Internal combustion engine
An internal combustion engine is a heat engine where the combustion of a fuel occurs with an oxidizer in a combustion chamber that is an integral part of the working fluid flow circuit. In an internal combustion engine the expansion of the high-temperature and high-pressure gases produced by combustion applies direct force to some component of the engine, the force is applied typically to pistons, turbine blades, rotor or a nozzle. This force moves the component over a distance, transforming chemical energy into mechanical energy. The first commercially successful internal combustion engine was created by Étienne Lenoir around 1859, firearms are a form of internal combustion engine. Working fluids can be air, hot water, pressurized water or even liquid sodium, ICEs are usually powered by energy-dense fuels such as gasoline or diesel, liquids derived from fossil fuels. While there are many applications, most ICEs are used in mobile applications and are the dominant power supply for vehicles such as cars, aircraft.
Typically an ICE is fed with fossil fuels like natural gas or petroleum products such as gasoline, there is a growing usage of renewable fuels like biodiesel for compression ignition engines and bioethanol or methanol for spark ignition engines. Hydrogen is sometimes used, and can be made from fossil fuels or renewable energy. Various scientists and engineers contributed to the development of internal combustion engines, in 1791, John Barber developed a turbine. In 1794 Thomas Mead patented a gas engine, in 1794 Robert Street patented an internal combustion engine, which was the first to use liquid fuel, and built an engine around that time. In 1798, John Stevens built the first American internal combustion engine, in 1807, Swiss engineer François Isaac de Rivaz built an internal combustion engine ignited by electric spark. In 1823, Samuel Brown patented the first internal combustion engine to be applied industrially, in 1860, Belgian Jean Joseph Etienne Lenoir produced a gas-fired internal combustion engine.
In 1864, Nikolaus Otto patented the first atmospheric gas engine, in 1872, American George Brayton invented the first commercial liquid-fuelled internal combustion engine. In 1876, Nikolaus Otto, working with Gottlieb Daimler and Wilhelm Maybach, patented the compressed charge, in 1879, Karl Benz patented a reliable two-stroke gas engine. In 1892, Rudolf Diesel developed the first compressed charge, compression ignition engine, in 1926, Robert Goddard launched the first liquid-fueled rocket. In 1939, the Heinkel He 178 became the worlds first jet aircraft, at one time, the word engine meant any piece of machinery — a sense that persists in expressions such as siege engine. A motor is any machine that produces mechanical power, electric motors are not referred to as Engines, combustion engines are often referred to as motors. In boating an internal combustion engine that is installed in the hull is referred to as an engine, reciprocating piston engines are by far the most common power source for land and water vehicles, including automobiles, ships and to a lesser extent, locomotives
The Ferrari F2008 is a Formula One motor racing car, which Scuderia Ferrari Marlboro used to compete in the 2008 Formula One season. The car was unveiled to the public on January 6,2008 and it features a new standard Electronic Control Unit, which is the electronic system that controls all the cars, produced by McLaren Electronic Systems. This was included to comply with the new regulations, the ECU removes most of the driver aids used in previous seasons, including traction control, engine braking and electronically assisted starting system. It makes the management of the differential and gearchanges easier, world champion Kimi Räikkönen gave the car its first shakedown at Ferraris Fiorano test track on January 7,2008. In the 2008 Australian Grand Prix, Felipe Massa suffered nose cone, in the 2008 Monaco Grand Prix, Kimi Räikkönen lost his front wing after sliding into the back of Adrian Sutil at the Nouvelle chicane. In the 2008 Canadian Grand Prix, Räikkönen lost his wing in the pit lane.
