A value-added tax, known in some countries as a goods and services tax, is a type of tax, assessed incrementally, based on the increase in value of a product or service at each stage of production or distribution. VAT compensates for the shared services and infrastructure provided in a certain locality by a state and funded by its taxpayers that were used in the elaboration of that product or service. Not all localities require VAT to be charged and goods and services for export may be exempted. VAT is implemented as a destination-based tax, where the tax rate is based on the location of the consumer and applied to the sales price. Confusingly, the terms VAT, GST, consumption tax and sales tax are sometimes used interchangeably. VAT raises about a fifth of total tax revenues both worldwide and among the members of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development; as of 2018, 166 of the 193 countries with full UN membership employ a VAT, including all OECD members except the United States, which uses a sales tax system instead.
There are two main methods of calculating VAT: the credit-invoice or invoice-based method, the subtraction or accounts-based method. Using the credit-invoice method, sales transactions are taxed, with the customer informed of the VAT on the transaction, businesses may receive a credit for VAT paid on input materials and services; the credit-invoice method is the most employed method, used by all national VATs except for Japan. Using the subtraction method, at the end of a reporting period, a business calculates the value of all taxable sales subtracts the sum of all taxable purchases and the VAT rate is applied to the difference; the subtraction method VAT is only used by Japan, although subtraction method VATs using the name "flat tax", have been part of many recent tax reform proposals by US politicians. With both methods, there are exceptions in the calculation method for certain goods and transactions, created for either pragmatic collection reasons or to counter tax fraud and evasion. Germany and France were the first countries to implement VAT, doing so in the form of a general consumption tax during World War I.
The modern variation of VAT was first implemented by France in 1954 in Ivory Coast colony. Recognizing the experiment as successful, the French introduced it in 1958. Maurice Lauré, Joint Director of the France Tax Authority, the Direction Générale des Impôts implemented the VAT on 10 April 1954, although German industrialist Dr. Wilhelm von Siemens proposed the concept in 1918. Directed at large businesses, it was extended over time to include all business sectors. In France, it is the most important source of state finance, accounting for nearly 50% of state revenues. A 2017 study found that the adoption of VAT is linked to countries with corporatist institutions; the amount of VAT is decided by the state as percentage of the end-market price. As its name suggests, value-added tax is designed to tax only the value added by a business on top of the services and goods it can purchase from the market. To understand what this means, consider a production process where products get successively more valuable at each stage of the process.
When an end-consumer makes a purchase, they are not only paying for the VAT for the product at hand, but in effect, the VAT for the entire production process, since VAT is always included in the prices. The value-added effect is achieved by prohibiting end-consumers from recovering VAT on purchases, but permitting businesses to do so; the VAT collected by the state is computed as the difference between the VAT of sales earnings and the VAT of those goods and services upon which the product depends. The difference is the tax due to the value added by the business. In this way, the total tax levied at each stage in the economic chain of supply is a constant fraction; the standard way to implement a value-added tax involves assuming a business owes some fraction on the price of the product minus all taxes paid on the good. By the method of collection, VAT can be invoice-based. Under the invoice method of collection, each seller charges VAT rate on his output and passes the buyer a special invoice that indicates the amount of tax charged.
Buyers who are subject to VAT on their own sales consider the tax on the purchase invoices as input tax and can deduct the sum from their own VAT liability. The difference between output tax and input tax is paid to the government. Under the accounts based method, no such specific invoices are used. Instead, the tax is calculated on the value added, measured as a difference between revenues and allowable purchases. Most countries today use the invoice method, the only exception being Japan, which uses the accounts method. By the timing of collection, VAT can be either cash based. Cash basis accounting is a simple form of accounting; when a payment is received for the sale of goods or services, a deposit is made, the revenue is recorded as of the date of the receipt of funds—no matter when the sale had been made. Cheques are written when funds are available to pay bills, the expense is recorded as of the cheque date—regardless of when the expense had been incurred; the primary focus is on the amount of cash in the bank, the secondary focus is on making sure all bills are paid.
