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Fertility

Fertility is the natural capability to produce offspring. As a measure, fertility rate is the number of offspring born per mating pair, individual or population. Fertility differs from fecundity, defined as the potential for reproduction. A lack of fertility is infertility. Human fertility depends on factors of nutrition, sexual behavior, culture, endocrinology, economics, way of life, emotions. In demographic contexts, fertility refers to the actual production of offspring, rather than the physical capability to produce, termed fecundity. While fertility can be measured, fecundity cannot be. Demographers measure the fertility rate in a variety of ways, which can be broadly broken into "period" measures and "cohort" measures. "Period" measures refer to a cross-section of the population in one year. "Cohort" data on the other hand, follows the same people over a period of decades. Both period and cohort measures are used. Crude birth rate - the number of live births in a given year per 1,000 people alive at the middle of that year.

One disadvantage of this indicator is. General fertility rate - the number of births in a year divided by the number of women aged 15–44, times 1000, it focuses on the potential mothers only, takes the age distribution into account. Child-Woman Ratio - the ratio of the number of children under 5 to the number of women 15–49, times 1000, it is useful in historical data as it does not require counting births. This measure is a hybrid, because it involves deaths as well as births. Coale's Index of Fertility - a special device used in historical research Total fertility rate - the total number of children a woman would bear during her lifetime if she were to experience the prevailing age-specific fertility rates of women. TFR equals the sum for all age groups of 5 times each ASFR rate. Gross Reproduction Rate - the number of girl babies a synthetic cohort will have, it assumes that all of the baby girls will grow up and live to at least age 50. Net Reproduction Rate - the NRR starts with the GRR and adds the realistic assumption that some of the women will die before age 49.

NRR is always lower than GRR, but in countries where mortality is low all the baby girls grow up to be potential mothers, the NRR is the same as GRR. In countries with high mortality, NRR can be as low as 70% of GRR; when NRR = 1.0, each generation of 1000 baby girls grows up and gives birth to 1000 girls. When NRR is less than one, each generation is smaller than the previous one; when NRR is greater than 1 each generation is larger than the one before. NRR is a measure of the long-term future potential for growth, but it is different from the current population growth rate. A parent's number of children correlates with the number of children that each person in the next generation will have. Factors associated with increased fertility include religiosity, intention to have children, maternal support. Factors associated with decreased fertility include wealth, female labor participation, urban residence, cost of housing, increased female age and increased male age; the "Three-step Analysis" of the fertility process was introduced by Kingsley Davis and Judith Blake in 1956 and makes use of three proximate determinants: The economic analysis of fertility is part of household economics, a field that has grown out of the New Home Economics.

Influential economic analyses of fertility include Becker and Easterlin. The latter developed. Bongaarts proposed a model where the total fertility rate of a population can be calculated from four proximate determinants and the total fecundity; the index of marriage, the index of contraception, the index of induced abortion and the index of postpartum infecundability. These indices range from 0 to 1; the higher the index, the higher it will make the TFR, for example a population where there are no induced abortions would have a Ca of 1, but a country where everybody used infallible contraception would have a Cc of 0. TFR = TF × Cm × Ci × Ca × Cc These four indices can be used to calculate the total marital fertility and the total natural fertility. TFR = TMFR × Cm TMFR = TN × Cc × Ca TN = TF × Ci Intercourse The first step is sexual intercourse, an examination of the average age at first intercourse, the average frequency outside marriage, the average frequency inside. Conception Certain physical conditions may make it impossible for a woman to conceive.

This is called "involuntary infecundity." If the woman has a condition making it possible, but unlikely to conceive, this is termed "subfecundity." Venereal diseases are common causes. Nutrition is a factor as well: women with less than 20% body fat may be subfecund, a factor of concern for athletes and people susceptible to anorexia. Demographer Ruth Frisch has argued that "It takes 50,000 calories to make a baby". There is subfecundity in the weeks following childbirth, this can be prolonged for a year or more through breastfeeding. A furious political debate raged in the 1980s over the ethics of baby food companies

Nora, Nebraska

Nora is a village in Nuckolls County, United States. The population was 21 at the 2010 census. Nora was laid out in 1887. After browsing a postal directory, the town's founder selected the name Nora, after Illinois. Nora is located at 40°9′44″N 97°58′12″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the village has a total area of 0.38 square miles, all of it land. As of the census of 2010, there were 21 people, 10 households, 5 families residing in the village; the population density was 55.3 inhabitants per square mile. There were 11 housing units at an average density of 28.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the village was 19.0 % from other races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 19.0% of the population. There were 10 households of which 20.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 40.0% were married couples living together, 10.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 50.0% were non-families. 30.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 10% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.