In the 2008 Belgian Grand Prix, Räikkönen suffered front wing damage after running wide spinning before the chicane. In the 2008 Singapore Grand Prix, Massa was unsafely released from his pit box with the hose still attached. In the 2008 Hungarian Grand Prix, Massas engine failed without warning, forcing him to retire from the lead three laps remaining. † Drivers did not finish the Grand Prix, but were classified as they completed over 90% of the race distance, räikkönens fastest lap at the Circuit de Barcelona-Catalunya is still the lap record as of 2016. Car Specs and photos Car Specs on F1Technical. net
Mercedes-Benz in Formula One
Mercedes-Benz is currently involved in Formula One, running Mercedes-AMG Petronas Motorsport, a Formula One racing team, based in Brackley, United Kingdom, using a German licence. Mercedes-Benz had competed in the pre-war European Championship winning three titles, and debuted in Formula One in 1954, running a team for two years. After winning their first race at the 1954 French Grand Prix and it supplied Sauber for one season, switched to McLaren in 1995. In 2009 they became suppliers of Brawn GP and Force India, Mercedes-Benz returned with a factory team in 2010 after the purchase of Brawn. A fourth team was added to the program in 2014. For the 2015 season, the 20-year long partnership with McLaren ended, Mercedes supplied engines to the Lotus F1 team, before switching to Manor in 2016. The manufacturer has collected more than 100 wins as engine supplier, five Constructors and seven Drivers Championships have been won with Mercedes-Benz engines. Mercedes has become one of the most successful teams in recent Formula One history, in 2014, Mercedes managed 11 one-two finishes beating McLarens 1988 record of 10.
The record was beaten the year having achieved 12 one-two finishes. Mercedes collected 16 victories in 2014 and 2015 apiece breaking McLaren, in 2016, they broke their own record, achieving 19 wins. Mercedes-Benz formerly competed in Grand Prix motor racing in the 1930s, both teams were heavily funded by the Nazi regime, winning all European Grand Prix Championships after 1932, of which Rudolf Caracciola won three for Mercedes-Benz. In 1954, Mercedes-Benz returned to what was now known as Formula One under the leadership of Alfred Neubauer, the car was run in both the conventional open-wheeled configuration and a streamlined form, which featured covered wheels and wider bodywork. Juan Manuel Fangio, the 1951 champion, transferred mid-season from Maserati to Mercedes-Benz for their debut at the French Grand Prix on 4 July 1954, the team had immediate success and recorded a 1–2 victory with Fangio and Karl Kling, as well as the fastest lap. Fangio went on to win three races in 1954, winning the championship.
The success continued into the 1955 season, with Mercedes-Benz developing the W196 throughout the year, Mercedes-Benz again dominated the season, with Fangio taking four races, and his new team mate Stirling Moss winning the British Grand Prix. Fangio and Moss finished first and second in that years championship, at the end of the season, the team withdrew from motor sport, including Formula One. Following the purchase of the team, as well as a deal with Petronas. BAR, who had formed a partnership with Honda, eventually became Honda Racing F1 Team in 2006 when BAT withdrew from the sport
Philip Morris International
Philip Morris International Inc. is an American global cigarette and tobacco company, with products sold in over 180 countries outside the United States. The most recognized and best selling product of the company is Marlboro, until a spin-off in March 2008, Philip Morris International was an operating company of Altria Group. While Altria focuses on the United States, the shareholders in Altria at the time were given shares in PMI, which was listed on the London Stock Exchange and other markets. The companys operational headquarters are in Lausanne, although the headquarters remain in New York. It does not operate in the United States, with Philip Morris brands there still owned by PMIs former owner Altria, Philip Morris is a long-term main sponsor of the Scuderia Ferrari Formula One team. The company states its history is traced to a London tobacconists, Philip Morris’s,1847 opening of a shop on London’s Bond Street which sold tobacco. The current operations center of the company is located in Lausanne, Switzerland, in 2015 it sold 850 billion cigarettes.
