Rail transport is a means of transferring of passengers and goods on wheeled vehicles running on rails known as tracks. It is commonly referred to as train transport. In contrast to road transport, where vehicles run on a prepared flat surface, rail vehicles are directionally guided by the tracks on which they run. Tracks consist of steel rails, installed on ties and ballast, on which the rolling stock fitted with metal wheels, moves. Other variations are possible, such as slab track, where the rails are fastened to a concrete foundation resting on a prepared subsurface. Rolling stock in a rail transport system encounters lower frictional resistance than road vehicles, so passenger and freight cars can be coupled into longer trains; the operation is carried out by a railway company, providing transport between train stations or freight customer facilities. Power is provided by locomotives which either draw electric power from a railway electrification system or produce their own power by diesel engines.
Most tracks are accompanied by a signalling system. Railways are a safe land transport system. Railway transport is capable of high levels of passenger and cargo utilization and energy efficiency, but is less flexible and more capital-intensive than road transport, when lower traffic levels are considered; the oldest known, man/animal-hauled railways date back to the 6th century BC in Greece. Rail transport commenced in mid 16th century in Germany in the form of horse-powered funiculars and wagonways. Modern rail transport commenced with the British development of the steam locomotives in the early 19th century, thus the railway system in Great Britain is the oldest in the world. Built by George Stephenson and his son Robert's company Robert Stephenson and Company, the Locomotion No. 1 is the first steam locomotive to carry passengers on a public rail line, the Stockton and Darlington Railway in 1825. George Stephenson built the first public inter-city railway line in the world to use only the steam locomotives all the time, the Liverpool and Manchester Railway which opened in 1830.
With steam engines, one could construct mainline railways, which were a key component of the Industrial Revolution. Railways reduced the costs of shipping, allowed for fewer lost goods, compared with water transport, which faced occasional sinking of ships; the change from canals to railways allowed for "national markets" in which prices varied little from city to city. The spread of the railway network and the use of railway timetables, led to the standardisation of time in Britain based on Greenwich Mean Time. Prior to this, major towns and cities varied their local time relative to GMT; the invention and development of the railway in the United Kingdom was one of the most important technological inventions of the 19th century. The world's first underground railway, the Metropolitan Railway, opened in 1863. In the 1880s, electrified trains were introduced, leading to electrification of tramways and rapid transit systems. Starting during the 1940s, the non-electrified railways in most countries had their steam locomotives replaced by diesel-electric locomotives, with the process being complete by the 2000s.
During the 1960s, electrified high-speed railway systems were introduced in Japan and in some other countries. Many countries are in the process of replacing diesel locomotives with electric locomotives due to environmental concerns, a notable example being Switzerland, which has electrified its network. Other forms of guided ground transport outside the traditional railway definitions, such as monorail or maglev, have been tried but have seen limited use. Following a decline after World War II due to competition from cars, rail transport has had a revival in recent decades due to road congestion and rising fuel prices, as well as governments investing in rail as a means of reducing CO2 emissions in the context of concerns about global warming; the history of rail transport began in the 6th century BC in Ancient Greece. It can be divided up into several discrete periods defined by the principal means of track material and motive power used. Evidence indicates that there was 6 to 8.5 km long Diolkos paved trackway, which transported boats across the Isthmus of Corinth in Greece from around 600 BC.
Wheeled vehicles pulled by men and animals ran in grooves in limestone, which provided the track element, preventing the wagons from leaving the intended route. The Diolkos was in use for over 650 years, until at least the 1st century AD; the paved trackways were later built in Roman Egypt. In 1515, Cardinal Matthäus Lang wrote a description of the Reisszug, a funicular railway at the Hohensalzburg Fortress in Austria; the line used wooden rails and a hemp haulage rope and was operated by human or animal power, through a treadwheel. The line still exists and is operational, although in updated form and is the oldest operational railway. Wagonways using wooden rails, hauled by horses, started appearing in the 1550s to facilitate the transport of ore tubs to and from mines, soon became popular in Europe; such an operation was illustrated in Germany in 1556 by Georgius Agricola in his work De re metallica. This line used "Hund" carts with unflanged wheels running on wooden planks and a vertical pin on the truck fitting into the gap between the planks to keep it going the right way.