Little effort is made to match revenues to the time period in which they are earned, or to match expenses to the time period in which they are incurr
In an internal combustion engine, the cylinder head sits above the cylinders on top of the cylinder block. It closes in the top of the cylinder; this joint is sealed by a head gasket. In most engines, the head provides space for the passages that feed air and fuel to the cylinder, that allow the exhaust to escape; the head can be a place to mount the valves, spark plugs, fuel injectors. In a flathead or sidevalve engine, the mechanical parts of the valve train are all contained within the block, a'poultice head' may be used, a simple metal plate bolted to the top of the block. Keeping all moving parts within the block has an advantage for physically large engines in that the camshaft drive gear is small and so suffers less from the effects of thermal expansion in the cylinder block. With a chain drive to an overhead camshaft, the extra length of chain needed for an overhead cam design could give trouble from wear and slop in the chain without frequent maintenance. Early sidevalve engines were in use at a time of simple fuel chemistry, low octane ratings and so required low compression ratios.
This made their combustion chamber design less critical and there was less need to design their ports and airflow carefully. One difficulty experienced at this time was that the low compression ratio implied a low expansion ratio during the power stroke. Exhaust gases were thus still hot, hotter than a contemporary engine, this led to frequent trouble with burnt exhaust valves. A major improvement to the sidevalve engine was the advent of Ricardo's turbulent head design; this reduced the space within the combustion chamber and the ports, but by careful thought about the airflow paths within them it allowed a more efficient flow in and out of the chamber. Most it used turbulence within the chamber to mix the fuel and air mixture. This, of itself, allowed the use of higher compression ratios and more efficient engine operation; the limit on sidevalve performance is not the gas flow through the valves, but rather the shape of the combustion chamber. With high speed engines and high compression, the limiting difficulty becomes that of achieving complete and efficient combustion, whilst avoiding the problems of unwanted pre-detonation.
The shape of a sidevalve combustion chamber, being wider than the cylinder to reach the valve ports, conflicts with achieving both an ideal shape for combustion and the small volume needed for high compression. Modern, efficient engines thus tend towards the pent roof or hemi designs, where the valves are brought close in to the centre of the space. Where fuel quality is low and octane rating is poor, compression ratios will be restricted. In these cases, the sidevalve engine still has much to offer. In the case of the developed IOE engine for a market with poor fuels, engines such as Rolls-Royce B series or the Land-Rover use a complicated arrangement of inclined valves, a cylinder head line at an angle to the bore and corresponding angled pistons to provide a compact combustion chamber approaching the near-hemispherical ideal; such engines remained in production into the 1990s, only being replaced when the fuels available'in the field' became more to be diesel than petrol. Internally, the cylinder head has passages called ports or tracts for the fuel/air mixture to travel to the inlet valves from the intake manifold, for exhaust gases to travel from the exhaust valves to the exhaust manifold.
In a water-cooled engine, the cylinder head contains integral ducts and passages for the engines' coolant—usually a mixture of water and antifreeze—to facilitate the transfer of excess heat away from the head, therefore the engine in general. In the overhead valve design, the cylinder head contains the poppet valves and the spark plugs, along with tracts or'ports' for the inlet and exhaust gases; the operation of the valves is initiated by the engine's camshaft, sited within the cylinder block, its moment of operation is transmitted to the valves' pushrods, rocker arms mounted on a rocker shaft—the rocker arms and shaft being located within the cylinder head. In the overhead camshaft design, the cylinder head contains the valves, spark plugs and inlet/exhaust tracts just like the OHV engine, but the camshaft is now contained within the cylinder head; the camshaft may be seated centrally between each offset row of inlet and exhaust valves, still utilizing rocker arms, or the camshaft may be seated directly above the valves eliminating the rocker arms and utilizing'bucket' tappets.
The number of cylinder heads in an engine is a function of the engine configuration. All inline engines today use a single cylinder head that serves all the cylinders. A V engine has two cylinder heads, one for each cylinder bank of the'V'. For a few compact'narrow angle' V engines, such as the Volkswagen VR6, the angle between the cylinder banks is so narrow that it uses a single head spanning the two banks. A flat engine has two heads. Most radial engines have one head for each cylinder, although this is of the monobloc form wherein the head is made as an integral part of the cylinder; this is common for motorcycles, such head/cylinder components are referred-to as barrels. Some engines medium- and large-capacity diesel engines built for industrial, power generation, heavy traction purposes have individual cylinder heads for each cylinder; this reduces repair costs as a single failed head on a
Elvis Aaron Presley was an American singer and actor. Regarded as one of the most significant cultural icons of the 20th century, he is referred to as the "King of Rock and Roll" or "the King". Presley was born in Tupelo and relocated to Memphis, with his family when he was 13 years old, his music career began there in 1954, recording at Sun Records with producer Sam Phillips, who wanted to bring the sound of African-American music to a wider audience. Accompanied by guitarist Scotty Moore and bassist Bill Black, Presley was a pioneer of rockabilly, an uptempo, backbeat-driven fusion of country music and rhythm and blues. In 1955, drummer D. J. Fontana joined to complete the lineup of Presley's classic quartet and RCA Victor acquired his contract in a deal arranged by Colonel Tom Parker, who would manage him for more than two decades. Presley's first RCA single, "Heartbreak Hotel", was released in January 1956 and became a number-one hit in the United States. With a series of successful network television appearances and chart-topping records, he became the leading figure of the newly popular sound of rock and roll.
