A festival is an event ordinarily celebrated by a community and centering on some characteristic aspect of that community and its religion or cultures. It is marked as a local or national holiday, mela, or eid. A festival constitutes typical cases of glocalization, as well as the high culture-low culture interrelationship. Next to religion and folklore, a significant origin is agricultural. Food is such a vital resource. Religious commemoration and thanksgiving for good harvests are blended in events that take place in autumn, such as Halloween in the northern hemisphere and Easter in the southern. Festivals serve to fulfill specific communal purposes in regard to commemoration or thanking to the gods and goddesses. Celebrations offer a sense of belonging for religious, social, or geographical groups, contributing to group cohesiveness, they may provide entertainment, important to local communities before the advent of mass-produced entertainment. Festivals that focus on cultural or ethnic topics seek to inform community members of their traditions.
In Ancient Greece and Rome, festivals such as the Saturnalia were associated with social organisation and political processes as well as religion. In modern times, festivals may be attended by strangers such as tourists, who are attracted to some of the more eccentric or historical ones; the Philippines is one example of a modern society with many festivals, as each day of the year has at least one specific celebration. There are more than 42,000 known major and minor festivals in the country, most of which are specific to the barangay level; the word "festival" was used as an adjective from the late fourteenth century, deriving from Latin via Old French. In Middle English, a "festival dai" was a religious holiday, its first recorded used as a noun was in 1589. Feast first came into usage as a noun circa 1200, its first recorded use as a verb was circa 1300; the term "feast" is used in common secular parlance as a synonym for any large or elaborate meal. When used as in the meaning of a festival, most refers to a religious festival rather than a film or art festival.
In the Philippines and many other former Spanish colonies, the Spanish word fiesta is used to denote a communal religious feast to honor a patron saint. Many festivals have religious origins and entwine cultural and religious significance in traditional activities; the most important religious festivals such as Christmas, Rosh Hashanah, Eid al-Fitr and Eid al-Adha serve to mark out the year. Others, such as harvest festivals, celebrate seasonal change. Events of historical significance, such as important military victories or other nation-building events provide the impetus for a festival. An early example is the festival established by Ancient Egyptian Pharaoh Ramesses III celebrating his victory over the Libyans. In many countries, royal holidays commemorate dynastic events just as agricultural holidays are about harvests. Festivals are commemorated annually. There are numerous types of festivals in the world and most countries celebrate important events or traditions with traditional cultural events and activities.
Most culminate in the consumption of specially prepared food and they bring people together. Festivals are strongly associated with national holidays. Lists of national festivals are published to make participation easier. Among many religions, a feast is a set of celebrations in honour of God. A feast and a festival are interchangeable. Most religions have festivals that recur annually and some, such as Passover and Eid al-Adha are moveable feasts – that is, those that are determined either by lunar or agricultural cycles or the calendar in use at the time; the Sed festival, for example, celebrated the thirtieth year of an Egyptian pharaoh's rule and every three years after that. Among the Ashantis, most of their traditional festivals are linked to gazette sites which are believed to be sacred with several rich biological resources in their pristine forms. Thus, the annual commemoration of the festivals helps in maintaining the buoyancy of the conserved natural site, assisting in biodiversity conservation.
In the Christian liturgical calendar, there are two principal feasts, properly known as the Feast of the Nativity of our Lord and the Feast of the Resurrection. In the Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, Anglican liturgical calendars there are a great number of lesser feasts throughout the year commemorating saints, sacred events or doctrines. In the Philippines, each day of the year has at least one specific religious festival, either from Catholic, Islamic, or indigenous origins. Buddhist religious festivals, such as Esala Perahera are held in Sri Thailand. Hindu festivals, such as Holi are ancient; the Sikh community celebrates the Vaisakhi festival marking the new birth of the Khalsa. Among the many offspring of general arts festivals are more specific types of festivals, including ones that showcase intellectual or creative achievement such as science festivals, literary festivals and music festivals. Sub-categories include rock festivals, jazz festivals and buskers festivals. In the Philippines, aside from numerous art festivals scattered throughout the year, February is known as national arts month, the culmination of all art festivals in the entire archipelago.
Film festivals involve the screen
Delhi has a long history, has been an important political centre of India as the capital of several empires. Much of Delhi's ancient history finds no record and this may be regarded as a lost period of its history. Extensive coverage of Delhi's history begins with the onset of the Delhi Sultanate in the 12th century. Since Delhi has been the centre of a succession of mighty empires and powerful kingdoms, making Delhi one of the longest-serving capitals and one of the oldest inhabited cities in the world. Delhi is famous It is considered to be a city built and rebuilt several times, as outsiders who invaded the Indian Subcontinent would ransack the existing capital city in Delhi, those who came to conquer and stay would be so impressed by the city's strategic location as to make it their capital and rebuild it in their own way; the Delhi Sultanate is the name given for a series of five successive dynasties, which remained as a dominant power of Indian subcontinent with Delhi as their capital.