The miners called the wagons Hunde from the noise. There are many references to their use in central Europe in the 16th century; such a transport system was used by German miners at Cal
Babcock & Wilcox
Babcock & Wilcox Enterprises Inc. Babcock, Wilcox & Company and The Babcock & Wilcox Company, is a global leader in advanced energy and environmental technologies and services for the power and industrial markets. B&W is headquartered in Ohio; the company is best known for their steam boilers and as a provider of emissions control equipment, waste-to-energy facilities and aftermarket parts and services for a host of industries. Technologies & Products: BoilersWaste-to-Energy technologies Emissions Control Equipment Boiler Aftermarket Products & Services Cooling Systems Boiler Cleaning Equipment ASH handling and conveying Biomass-to-Energy ConstructionIndustries & Markets: Power Generation Industrial Pulp & Paper Chemical Processing Cement Carbon Black Food & Beverage Metals & Mining Renewables Waste-to-Energy The company was founded in 1867 in Providence, Rhode Island by partners Stephen Wilcox and George Babcock to manufacture and market Wilcox’s patented water-tube boiler. B&W's list of innovations and firsts include the world’s first installed utility boiler.
S. built NS Savannah. The company provided design, manufacturing and facilities management services to nuclear, fossil power and government customers worldwide. B&W's boilers supply more than 300,000 megawatts of installed capacity in over 90 countries around the world. During World War II, over half of the US Navy fleet was powered by Wilcox boilers; the company has its headquarters in Ohio. It has major operations in Virginia. B&W has joint major joint venture companies in Beijing and the Indian city of Pune. On June 30, 2015, Babcock & Wilcox completed a spinoff from BWX Technologies, its former parent, now headquartered in Lynchburg, Virginia; the two companies began trading separately on July 1. B&W employs 4,000 people, in addition to several thousand joint venture employees. Babcock & Wilcox is based in Barberton and provides engineering, design and manufacturing services to the fossil and renewable power generation sectors and to heavy industry worldwide. B&W and its subsidiaries have facilities in Ohio.
B&W SPIG Diamond Power International, Inc. B&W Vølund Allen-Sherman-Hoff® Babcock & Wilcox Loibl GmbH B&W Vølund AB / GMAB The year 2017 marked the 150th anniversary of Babcock & Wilcox, the company that began in 1867 with one patent, two friends and an unwavering commitment to reliable and effective innovation; when Stephen Wilcox first avowed that “there must be a better way” to safely generate power, he and George Babcock responded with the design for the first inherently safe water-tube boiler, the company was born. In 1867, Rhode Island, residents Stephen Wilcox and his partner George Herman Babcock patented the Babcock & Wilcox Non-Explosive Boiler, which used water filled tubes and de-nucleate boiling to generate steam more safely than either under-fire or fire-tube boilers; the boilers more safely generated higher pressure steam and was more efficient than existing designs. In 1891, Babcock & Wilcox Ltd is established as a separate United Kingdom company, to be responsible for all sales outside the US and Cuba.
In 1898, Robert Jurenka and Alois Seidl signed an agreement with the British division of Babcock & Wilcox Ltd to make the Berlin, Germany Babcock sales office into a subsidiary of the British company. In 1902 the New York City's first subway is powered by B&W boilers. During 1907 and 1909 Theodore Roosevelt's Great White Fleet were powered by B&W Boilers. In 1923 both Babcock & Wilcox Ltd and The Babcock & Wilcox Company buy into The Goldie & McCulloch Company Ltd of Cambridge, Ontario, to form Babcock-Wilcox & Goldie-McCulloch Ltd in Canada. In 1929 B&W installs the world's first commercial size recovery boiler using the magnesium bisulfite process in Quebec, Canada. Between 1941 and 1945 B&W designed and delivered 4,100 marine boilers for combat and merchant ships, including 95 percent of the US fleet in Tokyo Bay at Japanese surrender. In 1942, the company developed the cyclone furnace. Between 1943 and 1945 B&W provided components and process development for Manhattan Project. Between 1949 and 1952 B&W provided the 8 boilers for the SS United States, the fastest ocean liner constructed.