Philip Morris International has six multi-billion US$ brands including,1, Dji Sam Soe 234 was launched on 1913 and is a brand of Kretek cigarettes. It is the best seller of Kretek cigarettes in Indonesia, l&M was launched by Liggett & Myers on 1953 with tagline, American cigarettes of the highest quality with the best filter. Longbeach include on Australia and Indonesia on 1999, Longbeach variant include, Longbeach Filter and Longbeach Mild. ST Dupont Paris is the brand designed by Simon Tissot Dupont on 1902. ST Dupont Paris variants include, lights, menthol, U Mild was launched on Indonesia on May 22,1998 after Indonesian revolution. U Mild is a Mild Kretek cigarette sold in Indonesia, the Bentoel Group products on 1980-2005 include Bentoel Biru, Bentoel Sejati, Bentoel Merah, Bentoel Mild, Star Mild, X Mild, Rawit, Pr1nsip, and Country. PMFTC, Inc. s products include Champion, harold Brown André Calantzopoulos Louis C. Camilleri – Chairman Mathis Cabiallavetta Werner Geissler Jennifer Li Jun Makihara Sergio Marchionne Kalpana Morparia Lucio A.
Noto Frederik Paulsen Jr Robert B. Polet Stephen M. PMI has a research and development program and it says the focus of the program is reducing the levels of toxic chemical compounds. So far, most extensive and most successful project is IQOS - Heating tobacco product which actively came on stage in half of 2016. In 2010, the company lobbied against Uruguays strong anti-smoking laws, on July 8,2016, the International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes ruled in favour of Uruguay
Shanghai International Circuit
The Shanghai International Circuit is a motorsport race track, situated in the Jiading, Peoples Republic of China. The circuit is best known as the venue for the annual Formula 1 Chinese Grand Prix, the 2008 MotoGP race was the last one on this circuit, as the FIM didnt select the racetrack for the provisional calendar of 2009. This is due to overcrowding problems in the circuit, partly due to location of the circuit, areas around turns 1,8 and 14 have been sinking, and therefore the circuit had to be inspected before the 2011 event took place. The Chinese Grand Prix attracted 260,000 spectators in its year in 2004 with a slight 10,000 increase in 2005. On Feb 18,2011, Reuters reported words from the Chinese Grand Prix organizers said Shanghai has extended the deal to host the Chinese Grand Prix to 2018 despite falling attendance. Reuters reported words from Yiping Chen, deputy director of the Shanghai Sports Bureau, Reuters reported prices for prime seats range would decrease from 3, 580-3,980 yuan in 2010 to 1, 980-3,280 yuan in 2011.
On the same day, AFP reported that the Shanghai City government will keep open a line to the race track to boost spectator numbers from April 15–17,2011. In common with other new Formula One circuits, it was designed by Hermann Tilke, and features his trademark track feature. Current-generation F1 cars can easily surpass 300 km/h on the straight between corners 13 and 14. The track layout was inspired from the Chinese character shang the first character in the name of the city Shanghai, the whole circuit plus seating areas and other areas for spectators, covers a total area of 5.3 km². Turns 1 and 2 make up a very long right-hand curve which leads immediately into turns 3 and 4, One and two are far more difficult - a lift on entry followed by various taps of the throttle and brakes are needed so the car maintains balance throughout. It becomes blind towards the middle of the corner and four are nowhere near as difficult but a good exit is needed to gain speed down the following straight and through turn 5.
The complex of turns 1-4 makes up the first of two snails on the circuit, the other being turns 11-13, turn 6 is a second gear, right-handed hairpin with plentiful run-off. Turns 7 and 8 make up a high speed chicane - the left-right complex sees a constant G-force of 3, turns 9 and 10 immediately follow - two slow left-handers which require a good exit to gain speed down the next straight. Turns 11 and 12 effectively make up a slow left-right chicane where the use of kerbs are important, turn 13 is a very long right-hander which becomes less and less tight, and a very good exit is important as the longest straight currently in Formula One follows. The total length of the circuit is 5.451 km, the lap record was set by Ferraris Michael Schumacher in 2004. He completed one lap of the circuit in 1,32.238
A transmission is a machine in a power transmission system, which provides controlled application of the power. Often the term refers simply to the gearbox that uses gears and gear trains to provide speed. In British English, the term refers to the whole drivetrain, including clutch, prop shaft, differential. In American English, the term more specifically to the gearbox alone. The most common use is in vehicles, where the transmission adapts the output of the internal combustion engine to the drive wheels. Such engines need to operate at a high rotational speed, which is inappropriate for starting, stopping. The transmission reduces the engine speed to the slower wheel speed. Transmissions are used on bicycles, fixed machines. Often, a transmission has multiple gear ratios with the ability to switch between them as speed varies and this switching may be done manually or automatically. Directional control may be provided, single-ratio transmissions exist, which simply change the speed and torque of motor output.