The rule of the Delhi Sultanate was established in 1206 by Qutub-ud-Din Aibak. The relics of the Delhi Sultanate include the Qutb Minar and its surrounding monuments and the Tughlaqabad Fort. During this time, the city became a center for culture; the Delhi Sultanate came to an end in 1526, when Babur defeated the forces of the last sultan of Delhi, Ibrahim Lodi at the first Battle of Panipat, formed the Mughal Empire. The Mughal Empire ruled the area for three centuries. During the 16th century, the city declined; the fifth Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan built the walled city of Shahjahanabad within Delhi, its landmarks, the Red Fort and Jama Masjid. His reign would be considered the zenith of the empire. After the death of his successor Aurangzeb, the Mughal Empire was plagued by a series of revolts, they lost major portions to the Maratha and Sikh empires, Delhi was sacked and looted by Nader Shah. In 1803, the Delhi was captured by the British East India Company. During Company Rule in India, the Mughal Emperor Bahadur Shah II was reduced to a figurehead.
The Indian Rebellion of 1857 sought to end company rule and declared Bahadur Shah II the Emperor of India. However, the British soon recaptured Delhi and their other territories, ending the short-lived rebellion; this marked the beginning of direct British Rule in India. In 1911, the capital of British India was shifted from Calcutta to New Delhi, the last inner city of Delhi designed by Edwin Lutyens. After India's Independence from the British, New Delhi became the capital of the newly formed Republic of India, it is popularly said. The phrase of the seven cities of Delhi was coined by colonial-era historians and referred only to the Islamic era settlements, i.e. the sites of the sultanate and Mughal rulers. Hence, the classic list of the seven cities of Delhi includes the following sites: Qutb Minar complex/Mehrauli, the site of the first capital of the Delhi Sultanate developed during the rule of the Mamluk dynasty between 1192 and 1290, who strengthened the defences of the pre-existing forts known as Lalkot and Qila Rai Pithora and constructed new buildings within their boundaries.
Siri, first established as a camp for protection against invading Mongols by Alauddin Khalji, fortified in about ca. 1303 A. D. Tughlaqabad, built by Ghiyasuddin Tughluq in ca. 1320 A. D. Jahanpanah Sanctuary of the World, created by the construction of two long walls connecting the first two Delhis, built by Muhammad bin Tughluq in ca. 1325 A. D. Ferozabad, built by Firuz Shah Tughluq in ca. 1354 A. D. Dinpanah Sanctuary of the Faith, built by Humayun, Shergarh, built by Sher Shah Suri, both in the area near the speculated site of the legendary Indraprastha. Shahjahanabad, the walled city built by Shah Jahan from 1638 to 1649, containing the Lal Qila and the Chandni Chowk, nowadays known as Old Delhi. However, this classic list doesn't take into account numerous other settlements, established before and after the Islamic rule, in the area called the'Delhi Triangle,' bounded to the south and the west by the Aravalli Range, locally known as the Delhi Ridge, to the east by the Yamuna River. Among the most relevant sites are: Indraprastha, the legendary ancient city is believed to have been established 5000 years ago, as per the ancient Indian epic Mahabharata.
A long-standing tradition associates Delhi with Indraprastha and identifies the legendary city with the village Indarpat, which survived until the early 20th century within the Purana Qila. There is no tangible archeological evidence, which links the excavated'painted greyware' at Purana Qila with the Bharata Khanda site. Surajkund, Tomara settlement dating from the 9th or 10th century, where a large masonry tank can be found. Lalkot built ca. 1052 A. D. by the Tomara ruler Anangpal. Qila Rai Pithora built in ca. 1180 A. D. by Prithviraj Chauhan, who extended and fortified the Lalkot as a defence against invaders. This area, now called Mehrauli, was redeveloped as the seat of the Mamluk dynasty, who built the Qutb Minar complex within its boundaries. Lodi Complex, built by the Sayyid and Lodi dynasties in early 16th century. Lutyens' Delhi or New Delhi, the city built by the British, declared Capital on 12 December 1911. On 12 December 2011 New Delhi celebrated 100 years of serving as India's National Capital.
Modern Delhi, i.e the National Capital Territory, encompasses all of the above sites. For various reasons, modern versions of the list of the seven cit
Pseudomonas sRNA are non-coding RNAs that were predicted by the bioinformatic program SRNApredict2. This program identifies putative sRNAs by searching for co-localization of genetic features associated with sRNA-encoding genes and the expression of the predicted sRNAs was subsequently confirmed by Northern blot analysis; these sRNAs have been shown to be conserved across several pseudomonas species but their function is yet to be determined. Using Tet-Trap genetic approach RNAT genes post-transcriptionally regulated by temperature upshift were identified: ptxS and PA5194. Bacillus subtilis sRNA Caenorhabditis elegans sRNA Mycobacterium tuberculosis sRNA NrsZ small RNA AsponA antisense RNA Repression of heat shock gene expression element SrbA sRNA