Between 1953 and 1955 B&W designed and fabricated components for USS Nautilus, world’s first nuclear-powered submarine. In 1961 B&W supplied reactors for world's first commercial nuclear ship NS Savannah. In 1962 B&W designed and furnished reactor systems for B&W's first commercial reactor, Indian Point, using HEU 233. In 1967 the name of Babcock-Wilcox & Goldie-McCulloch Ltd is changed to Wilcox Canada Ltd.. In 1975 B&W built components for liquid metal fast breeder reactors. In 1975 the long term business agreements with the British Babcock & Wilcox Ltd were ended. Subsequently, the British com
The Rosario Tramway is a planned mass transit tramway network in Rosario, Argentina in the bidding process stages. The project was assessed by Ferrocarrils de la Generalitat Valenciana and is inspired by the network the company runs in Valencia, though at one point a metro system was envisioned; the municipal and provincial governments have undertaken discussions with the Industrial and Commercial Bank of China for financing the project, as well as Siemens to provide the rolling stock. Once the project is complete, it will be the first time trams have run in the city on a mass scale since the closure of the city's tramway network in 1963, which had reached a maximum extension of 192 km; the project was first put forward as a metro network which, upon the completion of the Córdoba Underground, would mean that the city would have become the third in the country with an underground network as only the Buenos Aires Underground is in operation. An underground system for the city had first been proposed in 1930 following the success of the Subte in Buenos Aires, though this was never carried-out with trams being favoured instead.
The contemporary project to build a Metro in Rosario first appeared in 2008, but was dropped in 2010. After 4 years of silence on the project, it was again put on the table in July 2014 but was approached with caution, evaluating all possibilities before undertaking expensive underground works. By November of that year, the Chinese companies CITIC Group and China Machinery Engineering Corporation both showed interest in the project and both had invested in Argentine infrastructure before, in the purchase of CITIC-CNR cars for the Buenos Aires Underground and investment in infrastructure on the Belgrano Cargas network operated by the state-owned freight company Trenes Argentinos Cargas y Logística. Both an overground and underground network were put forward to the companies, while the chosen project would be carried-out on a turnkey basis; the Metro proposal saw the creation of 20km of tunnels starting from the rebuilt Rosario Sur Station at a cost of US$620 million. The rolling stock would consist of 35 trains with 4 cars each, while the frequency of services would be one train every 4 minutes.
The proposal received the backing of the Ministry of the Interior and Transport on a national level, as well as politicians on a provincial level, but was opposed by delegates from the Socialist Party who favoured a tram system over a metro. Another proposal was a broader Sistema Integrado de Movilidad Urbana which would combine street level transport with underground transport, the existing trolleybus network and other initiatives such as bicycle lanes and was deemed less costly than a Metro system by its proponents; the governor of Santa Fe Province Antonio Bonfatti opposed the Metro plan, favouring instead an urban tramway system. He stated that a Metro system was unnecessary in a city whose population is not expected to grow in the future, while a tramway system has the advantages of being cheaper and is more feasible to run 24 hours a day in a country which has considerable nocturnal activity. In Contrast, the Asociación Amigos del Riel de Rosario responded by saying that the soil in the city is suitable for the building of tunnels and supported the construction of a Metro system, though the organisation had some reservations on the project's time frame saying that it should be a long-term aim and only be carried-out after a series of commuter rail lines are established and the Rosario trolleybus network is improved along with the re-establishment of the former tram network.
The tramway proposal proved the most favourable and the bidding process began on 21 July 2015, one year after the metro project was re-initiated and numerous proposals put forward. The governor of the province said that more concrete plans would be announced by the end of the month and whether or not the network would maintain its original route or not, though it was confirmed that Siemens and the Industrial and Commercial Bank of China would put forward bids. On 30 October 2015, it was announced; the total cost is expected to be a US$360 million and connect together the city's main bus and rail terminals, with an estimated completion year set at 2019 should this phase of the project remain on schedule. Officials further justified the decision of opting for a tramway instead of an underground, saying that each kilometre of tramway costs US$18 million, while for an underground this figure would have been US$120 million; the city was the third in Argentina to receive an electrified tramway network, after La Plata and Buenos Aires.