The average household size was 2.10 and the average family size was 2.80. The median age in the village was 53.5 years. 14.3% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the village was 57.1 % female. As of the census of 2000, there were 20 people, 10 households, 5 families residing in the village; the population density was 52.6 people per square mile. There were 10 housing units at an average density of 26.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the village was 100.00% White. There were 10 households out of which 30.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 50.0% were married couples living together, 50.0% were non-families. 50.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 40.0% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.00 and the average family size was 3.00. In the village, the population was spread out with 20.0% under the age of 18, 35.0% from 25 to 44, 25.0% from 45 to 64, 20.0% who were 65 years of age or older.

The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females, there were 66.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 60.0 males. As of 2000 the median income for a household in the village was $12,250, the median income for a family was $48,750. Males had a median income of $21,250 versus $28,750 for females; the per capita income for the village was $21,310. None of the population and none of the families were below the poverty line

Lena Zavaroni and Music

Lena Zavaroni and Music was a music and variety programme featuring Lena Zavaroni and her guests. Six episodes were aired by the BBC in the spring of 1979; the BBC released an LP called Lena Zavaroni And Her Music and distributed by CBS Records and copyrighted by Galaxy Records. The show was taped at the BBC Television Centre. Episode 1, broadcast 23 May 1979 "Music Was My First Love" A clog dance to the music of Violinski "Superstar" "Anyone Can Whistle" "Back In Time"/"Jump, Boogie" "All That Jazz" "Thank You For The Music" Episode 2, broadcast 30 May 1979 "Music Was My First Love" "It's a Miracle"/"Take Me Back To Hollywood" Comedy sketch with Lena and Adrian Hedley featuring an audio harmonizer "Bright Eyes" which leads to Silent movie comedy sketch, filmed in sepia, with Lena, Johnny Hutch and The Comedy Hollywood Cops. "Dance All Night" Two songs by Grace Kennedy "Hollywood Romance" "Could It Be Magic" Episode 3, broadcast 6 June 1979 "Music Was My First Love" "Can You Feel A Brand New Day"/"Just The Way You Are" "D, D, D, Dancing" "Fit To Be Tied" "Doris Day Medley" "I've Heard That Song Before" "The Little Old Lady/City Lights and Spotlight" Episode 4, broadcast 13 June 1979 "Music Was My First Love" "Somebody Should Have Told Me" "Go to Rio" "Reach Out And Touch Somebody's Hand" "Everything I've Got" Music by the New Sensations Steel Band "Razzle Dazzle" Johnny Hutch and the Herculeans "Razzle Dazzle" "The Carnival Is Over"/"Weekend" Episode 5, broadcast 20 June 1979 "Music Was My First Love" "Going Places" "Tomorrow" "Dancing in the City" "The 59th Street Bridge Song" "The Land Of Points" "Sweet Gingerbread Man" "Watch what Happens" "I Love America" Episode 6, broadcast 27 June 1979 "Music Was My First Love" "Forever in Blue Jeans"/"Corner of the Sky" "Hallelujah" Dance sequence "Oh Happy Day" Comedy sketch "Kites" Peter Skellern singing and playing piano "Ease On Down the Road" "Don't Nobody Bring Me No Bad News" "Home" Lena Zavaroni and Music on IMDb

Brain Battle

Brain Battle was a Canadian interactive game show, which aired weekdays on Global. The show premiered on March 26, 2007 and aired a total of 356 episodes as of its series finale on August 4, 2008. By the end of its run, Brain Battle aired live in all time zones, starting at 11:00 AM EST, running for one hour. Viewers could enter by calling on a premium rate telephone line, sending a text message, or entering on the show's Web site for free. In between calls, a multi-round game was played with 2 in-studio contestants various forms of word puzzles, but in-studio games were dropped, with the show only consisting of phone-in games after it; the show's staff maintained a group on Facebook, encouraging users to interact live with the crew of the show. Alongside traditional phone-in games, Brain Battle used in-studio players in addition to the phone-in games. 2 players competed against each other in 3 rounds of word games. The rounds were Chain Word, where players attempted to guess words that were in the middle of a chain between two other words, Spell it Write, which required the player to guess the correct spelling of a word, True or False, where players answered true or false questions.

In the final round, Say it Again, the winner from the previous rounds would start with $100, answer questions for 60 seconds or until they get a total of $1,000. Wrong answers deducted $100, though they could not drop below $100. From the premiere until mid-July 2007, several home player games have aired per show one "Chain Word", one "Say It Again" puzzle, but "True Or False" questions and "Spell It Write" puzzles were used. Starting in mid-July 2007, only one home player game was played since the show was not airing live in all markets; the game could be any aspect of the in-studio games, but is a "Chain Word" or a "Say It Again" puzzle. It is announced. Callers were required to answer a skill-testing question when they called or texted; the skill-testing question was the answer to the main game, which meant that the player, selected would win. By mid-September, the skill-testing question became the game itself in a way, as now every 10th caller would be added to a pool, each caller being randomly selected.