His energized interpretations of songs and sexually provocative performance style, combined with a singularly potent mix of influences across color lines during a transformative era in race relations, made him enormously popular—and controversial. In November 1956, Presley made his film debut in Love Me Tender. Drafted into military service in 1958, Presley relaunched his recording career two years with some of his most commercially successful work, he held few concerts however, guided by Parker, proceeded to devote much of the 1960s to making Hollywood films and soundtrack albums, most of them critically derided. In 1968, following a seven-year break from live performances, he returned to the stage in the acclaimed television comeback special Elvis, which led to an extended Las Vegas concert residency and a string of profitable tours. In 1973, Presley gave the first concert by a solo artist to be broadcast around the world, Aloha from Hawaii. Years of prescription drug abuse compromised his health, he died in 1977 at his Graceland estate at the age of 42.
Presley is the best-selling solo artist in the history of recorded music. He was commercially successful in many genres, including pop, country and gospel, he won three competitive Grammys, received the Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award at age 36, has been inducted into multiple music halls of fame. Elvis Presley was born on January 8, 1935, in Tupelo, Mississippi, to Gladys Love Presley in the two-room shotgun house built by his father, Vernon Elvis Presley, in preparation for the birth. Jesse Garon Presley, his identical twin brother, was delivered 35 minutes before stillborn. Presley became close to both parents and formed an close bond with his mother; the family attended an Assembly of God church. On his mother's side Presley's ancestry was Scots-Irish, with some French Norman. Gladys and the rest of the family believed that her great-great-grandmother, Morning Dove White, was Cherokee. Vernon's forebears were of Scottish origin. Gladys was regarded by friends as the dominant member of the small family.
Vernon moved from one odd job to the evincing little ambition. The family relied on help from neighbors and government food assistance. In 1938, they lost their home after Vernon was found guilty of altering a check written by his landowner and sometime employer, he was jailed for eight months, while Elvis moved in with relatives. In September 1941, Presley entered first grade at East Tupelo Consolidated, where his teachers regarded him as "average", he was encouraged to enter a singing contest after impressing his schoolteacher with a rendition of Red Foley's country song "Old Shep" during morning prayers. The contest, held at the Mississippi–Alabama Fair and Dairy Show on October 3, 1945, was his first public performance; the ten-year-old Presley was dressed as a cowboy. He recalled placing fifth. A few months Presley received his first guitar for his birthday. Over the following year, he received basic guitar lessons from two of his uncles and the new pastor at the family's church. Presley recalled, "I took the guitar, I watched people, I learned to play a little bit.
But I would never sing in public. I was shy about it."In September 1946, Presley entered a new school, for sixth grade. The following year, he began bringing his guitar to school on a daily basis, he played and sang during lunchtime, was teased as a "trashy" kid who played hillbilly music. By the family was living in a Black neighborhood. Presley was a devotee of Mississippi Slim's show on the Tupelo radio station WELO, he was described as "crazy about music" by Slim's younger brother, one of Presley's classmates and took him into the station. Slim supplemented Presley's guitar tuition by demonstrating chord techniques; when his protégé was twelve years old, Slim scheduled him for two on-air performances. Presley was succeeded in performing the following week. In November 1948, the family moved to Tennessee. After residing for nearly a year in rooming houses, they were granted a two-bedroom apartment in the public housing complex known as the Lauderdale Courts. Enrolled at L. C. Humes Hig
Aluminium alloys are alloys in which aluminium is the predominant metal. The typical alloying elements are copper, manganese, silicon and zinc. There are two principal classifications, namely casting alloys and wrought alloys, both of which are further subdivided into the categories heat-treatable and non-heat-treatable. About 85% of aluminium is used for wrought products, for example rolled plate and extrusions. Cast aluminium alloys yield cost-effective products due to the low melting point, although they have lower tensile strengths than wrought alloys; the most important cast aluminium alloy system is Al–Si, where the high levels of silicon contribute to give good casting characteristics. Aluminium alloys are used in engineering structures and components where light weight or corrosion resistance is required. Alloys composed of aluminium have been important in aerospace manufacturing since the introduction of metal-skinned aircraft. Aluminium-magnesium alloys are both lighter than other aluminium alloys and much less flammable than alloys that contain a high percentage of magnesium.
