. The company signed agreements with three other European automotive manufacturers to incorporate their components in DCTs. On 14 January 2009, BorgWarner announced a joint venture with the China Automobile Development United Investment Co. Ltd. which is owned by 12 Chinese automakers and this joint venture is known as the BorgWarner United Transmission Systems Co. Ltd. and is located in Dalian, China. The company has produced various dual-clutch transmission modules beginning in 2011, the Nissan GT-R uses BorgWarner components, including the dual-clutch module, clutch-control, shift-actuation systems, and synchronizer assemblies. EATON developed the first dual-clutch transmission for class 6-7 trucks in North America - Procision, Fiat Powertrain Technologies developed a dual-clutch transmission with Magneti Marelli and BorgWarner called Euro Twin Clutch Transmission
The Ferrari 458 Italia is a mid-engined sports car produced by the Italian sports car manufacturer Ferrari. The 458 replaced the Ferrari F430, and was first officially unveiled at the 2009 Frankfurt Motor Show and it is replaced by the Ferrari 488, which was unveiled at the Geneva Motor Show 2015. The body computer system was developed by Magneti Marelli Automotive Lighting. The 458 is powered by a 4,499 cc V8 engine of the Ferrari/Maserati F136 engine family, the engine features direct fuel injection, which is a first for Ferrari mid-engine setups in its road cars. The only transmission available on the 458 is a dual-clutch 7-speed Getrag gearbox, there is no traditional manual option, making this the fourth road-car after the Enzo, Challenge Stradale and 430 Scuderia not to be offered with Ferraris classic gated manual. It is the first mainstream model to not be offered with a manual transmission, the brakes include a prefill function whereby the pistons in the calipers move the pads into contact with the discs on lift off to minimize delay in the brakes being applied.
This combined with the ABS and standard Carbon Ceramic brakes have caused a reduction in stopping distance from 100–0 km/h to 32.5 metres. Tests have shown the car will stop from 100 km/h in 90 feet or in 85 feet with run flat tires,85 feet from 60 mph and 80 feet from 60 mph with run flat tires, the adaptive magnetorheological dampers are co-developed with BWI Group. Ferraris official 0–100 km/h acceleration is 2. 9–3.0 seconds, the top speed is 340 km/h. It has fuel consumption in combined cycle of 13.3 L/100 km while producing 307 g/km of CO2, in keeping with Ferrari tradition the body was designed by Pininfarina under the leadership of Donato Coco, the Ferrari design director. The interior design of the Ferrari 458 Italia was designed by Bertrand Rapatel, the cars exterior styling and features were designed for aerodynamic efficiency, producing a downforce of 140 kg at 200 kilometres per hour. In particular, the front grille features deformable winglets that lower at high speeds, according to British car magazine Autocar, the 458 Italias design has drawn inspiration from the Enzo Ferrari and its Millechili concept car.
It has been designed to be Ferraris sportiest V8-engined car, to itself from the recently launched Ferrari California. The 458 was reviewed on the 15th season of Top Gear, in a drag race against James Mays Ferrari F430, it won by a considerable margin. The car lapped the Top Gear test track in 1,19.1, the 458 Italia is the two-seat berlinetta 458. It was the first variant to be unveiled to the public. It is a version of the 458 Italia for the Chinese market, commemorating the 20th anniversary of Ferrari in China since the first Ferrari. The vehicle was unveiled at the Italia Center of Shanghai World Expo Park, the 458 Spider was premiered at the 2011 Frankfurt Motor Show
Automotive design is the profession involved in the development of the appearance, and to some extent the ergonomics, of motor vehicles or more specifically road vehicles. This most commonly refers to automobiles but refers to motorcycles, buses, the functional design and development of a modern motor vehicle is typically done by a large team from many different disciplines included within automotive engineering. Automotive design in context is primarily concerned with developing the visual appearance or aesthetics of the vehicle. Automotive design is practiced by designers who usually have an art background, the task of the design team is usually split into three main aspects, exterior design, interior design, and color and trim design. Graphic design is an aspect of design, this is generally shared amongst the design team as the lead designer sees fit. Design focuses not only on the outer shape of automobile parts. The aesthetic value will need to correspond to ergonomic functionality and utility features as well, though not all the new vehicular gadgets are to be designated as factory standard items, some of them may be integral to determining the future course of any specific vehicular models.
The stylist responsible for the design of the exterior of the vehicle develops the proportions, Exterior design is first done by a series of digital or manual drawings. Progressively, drawings that are more detailed are executed and approved by appropriate layers of management, Clay and or digital models are developed from, and along with the drawings. The data from these models are used to create a full sized mock-up of the final design. With three- and five-axis CNC milling machines, the model is first designed in a computer program and carved using the machine. Even in times of high-class 3d software and virtual models on power walls, here the emphasis is on ergonomics and the comfort of the passengers. The procedure here is the same as with exterior design, the color and trim designer is responsible for the research and development of all interior and exterior colors and materials used on a vehicle. These include paints, fabric designs, grains, headliner, wood trim, contrast and pattern must be carefully combined to give the vehicle a unique interior environment experience.
Designers work closely with the exterior and interior designers, designers draw inspiration from other design disciplines such as, industrial design, home furnishing and sometimes product design. Specific research is done into global trends to design for two to three model years in the future. Trend boards are created from research in order to keep track of design influences as they relate to the automotive industry. The designer uses this information to develop themes and concepts that are further refined and tested on the vehicle models