The first horse-drawn trams appeared in the city in 1872 and two lines were built in the city with Argentine capital. The network began growing at a faster pace when the Anglo-Argentine Tramways Company which owned one of the most expansive tramway networks in the world in Buenos Aires, built Line A of the Buenos Aires Underground, began investing in the city. Argentine companies continued investing in the network and by 1890 it was 77km long and was transporting 7 million passengers annually. In 1897 the Buenos Aires tramway network was electrified and the same was proposed for Rosario in 1899, however it would not be undertaken until 1905. In 1906 the first electric trams began operating in the city and were colloquially known as "The Belgians" since the Belgian company Sofina had bought the CTAA by this point. A total of 14 electric lines were built in the city. At its peak, the network had 300 vehicles on its 192 km network, but by 1920, competi
Bombardier Transportation is the rail equipment division of the Canadian firm Bombardier Inc. Bombardier Transportation is one of the world's largest companies in the rail vehicle and equipment manufacturing and servicing industry. Bombardier Transportation is headquartered in Berlin. There are many regional offices and development facilities worldwide. Bombardier Transportation produces a wide range of products including passenger rail vehicles, bogies and controls. Danny Di Perna is the chief operating officer of Bombardier Transportation. In February 2019, the company had 40,650 employees, 63 manufacturing locations around the world. Bombardier Transportation's first order for mass transit rolling stock was in 1974 for the Société de transport de Montréal to build metro trains for the Montreal Metro; the core of the Transportation group was formed with the purchase of Montreal Locomotive Works in 1975. With the 1975 purchase, Bombardier acquired MLW's LRC tilting train design which it produced in the 1980s.
In 1987, Bombardier bought the assets of US railcar manufacturers Pullman-Standard. In the late 1980s Bombardier Transportation gained a manufacturing presence in Europe with the acquisition of a 45% share in BN Constructions Ferroviaires et Métalliques in 1986, the acquisition of ANF-Industries in 1989. In 1990, Procor Engineering Ltd. of Horbury near Wakefield, UK. In 1991 the group purchased Urban Transportation Development Corporation from the Government of Ontario, which had acquired Hawker Siddeley Canada. MLW was sold to General Electric in 1988. GE ended railcar operations in Canada in 1993. Bombardier Transportation continues to operate the railcar operations in Thunder Bay. In 1991 the grouping Bombardier Eurorail was formed consisting of the company's European subsidiaries. In 1992, the company acquired Mexico's largest railway rolling-stock manufacturer, from the Mexican government. In 1995 Waggonfabrik Talbot KG in Aachen, in 1998, Deutsche Waggonbau AG, Ateliers de Constructions Mécaniques de Vevey in Vevey, were acquired.
DWA encompassed the major portion of the railway equipment industry of the former East Germany, had its principal sites in Bautzen and Görlitz. In 2001 Bombardier Transportation acquired Adtranz from DaimlerChrysler, became by many measurements the Western world's largest rail-equipment manufacturer; the takeover was approved by the EU competition commission subject to a number of minor clauses including the divestment of Bombardier's stake in Adtranz/Stadler joint venture Stadler Pankow GmbH, an agreement to retain Kiepe as a supplier, ELIN as a partner for a number of years after the acquisition. The addition of ADtranz made Bombardier a manufacturer of locomotives along with its existing product lines of passenger carriages, multiple-unit trains, trams. With the acquisition of ADtranz, Bombardier gained competence in the electrical propulsion components business. After the Adtranz acquisition in 2001, Bombardier Transportation moved its core manufacturing strategy for Europe with a few legacy plants in North America for the smaller North American market: three sites for bogie manufacture were to be at Siegen in Germany, at the former ANF plant in Crespin.
Vehicle body manufacturing was to be done at Bautzen and Görlitz, at the former Kalmar Verkstad plant, at the Bombardier's Derby carriage plant, the former BN Constructions Ferroviaries et Métalliques in Brugge. For final assembly, the company chose the former Waggonfabrik Talbot plant in Aachen and the former LEW Hennigsdorf in Germany, the former Sorefame plant in Amadora and its plants in Derby, Brugge and Pratteln, Switzerland. Additionally a number of plants would have specialised manufacturing roles, including Česká Lípa and the Pafawag facility in Poland which would supply parts and welded structures, sites in Vienna and Bautzen which would specialise in light rail vehicle manufacture whilst double deck trains for the German market would be manufactured in Görlitz. Other sites were closed. In 2004 due to overcapacity in the European passenger train industry, Bombardier announced a restructuring program resulting in the closure of several plants. In late 2012 Bombardier announced the closure of the Bombardier Talbot plant in Aachen, a reduction in workforce in the transportation division of 1,200 people.