Aluminium alloy surfaces will develop a white, protective layer of aluminium oxide if left unprotected by anodizing and/or correct painting procedures. In a wet environment, galvanic corrosion can occur when an aluminium alloy is placed in electrical contact with other metals with more positive corrosion potentials than aluminium, an electrolyte is present that allows ion exchange. Referred to as dissimilar-metal corrosion, this process can occur as exfoliation or as intergranular corrosion. Aluminium alloys can be improperly heat treated; this causes internal element separation, the metal corrodes from the inside out. Aluminium alloy compositions are registered with The Aluminum Association. Many organizations publish more specific standards for the manufacture of aluminium alloy, including the Society of Automotive Engineers standards organization its aerospace standards subgroups, ASTM International. Aluminium alloys with a wide range of properties are used in engineering structures. Alloy systems are classified by a number system or by names indicating their main alloying constituents.
Selecting the right alloy for a given application entails considerations of its tensile strength, ductility, workability and corrosion resistance, to name a few. A brief historical overview of alloys and manufacturing technologies is given in Ref. Aluminium alloys are used extensively in aircraft due to their high strength-to-weight ratio. On the other hand, pure aluminium metal is much too soft for such uses, it does not have the high tensile strength, needed for airplanes and helicopters. Aluminium alloys have an elastic modulus of about 70 GPa, about one-third of the elastic modulus of most kinds of steel and steel alloys. Therefore, for a given load, a component or unit made of an aluminium alloy will experience a greater deformation in the elastic regime than a steel part of identical size and shape. Though there are aluminium alloys with somewhat-higher tensile strengths than the used kinds of steel replacing a steel part with an aluminium alloy might lead to problems. With new metal products, the design choices are governed by the choice of manufacturing technology.
Extrusions are important in this regard, owing to the ease with which aluminium alloys the Al–Mg–Si series, can be extruded to form complex profiles. In general and lighter designs can be achieved with Aluminium alloy than is feasible with steels. For instance, consider the bending of a thin-walled tube: the second moment of area is inversely related to the stress in the tube wall, i.e. stresses are lower for larger values. The second moment of area is proportional to the cube of the radius times the wall thickness, thus increasing the radius by 26% will lead to a halving of the wall stress. For this reason, bicycle frames made of aluminium alloys make use of larger tube diameters than steel or titanium in order to yield the desired stiffness and strength. In automotive engineering, cars made of aluminium alloys employ space frames made of extruded profiles to ensure rigidity; this represents a radical change from the common approach for current steel car design, which depend on the body shells for stiffness, known as unibody design.
Aluminium alloys are used in automotive engines in cylinder blocks and crankcases due to the weight savings that are possible. Since aluminium alloys are susceptible to warping at elevated temperatures, the cooling system of such engines is critical. Manufacturing techniques and metallurgical advancements have been instrumental for the successful application in automotive engines. In the 1960s, the aluminium cylinder heads of the Corvair earned a reputation for failure and stripping of threads, not seen in current aluminium cylinder heads. An important structural limitation of aluminium alloys is their lower fatigue strength compared to steel. In controlled laboratory conditions, steels display a fatigue limit, the stress amplitude below which no failures occur – the metal does not continue to weaken with extended stress cycles. Aluminium alloys do not have this lower fatigue limit and will continue to weaken with continued stress cycles. Aluminium alloys are therefore sparsely used in parts that require high fatigue strength in the high cycle regime.