The output of the transmission is transmitted via the driveshaft to one or more differentials, while a differential may provide gear reduction, its primary purpose is to permit the wheels at either end of an axle to rotate at different speeds as it changes the direction of rotation. Conventional gear/belt transmissions are not the mechanism for speed/torque adaptation. Alternative mechanisms include torque converters and power transformation, automatic transmissions use a valve body to shift gears using fluid pressures in conjunction with an ecm. Early transmissions included the right-angle drives and other gearing in windmills, horse-powered devices, and steam engines, in support of pumping, most modern gearboxes are used to increase torque while reducing the speed of a prime mover output shaft. This means that the shaft of a gearbox rotates at a slower rate than the input shaft. A gearbox can be set up to do the opposite and provide an increase in speed with a reduction of torque. Some of the simplest gearboxes merely change the rotational direction of power transmission.
Many typical automobile transmissions include the ability to select one of several gear ratios, in this case, most of the gear ratios are used to slow down the output speed of the engine and increase torque
Brembo S. p. A. is an Italian manufacturer of automotive brake systems, especially for high-performance cars and motorcycles based in Bergamo, near Milan. Brembo was established in Bergamo, Italy in 1961, soon after the company was formed, it specialised in disc brakes, which were imported from the UK at the time. The company entered into a contract with Alfa Romeo in 1964. It became the supplier of components to Moto Guzzi in 1966. In the 1980s, Brembo began supplying BMW, Ferrari, Mercedes-Benz, the company went public on the Milan Stock Exchange in 1995. Corporate headquarters are located in Bergamo, and the company has more than 6,000 employees within Italy and at branches in Brazil, Japan, Mexico, US, Spain and the UK. In 2000 Brembo purchased the UK-based racing brake and clutch manufacturer AP Racing, on November 9,2007, the Automotive Brake Components division of Hayes Lemmerz was acquired by Brembos North American subsidiary. The approximately €39.6 million sale included production facilities in Homer and Apodaca, Mexico, an official press release on May 21,2014 announced an €83 million expansion of the Michigan facility.
On December 2,2014, Brembo announced plans to invest €32 million into a 31,500 square meter production facility, the current expectation is initial operation beginning in 2016 and full operation by the end of 2018. Brembos deputy chairman Matteo Tiraboschi reported on March 5,2015 the companys 2014 sales growth of 15% up to €1.8 billion, and he reported that possibilities for acquiring assets were being explored, with focus on the automotive and aviation sectors. Brembo specialises in performance braking systems and components, as well as conducting research on braking systems, Brembo sells over 1,300 products worldwide, and is known for their aftermarket automotive brake components, including calipers, drums and brake lines. Except in the North American market, Brembo owns the foundries which produce their initial materials, in all other markets the company controls the entire production system from raw materials through distribution. The company holds QS9000 and ISO9001 certifications, Brembo brakes are used by a variety of Formula One teams including Ferrari, and brake supplier of the majority of MotoGP teams.
Since 2012 season, Brembo is an official supplier for IndyCar Series
An electric motor is an electrical machine that converts electrical energy into mechanical energy. The reverse of this is the conversion of energy into electrical energy and is done by an electric generator. In normal motoring mode, most electric motors operate through the interaction between an electric motors magnetic field and winding currents to generate force within the motor, small motors may be found in electric watches. General-purpose motors with highly standardized dimensions and characteristics provide convenient mechanical power for industrial use, the largest of electric motors are used for ship propulsion, pipeline compression and pumped-storage applications with ratings reaching 100 megawatts. Electric motors may be classified by electric power source type, internal construction, type of motion output, perhaps the first electric motors were simple electrostatic devices created by the Scottish monk Andrew Gordon in the 1740s. The theoretical principle behind production of force by the interactions of an electric current.