The company obtained two major orders in 2014: San Francisco Bay Area Rapid Transit District ordered an additional 365 rail cars from Bombardier in early 2014, to be assembled at Bombardier's plant in Plattsburgh, New York. In May 2014 Bombardier extended its presence in Australia by purchasing a 100% stake in Rail Signalling Service, an Australian comp
A tram-train is a light-rail public transport system where trams run through from an urban tramway network to main-line railway lines which are shared with conventional trains. This combines the tram's flexibility and accessibility with a train's greater speed, bridges the distance between main railway stations and a city centre. There is a train-tram, a train modified to run on tramlines; the tram-train and train-tram are interchangeable, although a train-tram is based on a train design modified to run as a tram and a tram-train is based on a tram design modified to run on a train line. The tram-train concept was pioneered with the Karlsruhe model in Germany, has since been adopted in Mulhouse in France and in Kassel and Saarbrücken in Germany; the tram-train is a type of interurban, i.e. they link separate towns or cities. According to George W. Hilton and John F. Due's definition. Most tram-trains are standard gauge. Exceptions include Alicante Nordhausen, which are metre gauge. Tram-train vehicles are dual-equipped to suit the needs of both tram and train operating modes, with support for multiple electrification voltages if required and safety equipment such as train stops and other railway signalling equipment.
The Karlsruhe and Saarbrücken systems use "PZB" or "Indusi" automatic train protection, so that if the driver passes a signal at stop the emergency brakes are applied. The idea is not new. In 1924, in Hobart, sharing of tracks between trams and trains was proposed; the difference between modern tram-trains and the older interurbans and radial railways is that tram-trains are built to meet mainline railway standards, rather than ignoring them. An exception is the United States' River Line in New Jersey which runs along freight tracks with time separation: passenger trains run by day, freight by night. Ōtsu: Keihan Keishin Line Kolkata: Calcutta Tramways Company Gmunden: Traunsee Tram Vienna: Badner Bahn Lyon: Rhônexpress Mulhouse: Mulhouse tramway Nantes: Tram-train Nantes Île-de-France: Tramway Line 4 Tramway Line 11 Express Chemnitz: Chemnitz Tramway – 750 V DC Karlsruhe: Stadtbahn Karlsruhe – 750 V DC/15 kV AC Kassel: Kassel RegioTram 600 V DC/15 kV AC and 600 V DC/on-board Diesel generator Nordhausen: Trams in Nordhausen – 600 V DC/on-board Diesel generator Saarbrücken: Saarbahn Zwickau: Trams in Zwickau – on-board Diesel generator Cagliari: Cagliari light rail Sassari: Metrosassari Alicante: Alicante Tram Cádiz: Tranvía Metropolitano de la Bahía de Cádiz Sheffield - Rotherham: Sheffield Supertram Austin, Texas: Capital MetroRail – commuter rail that shares more commonality with tram-train operation, with downtown street running and usage of mainline track.
Uses diesel multiple units. New Jersey: River Line – diesel multiple units using main line tracks between Trenton, New Jersey and Camden, New Jersey in a time-sharing agreement with the freight companies. Salt Lake City: TRAX uses former Denver and Rio Grande tracks as well as street trackage to service Salt Lake City. Between the hours of midnight and six in the morning, Union Pacific freight trains use much of the trackage, up to just past 2500 S to service a number of industries along the line. Oceanside: – Escondido: Sprinter uses track used by BNSF for freight at night in the Escondido branch and share track with Coaster Metrolink and Amtrak San Diego: The MTS blue line is used at night for freight for the SD&IV The October 6th Tram system, Egypt Haifa–Nazareth, Israel Kolkata, India Keelung–Taipei, Taiwan. Aarhus Letbane, Denmark Braunschweig, Germany Bratislava, Slovakia Erlangen, Germany – an extension of Straßenbahn Nürnberg not planned to use mainline rail tracks but proposed to do so in the future.