The metal's sensitivity to heat must be considered. A routine workshop procedure involving heating is complicated by the fact that aluminium, unlike steel, will m
In architecture and structural engineering, a space frame or space structure is a rigid, truss-like structure constructed from interlocking struts in a geometric pattern. Space frames can be used to span large areas with few interior supports. Like the truss, a space frame is strong because of the inherent rigidity of the triangle. Steel space frames provide great freedom of expression and composition as well as the possibility to evenly distribute loads along each rod and external constraints. With these features, steel space frames can be used to achieve complex geometries with a structural weight lower than any other solution; the inner hyper-static system provides an increased resistance to damages caused by fire, explosions and earthquakes. Space frames are modular and made of industrialized elements designed with a remarkable dimensional accuracy and precise surface finish. Alexander Graham Bell from 1898 to 1908 developed space frames based on tetrahedral geometry. Bell's interest was in using them to make rigid frames for nautical and aeronautical engineering, with the tetrahedral truss being one of his inventions.
Dr. Ing. Max Mengeringhausen developed the space grid system called MERO in 1943 in Germany, thus initiating the use of space trusses in architecture; the used method, still in use has individual tubular members connected at node joints and variations such as the space deck system, octet truss system and cubic system. Stéphane de Chateau in France invented Unibat system, Pyramitec. A method of tree supports was developed to replace the individual columns. Buckminster Fuller patented the octet truss in 1961 while focusing on architectural structures. Space frames are designed using a rigidity matrix; the special characteristic of the stiffness matrix in an architectural space frame is the independence of the angular factors. If the joints are sufficiently rigid, the angular deflections can be neglected, simplifying the calculations; the simplest form of space frame is a horizontal slab of interlocking square pyramids and tetrahedra built from aluminium or tubular steel struts. In many ways this looks like the horizontal jib of a tower crane repeated many times to make it wider.
A stronger form is composed of interlocking tetrahedra. More technically this is referred to as an isotropic vector matrix or in a single unit width an octet truss. More complex variations change the lengths of the struts to curve the overall structure or may incorporate other geometrical shapes. Within the meaning of space frame, we can find three systems different between them:Curvature classification Space plane covers; these spatial structures are composed of planar substructures. Their behavior is similar to that of a plate in which the deflections in the plane are channeled through the horizontal bars and the shear forces are supported by the diagonals. Barrel vaults; this type of vault has a cross section of a simple arch. This type of space frame does not need to use tetrahedral modules or pyramids as a part of its backing. Spherical domes and other compound curves require the use of tetrahedral modules or pyramids and additional support from a skin. Classification by the arrangement of its elements Single layer grid.
All elements are located on the surface to be approximated. Double layer grid; the elements are organized in two layers parallel to each other at a certain distance apart. Each of the layers form a lattice of triangles, squares or hexagons in which the projection of the nodes in a layer may overlap or be displaced relative to each other. Diagonal bars connect the nodes of both layers in different directions in space. In this type of meshes, the elements are associated into three groups: upper cordon and cordon lower diagonal. Triple layer grid. Elements are placed in three parallel layers, linked by the diagonals, they are always flat. Other examples classifiable. Emerged to try to solve the problems that formwork and pouring concrete had their counterparts. Run with welded joint, but may raise prefabricated joints, a fact which makes them space meshes. Hanging covers. Designs on the cable taut and the catenary arch antifunicular show their ability to channel forces theoretically better than any other alternative, have an infinite range of possibilities for composition and adaptability to any type of plant cover or ensure vain.
However, imprecisions in shape having the loaded strand and the risk of bending the arc to unexpected stresses are problems that require pre-compression and prestressing elements. Although in most cases tend to be the cheapest and the technical solution that best fits the acoustics and ventilation of the covered enclosure, are vulnerable to vibration. Pneumatic structures. Wherein the closure membrane is subjected to a pressurized state, may be considered within this group. Space frames are a common feature in modern building construction. Examples of buildings based on space frames include: Stansted airport, by Foster and Partners Bank of China Tower and the Louvre Pyramid, by I. M. Pei Rogers Centre by Rod Robbie and Michael Allan McCormick Place East in Chicago Eden Project in Cornwall, England Globen, Sweden - Dome with diameter of 110 m, Biosphere 2 by John P. Allen, Phil Hawes, Peter Jon Pearce in Oracle, Arizona Jacob K. Javits Convention Center, New
Rear mid-engine, rear-wheel-drive layout
In automotive design, a RMR or Rear Mid-engine, rear-wheel-drive layout is one in which the rear wheels are driven by an engine placed just in front of them, behind the passenger compartment. In contrast to the rear-engined RR layout, the center of mass of the engine is in front of the rear axle; this layout is chosen for its low moment of inertia and favorable weight distribution. The layout has a tendency toward being heavier in the rear than the front, which allows for best balance to be achieved under braking. However, since there is little weight over the front wheels, under acceleration, the front of the car is prone to lift and cause understeer. Most rear-engine layouts have been used in smaller vehicles, because the weight of the engine at the rear has an adverse effect on a larger car's handling, making it'tail-heavy', it is felt. The mid-engined layout uses up central space, making it impractical for any but two-seater sports cars. However, some microvans use this layout, with a low engine beneath the loading area.