The conversion of energy into mechanical energy by electromagnetic means was demonstrated by the British scientist Michael Faraday in 1821. A free-hanging wire was dipped into a pool of mercury, on which a permanent magnet was placed, when a current was passed through the wire, the wire rotated around the magnet, showing that the current gave rise to a close circular magnetic field around the wire. This motor is often demonstrated in experiments, brine substituting for toxic mercury. Though Barlows wheel was a refinement to this Faraday demonstration. In 1827, Hungarian physicist Ányos Jedlik started experimenting with electromagnetic coils, after Jedlik solved the technical problems of the continuous rotation with the invention of the commutator, he called his early devices electromagnetic self-rotors. Although they were used only for instructional purposes, in 1828 Jedlik demonstrated the first device to contain the three components of practical DC motors, the stator and commutator. The device employed no permanent magnets, as the fields of both the stationary and revolving components were produced solely by the currents flowing through their windings.
His motor set a record which was improved only four years in September 1838 by Jacobi himself. His second motor was powerful enough to drive a boat with 14 people across a wide river and it was not until 1839/40 that other developers worldwide managed to build motors of similar and also of higher performance. The first commutator DC electric motor capable of turning machinery was invented by the British scientist William Sturgeon in 1832, following Sturgeons work, a commutator-type direct-current electric motor made with the intention of commercial use was built by the American inventor Thomas Davenport, which he patented in 1837. The motors ran at up to 600 revolutions per minute, and powered machine tools, due to the high cost of primary battery power, the motors were commercially unsuccessful and Davenport went bankrupt. Several inventors followed Sturgeon in the development of DC motors but all encountered the same battery power cost issues, no electricity distribution had been developed at the time
A brake is a mechanical device that inhibits motion by absorbing energy from a moving system. It is used for slowing or stopping a vehicle, axle, or to prevent its motion. Most brakes commonly use friction between two surfaces pressed together to convert the energy of the moving object into heat, though other methods of energy conversion may be employed. For example, regenerative braking converts much of the energy to electrical energy, other methods convert kinetic energy into potential energy in such stored forms as pressurized air or pressurized oil. Eddy current brakes use magnetic fields to convert energy into electric current in the brake disc, fin, or rail. Still other braking methods even transform kinetic energy into different forms, Brakes are generally applied to rotating axles or wheels, but may take other forms such as the surface of a moving fluid. In practice, fast vehicles usually have significant air drag, almost all wheeled vehicles have a brake of some sort. Even baggage carts and shopping carts may have them for use on a moving ramp, most fixed-wing aircraft are fitted with wheel brakes on the undercarriage.
Some aircraft feature air brakes designed to reduce their speed in flight, notable examples include gliders and some World War II-era aircraft, primarily some fighter aircraft and many dive bombers of the era. These allow the aircraft to maintain a speed in a steep descent. The Saab B17 dive bomber and Vought F4U Corsair fighter used the deployed undercarriage as an air brake, Friction brakes on automobiles store braking heat in the drum brake or disc brake while braking conduct it to the air gradually. When traveling downhill some vehicles can use their engines to brake, when the brake pedal of a modern vehicle with hydraulic brakes is pushed against the master cylinder, ultimately a piston pushes the brake pad against the brake disc which slows the wheel down. On the brake drum it is similar as the cylinder pushes the brake shoes against the drum which slows the wheel down, Brakes may be broadly described as using friction, pumping, or electromagnetics. Typically the term brake is used to mean pad/shoe brakes and excludes hydrodynamic brakes.
Friction brakes are often rotating devices with a pad and a rotating wear surface. Other brake configurations are used, but less often, a drum brake is a vehicle brake in which the friction is caused by a set of brake shoes that press against the inner surface of a rotating drum. The drum is connected to the rotating roadwheel hub, drum brakes generally can be found on older car and truck models. However, because of their low production cost, drum brake setups are installed on the rear of some low-cost newer vehicles, compared to modern disc brakes, drum brakes wear out faster due to their tendency to overheat