The planned line to Herzogenaurach replicates a former mainline rail line Grenoble, France Groningen, Netherlands île de France, France. The system is called Tram Express by the transport authority STIF: 1 line exists and 2 lines are scheduled; the light train rolling stock will only roll on national rail network in western line a short section of 3.6 km is an urban tram section of the 19 km line. The southern line is a 20 km line, 10 km will be tram section and the 10 km another will roll on national rail network. Karlsruhe, Germany Kiel, Germany Kyiv, Ukraine Košice, Slovakia León, Spain Liberec — Jablonec nad Nisou, Czech Republic Linköping, Sweden Lyon, France Manresa, Spain Metro Mondego, Portugal Midland Metro extensions in the West Midlands conurbation, England Porto Metro Lines B and C, Portugal RijnGouweLijn, Netherlands Metro de Sevilla. Seville has one metro line and one tram line that are not connected, but the long-term intention is to link the metro and tram systems. Strasbourg, France Szeged, Hungary.
The stretch between Szeged and Hódmezővásárhely is under construction, with a planned completion date of 2020. TramCamp, Camp de Tarragona, Spain Wrocław, Poland — 600 V DC/3 kV DC Riga, Latvia Tampere, Finland Turku, Finland A two-year tram-train pilot project is being undertaken between Sheffield and Rotherham. In the initial phase, from October 2017, Stadler Citylink tram-train vehicles (British Rail designation Class
Argentina the Argentine Republic, is a country located in the southern half of South America. Sharing the bulk of the Southern Cone with Chile to the west, the country is bordered by Bolivia and Paraguay to the north, Brazil to the northeast and the South Atlantic Ocean to the east, the Drake Passage to the south. With a mainland area of 2,780,400 km2, Argentina is the eighth-largest country in the world, the fourth largest in the Americas, the largest Spanish-speaking nation; the sovereign state is subdivided into twenty-three provinces and one autonomous city, Buenos Aires, the federal capital of the nation as decided by Congress. The provinces and the capital exist under a federal system. Argentina claims sovereignty over part of Antarctica, the Falkland Islands, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands; the earliest recorded human presence in modern-day Argentina dates back to the Paleolithic period. The Inca Empire expanded to the northwest of the country in Pre-Columbian times; the country has its roots in Spanish colonization of the region during the 16th century.
Argentina rose as the successor state of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata, a Spanish overseas viceroyalty founded in 1776. The declaration and fight for independence was followed by an extended civil war that lasted until 1861, culminating in the country's reorganization as a federation of provinces with Buenos Aires as its capital city; the country thereafter enjoyed relative peace and stability, with several waves of European immigration radically reshaping its cultural and demographic outlook. The almost-unparalleled increase in prosperity led to Argentina becoming the seventh wealthiest nation in the world by the early 20th century. Following the Great Depression in the 1930s, Argentina descended into political instability and economic decline that pushed it back into underdevelopment, though it remained among the fifteen richest countries for several decades. Following the death of President Juan Perón in 1974, his widow, Isabel Martínez de Perón, ascended to the presidency, she was overthrown in 1976 by a U.
S.-backed coup which installed a right-wing military dictatorship. The military government persecuted and murdered numerous political critics and leftists in the Dirty War, a period of state terrorism that lasted until the election of Raúl Alfonsín as President in 1983. Several of the junta's leaders were convicted of their crimes and sentenced to imprisonment. Argentina is a prominent regional power in the Southern Cone and Latin America, retains its historic status as a middle power in international affairs. Argentina has the second largest economy in South America, the third-largest in Latin America, membership in the G-15 and G-20 major economies, it is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, World Trade Organization, Union of South American Nations, Community of Latin American and Caribbean States and the Organization of Ibero-American States. Despite its history of economic instability, it ranks second highest in the Human Development Index in Latin America; the description of the country by the word Argentina has been found on a Venetian map in 1536.