This makes it possible to move the driver right to the front of the vehicle, thus increasing the loading area at the expense of reduced load depth. In modern racing cars, RMR is the usual configuration and is synonymous with "mid engine". Due to its weight distribution and resulting favorable vehicle dynamics, this layout is employed in open-wheel Formula racing cars as well as purpose-built sports racing cars; this configuration was common in small engined 1950s microcars, in which the engines did not take up much space. Because of successes in racing, the RMR platform has been popular for road-going sports cars despite the inherent challenges of design and lack of cargo space; the similar mid-engine, four-wheel-drive layout gives many of the same advantages and is used when extra traction is desired, such as in some supercars and in the Group B rally cars. The 1900 NW Rennzweier was one of the first race cars with rear-wheel-drive layout. Other known historical examples include the 1923 Benz Tropfenwagen.
It was based on an earlier design named the Rumpler Tropfenwagen in 1921 made by Edmund von Rumpler, an Austrian engineer working at Daimler. The Benz Tropfenwagen was designed by Ferdinand Porsche along with Hans Nibel, it raced in 1923 and 1924 and was most successful in the Italian Grand Prix in Monza where it stood fourth. Ferdinand Porsche used mid-engine design concept towards the Auto Union Grand Prix cars of the 1930s which became the first winning RMR racers, they were decades before their time, although MR Miller Specials raced a few times at Indianapolis between 1939 and 1947. In 1953 Porsche premiered the tiny and altogether new RMR 550 Spyder and in a year it was notoriously winning in the smaller sports and endurance race car classes against much larger cars—a sign of greater things to come; the 718 followed in 1958. But it was not until the late 1950s that RMR reappeared in Grand Prix races in the form of the Cooper-Climax, soon followed by cars from BRM and Lotus. Ferrari and Porsche soon made.
The mid-engined layout was brought back to Indianapolis in 1961 by the Cooper Car Company with Jack Brabham running as high as third and finishing ninth. Cooper did not return, but from 1963 on British built mid-engined cars from constructors like Brabham and Lola competed and in 1965 Lotus won Indy with their Type 38. Rear mid-engines were used in microcars like the Isetta or the Zündapp Janus; the first rear mid-engined road car after WW II was the 1962 Bonnet / Matra Djet, which used the 1108cc Renault Sierra engine, mated to the transaxle from the FWD Renault Estafette van. Nearly 1700 were built until 1967; this was followed by the first De Tomaso, the Vallelunga, which mated a tuned Ford Cortina 1500 Kent engine to a VW transaxle with Hewland gearsets. Introduced at Turin in 1963, 58 were built 1964-68. A similar car was the Renault-engined Lotus Europa, built from 1966–1975. In 1966, the Lamborghini Miura was the first high performance mid-engine, rear-wheel-drive roadcar; the concept behind the Miura was that of putting on the road a grand tourer featuring state-of-the-art racing-car technology of the time.
This represented an innovative sportscar at a time when all of its competitors, from Ferraris to Aston Martins, were traditional front-engined, rear wheel drive grand tourers. The Pontiac Fiero was a mid-engined sports car, built by the Pontiac division of General Motors from 1984 to 1988; the Fiero was the first two-seater Pontiac since the 1926 to 1938 coupes, the first and only mass-produced mid-engine sports car by a U. S. manufacturer. Engine and driveline layout considerations
The Ferrari Mondial is a mid-engined, V8-powered grand tourer, produced by Italian manufacturer Ferrari between 1980 and 1993. Offered with coupé and cabriolet bodystyles, it replaced the Ferrari 308/208 GT4 coupé and remains the last V8, rear mid-engined, 2+2 model Ferrari produced; the Mondial name originated from Ferrari's motor racing history — the 500 Mondial was a successful lightweight sports racer of the early 1950s, named to celebrate Ferrari's consecutive Formula 1 World Championships in 1952 and 1953. The name was revived as Ferrari won the Formula 1 World Constructors Championships in 1975, 1976, 1977, 1979; the Mondial name was chosen as it was an equivoque, the car designed to meet global safety and emission standards for 1980, compared to previous offerings. Conceived as a'practical' Ferrari, the Mondial is a genuine long-distance four-seater, with sufficient rear head- and leg-room for children and smaller adults, it affords easy access via the long single doors, has good all-round visibility for a mid-engined car.
