In chemistry, the adjective ferrous indicates a compound that contains iron in the +2 oxidation state as the divalent cation Fe2+. It is opposed to "ferric", which indicates presence of iron in a +3 oxidation state, such as the trivalent cation Fe3+; this usage has been replaced by the IUPAC nomenclature, which calls for the oxidation state being indicated by Roman numerals in parentheses, such as iron oxide for ferrous oxide, iron oxide for ferric oxide, iron oxide for the oxide Fe3O4 that contains both forms of iron. Outside chemistry, "ferrous" means "containing iron"; the word is derived from the Latin word ferrum. Ferrous metals include alloys of iron with other metals. "Non-ferrous" is used to describe metals and alloys that do not contain an appreciable amount of iron. The term "ferrous" is applied only to metals and alloys; the adjective ferruginous is used instead to refer to non-metallic substances that contain iron, such as "ferruginous water". Ferromagnetism Steelmaking Ferrous metal recycling Iron oxide Iron bromide

Croatian Peasant Party

The Croatian Peasant Party is a agrarian political party in Croatia founded on December 22, 1904 by Antun and Stjepan Radić as Croatian Peoples' Peasant Party. The Brothers Radić believed that the realization of Croatian statehood was possible within Austria-Hungary, but that it had to be reformed as a Monarchy divided into three equal parts – Austria, Croatia. After the creation of Kingdom of Yugoslavia in 1918, Party requested for the Croatian part of the Kingdom to be based on self-determination; this brought them great public support which columned in 1920 parliamentary election when HPSS won all 58 seats assigned to Croatia. In 1920, disgruntled with a bad position of Croats in the Kingdom, the party changed its name into Croatian Republican Peasant Party and started advocating secession from the Kingdom and the establishment of "peaceful peasant Republic of Croatia". On 1923 and 1925 election, HRSS doubled the number of won votes, has thus become the second largest party in the Parliament.

In 1927, faced with a constant prosecution by the regime, HRSS was forced to soften its policy, change its name into Croatian Peasant Party, recognize the Vidovdan Constitution and form a coalition with Serbian People's Radical Party. This resulted in HSS losing its popularity, seen in 1927 election when it lost third of votes won in the previous elections. After termination of the coalition agreement with the Radicals, HSS formed Peasant-Democratic Coalition with Pribičević's Independent Democratic Party. In 1928, Vladko Maček become the new president of HSS after the assassination of Stjepan Radić. After King Alexander declared dictatorship in 1929, HSS was banned and its members prosecuted. HSS participated in the 1935 and 1938 election as a part of the United opposition coalition which helped it to regain its influence. In 1939, Cvetković–Maček Agreement helped in the establishing of the HSS-governed Banovina of Croatia. After the establishment of Nazi-puppet state, the so-called Independent State of Croatia in 1941, HSS was banned once again, with half of its members joining either Ustaše or Partisans, part staying loyal to Maček who believed that the victory of Allies would bring liberal democracy into Croatia and that HSS would return to power.

In May 1945, Maček left the country, while HSS split into two fractions which boycotted the 1945 election because of their opposition to the Communists. During the period of SFR Yugoslavia, HSS was active abroad. On May 25, 1991, HSS was restored under the leadership of Drago Stipac at the so-called Assembly of Unification; the party first entered Government after 2000 elections, on which it participated as part of liberal coalition, with Ivica Račan serving as Prime Minister and its president Zlatko Tomčić as Parliament Speaker. After HSS lost 2003 election, it moved to the opposition. In 2007 election, HSS formed yet another liberal coalition and ended up leading Ministries of Tourism and Agriculture in the Cabinet of Ivo Sanader II, Ministries of Tourism and Regional Development in the Cabinet of Jadranka Kosor. In 2011 election party won only 1 seat in the Parliament. In 2015 election HSS won 1 seats as part of the conservative Patriotic Coalition, supported Tihomir Orešković as Prime Minister.

In 2016 election, HSS won 5 seats as part of the liberal People's Coalition. The Croatian People's Peasant Party was formed on December 22, 1904 by Antun Radić along with his brother Stjepan Radić, it participated in the elections for the first time in the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia in 1906, winning no seats. Despite this, they entered the parliament in subsequent elections. In 1908 the party won three seats, in 1910 nine seats, in 1911 eight seats. While Croatia was still part of Austria-Hungary, HSS sought for greater autonomy, peasants' rights and land reform. After World War I and the dissolution of Austria-Hungary, the HSS garnered significant popular and electoral support for its advocacy of an independent Croatian state, its opposition to the creation of the Kingdom of Serbs and Slovenes which the party claimed would be dominated by Serbs. Despite the party's efforts, the kingdom was established, the HSS became an opposition party in parliament. Although popular among its constituency, the party's weakness was its limited national appeal and its ethnic and economic-based constituency.

The HSS advocated a federal state in which Croatia would be afforded equal status vis-à-vis Serbia, the party platform still called for greater Croatian autonomy and independence. With that goal in mind, the HSS renamed itself the Croatian Republican Peasant Party until the royal authorities forced the party to remove the word "Republican" in 1925 because of its anti-royalist connotation. In the early 1920s the Yugoslav government of prime minister Nikola Pašić used political and police pressure over voters and ethnic minorities, confiscation of opposition pamphlets and other measures of election rigging to keep the opposition the Croatian Peasant Party and its allies, in minority in Yugoslav parliament. Pasic believed that Yugoslavia should be as centralized as possible, creating in place of distinct regional governments and identities a Greater Serbian national concept of concentrated power in the hands of Belgrade; as the opposition, the party's strategy was to boycott parliamentary sessions which not only allowed Serb politicians to further consolidate power, it created political instability and hostility.

On June 20, 1928, Puniša Račić, a Serbian ultra-nationalist, was o


Xerolinus is a genus of darkling beetle. It consists of thirty species found in the West Indies. Michael A. Ivie and Charles J. Hart named and circumscribed the genus in 2016; the genus Xerolinus was circumscribed in 2016 by Montana State University coleopterists Michael A. Ivie and Charles J. Hart, they included twenty-nine species, which were transferred from the genus Diastolinus. In a separate 2016 paper and Ivie described two new Xerolinus species. Ivie and Hart designated X. sallei, which French etymologists Étienne Mulsant and Claudius Rey described as Diastolinus sallei in 1859, to be the type species of Xerolinus. The generic name Xerolinus has a masculine gender, its etymology comes from the Greek ξηρός combined with the ending of the generic name Diasolinus. This reflects the habitat. Xerolinus is in the subtribe Opatrina within the tribe Opatrini. Xerolinus is found in southern Florida and the West Indies, including the Lucayan Archipelago, the Greater Antilles, the British Virgin Islands.

The majority of described species are from the Cuban archipelago, although Ivie and Hart note that there will be more species in the Lucayan Archipelago once its fauna become better studied. Most species in Xerolinus are endemic to a single island or to a group of islands corresponding to a single island in the Pleistocene; the eastern extreme of this genus's range is Great Camanoe. Xerolinus species have an elongate oval body length with a length of 4.5 -- 11.0 mm. As of 2018, the following thirty-one species are recognized: In addition, an undescribed species mentioned in Robert H. Turnbow Jr. and Michael C. Thomas's 2008 checklist of Bahamian coleoptera belongs to Xerolinus. Ivie and Hart noted that there are many other undescribed species as well as islands whose beetle species have not been sampled