In English the name "Argentina" comes from the Spanish language, however the naming itself is not Spanish, but Italian. Argentina means in Italian " of silver, silver coloured" borrowed from the Old French adjective argentine " of silver" > "silver coloured" mentioned in the 12th century. The French word argentine is the feminine form of argentin and derives from argent "silver" with the suffix -in; the Italian naming "Argentina" for the country implies Terra Argentina "land of silver" or Costa Argentina "coast of silver". In Italian, the adjective or the proper noun is used in an autonomous way as a substantive and replaces it and it is said l'Argentina; the name Argentina was first given by the Venetian and Genoese navigators, such as Giovanni Caboto. In Spanish and Portuguese, the words for "silver" are plata and prata and " of silver" is said plateado and prateado. Argentina was first associated with the silver mountains legend, widespread among the first European explorers of the La Plata Basin.
The first written use of the name in Spanish can be traced to La Argentina, a 1602 poem by Martín del Barco Centenera describing the region. Although "Argentina" was in common usage by the 18th century, the country was formally named "Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata" by the Spanish Empire, "United Provinces of the Río de la Plata" after independence; the 1826 constitution included the first use of the name "Argentine Republic" in legal documents. The name "Argentine Confederation" was commonly used and was formalized in the Argentine Constitution of 1853. In 1860 a presidential decree settled the country's name as "Argentine Republic", that year's constitutional amendment ruled all the names since 1810 as valid. In the English language the country was traditionally called "the Argentine", mimicking the typical Spanish usage la Argentina and resulting from a mistaken shortening of the fuller name'Argentine Republic'.'The Argentine' fell out of fashion during the mid-to-late 20th century, now the country is referred to as "Argentina".
In the Spanish language "Argentina" is feminine, taking the feminine article "La" as the i
Xàtiva is a town in eastern Spain, in the province of Valencia, on the right bank of the river Albaida and at the junction of the Valencia–Murcia and Valencia Albacete railways. It is located 25 km west of the Mediterranean Sea. During the Al-Andalus Islamic era, Arabs brought the technology to manufacture paper to Xàtiva. In the 12th century, Xàtiva was known for its schools and learning circles. Islamic scholar Abu Ishaq al-Shatibi's last name refers to Xàtiva where he died. Xàtiva was famous in Roman times for its linen fabrics, mentioned by the Latin poets Ovid and Catullus. Xàtiva is known as an early European centre of paper manufacture. In the 12th century, Arabs brought the technology to manufacture paper to Xàtiva, it is the birthplace of two popes, Callixtus III and Alexander VI, the painter José Ribera. It suffered a dark moment in its history at the hands of Philip V of Spain, after his victory at the Battle of Almansa during the War of the Spanish Succession, had the city besieged ordered it to be burned and renamed San Felipe.
In memory of the insult, the portrait of the monarch hangs upside down in the local museum of l'Almodí. Xàtiva was a provincial capital under the short-lived 1822 territorial division of Spain, during the Trienio Liberal; the Province of Xàtiva was revoked with the return to absolutism in 1823. Xàtiva is built on the margin of a fertile plain, on the southern slopes of the Monte Vernissa, a hill with two peaks crowned by Xativa Castle; the Collegiate Basilica, dating from 1414, but rebuilt about a century in the Renaissance style, was a cathedral, is the chief among many churches and convents. The town-hall and a church on the castle hill are constructed of inscribed Roman masonry, several houses date from the Moorish period. Other sights include: Royal Monastery of the Assumption and Baroque style, built during the 14th century and renovated in the 16th–18th centuries. Natal house of the Pope Alexander VI. Sant Feliu – 13th century church. Sant Pere -14th century church; the interior has a Coffered ceiling decorated in Gothic-Mudéjar style.
Hermitage of Santa Anna, in Gothic style Almodí, a 14th-century Gothic edifice now housing a Museum Casa de la Enseñanza, Xàtiva Sant Francesc The Republic of Sorió, where you could find the famous valencian version of the Olsen sisters, known for having sung in Maqueta Jove TV Show. In the summer, the village is blessed with the visit of an old friend of the sisters': the well-known Hanna Gorbana. Pope Calixtus III Pope Alexander VI Tomás Cerdán de Tallada Diego Ramírez de Arellano Jusepe de Ribera Jaime Villanueva Raimon Joan Ramos Toni Cucarella Feliu Ventura Route of the Borgias Official website Media related to Xàtiva at Wikimedia Commons Xàtiva travel guide from WikivoyageThere is plenty of information available about Xativa and the surrounding area on the English language website. "Játiva". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press