The vehicle has a higher roofline and greater all-round dimensions compared to its two-seater stable mates, resulting in a comparative weight penalty of around ten percent. The Mondial cabriolets are the only production vehicles manufactured to a four-seater, rear mid-engined, full-convertible design; the Ferrari Mondial is a mid-engined vehicle of the R-M-R configuration. It was produced in 2-door coupé and convertible forms, with all vehicles offering 2+2 passenger accommodation, it was produced concurrently with Ferrari's 2-seater 308 GTB/GTS, 328, 348 sports cars, all major mechanical systems in the Mondial, including engine, transmission and suspension, are either identical to, or similar to, those used on the matching 2-seater vehicle being produced at the same time. Unlike its GT4 predecessor, styled by the Italian Gruppo Bertone, the Mondial was designed by famed designer Leonardo Fioravanti of Pininfarina in Turin, the vehicle designer with whom Ferrari had worked closely since 1951.
Pininfarina's bodywork was manufactured by Ferrari's regular coachbuilder Carrozzeria Scaglietti. Its structure conformed with Ferrari's practice at the time, with outer body panels fitted onto a separate space-frame chassis constructed from tubular box or oval-shaped steel sections. While most body panels are steel pressings, the front lid and rear engine cover of the Mondial 8 and QV models are from aluminium. Full-width aluminium louvre panels across the front lid and engine cover form a distinctive feature of all Mondials, provide for improved airflow through the front-mounted radiators and engine bay respectively. Additional louvre grilles are located on each side of the vehicle just ahead of the rear wheels. Intake air is fed to the engine from the intake on the right-hand side, while the matching grille on the left side of the vehicle directs air into an external oil cooler nestled ahead of the rear wheel arch. Louvres feature in the front polished aluminium grille behind which sits the main radiator, supplied with coolant via alloy tubing running through the central chassis spine.
A final full-width black louvre panel closes-off the rear of the car below the rear bumper, through which protrudes a pair of exhaust outlets on each side of the vehicle. Front and rear bumpers are from black plastic on the Mondial 8 and QV, while the 3.2 and "t" models use integrated wrap-around glass-fibre panels finished in body colour. The Mondial chassis includes several detachable sub-frames holding major mechanical assemblies, including one at the rear supporting the entire engine/transmission/rear suspension assembly; this design simplifies engine removal for a major rebuild or cylinder head removal compared to previous Ferrari V8 vehicles. At the front of the vehicle, a front-hinged lid encloses space for the spare tyre and cooling fans, battery and cooling systems and the vehicle's electric control systems. At the rear, a full-width and trimmed luggage boot with a gas-strut-supported lid sits behind the engine bay, sizeable enough to hold several sizeable soft bags or set of golf clubs.
Electrically actuated pop-up headlights fit flush to the vehicle nose, contain twin round lamps in each for all 8, QV and 3.2 models, a single homofocal rectangular unit each side of the Mondial t. Differences in body features between sales markets was small, with the most obvious being the prominent rectangular side turn-indicator lamps affixed front and rear to all U. S. marketed vehicles. All Mondials are fitted with a V8 engine, identical to that used in Ferrari's concurrent 2-seater 308/328/348 series vehicles. All engines derive from Ferrari's original 3.0 l V8 powerplant first released in the 1974 Ferrari 308 GT4, which in-turn was a two-cylinder extension of the V6 engine deployed in the Dino 206 GT of 1968. At their core, all Mondial engines comprise: a Ferrari-cast lightweight alloy V8 block with 90° bank-angle. Engine capacity started at 3.0 l for the Mondial 8 and QV models, increasing to 3.2 l for the Mondial 3.2, culminating in 3.4 l for the Mondial t model. The orientation of the V8 engine block is quite different in the Mondial t compared to the earlier Mondials.
Mirroring the two-seater Ferrari V8 vehicles, all 3.0 and 3.2 l engines sit across