A jackpot game was implemented additionally. Episodes included "Instant Gratification" prizes, where viewers are called and given a much smaller prize for calling, without playing the Jackpot game on the air. In September 2007, the jackpot was dropped to $1,000 and within a week did away with the jackpot format; the game was changed such that instead of having one or two “Chain Word” and “Say it Again” puzzle per show, there are two or three “Mystery Word” games where the viewer has to fill in the first or second half of a compound word. They provided few clues; the prize was progressive, increasing after every incorrect As well, the show was now airing live in all markets once again, so multiple puzzles and callers per episode returned. At the end of October 2007, the show became an hour of just home player games, another format began. In the new format, a category, or a half of a two-part word or phrase is given, with 10 possible answers being on a board. If a player guesses a word, on the board, the player wins whatever prize is behind it.

Sometimes players are given multiple chances to guess, a player can theoretically win twice on one call. The dollar amounts on the board contained two $50's, two $100's, two $150's, two $200's, a $300, Jackpot - which would advance the caller to the Jackpot game. In the Jackpot game, the viewer chooses 3 spaces from a computerized lottery ticket style board which consists of 16 spaces. Thirteen of them contain amounts of money, while the other 3 contain dollar signs, which are worth $50. To win the $5,000 jackpot, the viewer must choose the 3 spaces. If the viewer does not pick all three dollar signs, they win only the sum of the three amounts that they chose. Host Jason Agnew will offer the contestant a small cash prize not to play the jackpot game; the top prize for the jackpot game is $5,000, although it has been increased at times, to $6,000, $7,500 and $10,000. The highest jackpot offered was $13,000 The jackpot game was never won. A spinoff of Brain Battle called PopQ was aired for a short period on Global's sister network E!, which used Brain Battle's format, but with entertainment themed puzzles.

On August 4, 2008, it was announced that Brain Battle would be replaced by a new phone-in show which debuted on the early morning of August 23, 2008, TimeShift Trivia, which would air live at 1:00 AM in every time zone on Friday nights, running for 4 hours in total. However, only 1 hour is aired per time zone, allowing viewers with access to out-of-market Global affiliates to continue watching the show in other time zones; the same staff and host will work for the new show. The last show was aired that day. Official Brain Battle website

Heislerville, New Jersey

Heislerville is located in Maurice River Township, in Cumberland County, New Jersey, United States. Heislerville's population as of the 2010 Census was 451. There are 200 housing units in its approximate nine-mile radius of which 8.1657 square miles is land and 0.0177 square miles is water. The community borders the Maurice Delaware Bay; the East Point Lighthouse was built in 1849, located on the northern side of Delaware Bay at the mouth of the circuitous Maurice River. The lighthouse is open a few days every year, it is still a working light house but remotely, it has not been manned for years. Today, aside from truck gardens, small fishing operations, a couple of marinas on state-leased land off Matt's Landing Road; the major employer of townspeople is the state of New Jersey as Maurice River Township is home to three prisons. In addition to the Church, located within the community is the Heislerville Volunteer Fire Company

Palu-Koro Fault

The Palu-Koro Fault or Palu-Koro Fault System is a major active NNW-SSE trending left-lateral strike-slip fault zone on the island of Sulawesi in Indonesia. It caused tsunami, it extends from near Dondowa, North Luwu Regency, in the south, where it links to the WNW-ESE trending Matano Fault. It continues northwards, heading offshore through the Gulf of Palu and passing to the west of the Minahassa Peninsula, before linking with the North Sulawesi Subduction Zone. Although it is a strike slip fault, there thrust features and segments. Near Palu it forms the western side of the Palu Basin, a small pull-apart basin developed along the fault system; the fault forms the boundary between two of the major microblocks that form the island, the North Sula Block and the Makassar Block. The current slip rate along the Palu-Koro Fault is estimated to be in the range 30 to 40 millimetres per year, compared to a long term slip rate of 40 to 50 millimetres per year over the last 5 million years; the fault is known to be active and several historical earthquakes are thought to have occurred on this zone, in 1905, 1907, 1909, 1927, 1934, 1968, 1985 and 1993.

From trenching across the fault, three major earthquakes have been identified over the last 2,000 years, suggesting a recurrence interval for major earthquakes of about 700 years. That recurrence interval is insufficient to account for the long-term slip-rate, suggesting that either aseismic creep is important in this fault zone or that other strands have been active, away from the main fault trace