Montreal Museum of Fine Arts
The Montreal Museum of Fine Arts is an art museum in Montreal, Canada. It is amongst the most prominent in Canada; the museum is located on the historic Golden Square Mile stretch of Sherbrooke Street. The MMFA is spread across five pavilions, occupies a total floor area of 53,095 square metres, 13,000 of which are exhibition space. With the 2016 inauguration of the Michal and Renata Hornstein Pavilion for Peace, the museum campus was expected to become the eighteenth largest art museum in North America; the permanent collection included 44,000 works in 2013. The original "reading room" of the Art Association of Montreal was the precursor of the museum's current library, the oldest art library in Canada; the Montreal Museum of Fine Arts is a member of the International Group of Organizers of Large-scale Exhibitions known as the Bizot Group, a forum which allows the leaders of the largest museums in the world to exchange works and exhibitions. The museum is affiliated with: CMA, CHIN, Virtual Museum of Canada.
Founded in 1860 by Bishop Fulford, the Art Association of Montreal was created to "encourage the appreciation of fine arts among the people of the city". Since it did not have a permanent place to store acquisitions the Art Association was not able to acquire works to display nor to seek works from collectors. During the following twenty years, the organization had an itinerant existence during which its shows and expositions were held in various Montreal venues. In 1877, the Art Association received an exceptional gift from a Montreal businessman, he gave the core of his art collection consisting of 4 bronzes. In addition he donated to the Montreal institution a building site on the north-east corner of Phillips Square and further the sum of money of $8,000; this latter gift was on condition. On the 26 May 1879, the Governor General of Canada, Sir John Douglas Sutherland Campbell, inaugurated the Art Gallery of the Art Association of Montreal, the first building in the history of Canada to be constructed for the purpose of housing an art collection.
The Art Gallery at Phillips Square, designed by the Hopkins and Wily architecture firm, comprised an exhibition room, another smaller room reserved for graphic works as well as a lecture hall and an embryonic art school. The museum was enlarged in 1893 by founding member G. Drummond's nephew, Andrew Thomas Taylor, with decorative carving by sculptor Henry Beaumont; the Art Association held an annual show of works created by its members as well as a Spring Salon devoted to the works of living Canadian Artists. The gift made by Benaiah Gibb was a watershed event in the founding of the museum's collection; the generous gift engaged a keen interest in the public and, because of it, the donations multiplied. Too cramped at its original location, the Art Association considered the idea of moving from Phillips Square to the Golden Square Mile, where the most of the city's financial elite lived at the time, they settled on the site of the abandoned Holton House, on Sherbrooke Street West, for the construction of the new museum.
Senator Robert Mackay, the owner of the property, was convinced to sell the house for a good price. A committee responsible for the construction of the museum was formed consisting of James Ross, Richard B. Angus, Vincent Meredith, Louis-Joseph Forget and David Morrice. Most members of this committee offered a considerable amount of their own money for the construction of the museum; this included a large donation by businessman James Ross. The Phillip's Square location was demolished in 1912, is now a Burger King. A limited architectural design competition was conducted to select an architect among three architectural firms that were invited to apply; the museum committee selected the project proposed by brothers Edward Maxwell and William Sutherland Maxwell. Trained in the Beaux-Arts tradition, they proposed a building that catered to French taste of the time: sober and majestic. Work began in the summer of 1910 and finished in the fall of 1912. On December 9, 1912, the Governor General of Canada, Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and Strathearn, inaugurated the new Museum of the Art Association of Montreal on Sherbrooke Street West in front of 3,000 people present for the occasion.
In 1949, the Art Association of Montreal was renamed as the Montreal Museum of Fine Arts, more representative of the institution's mandate. In 1972, the MMFA became a semi-public institution funded by government funds. An expansion of the museum was undertaken during the 1970s culminating in 1976, with the opening of the Liliane and David M. Stewart Pavilion. Designed by architect Fred Lebensold the building backs directly onto the back of the Michal and Renata Hornstein Pavilion; the building's architecture is modernist, made of concrete structures located along du Musée Avenue and in contrast with the classical architecture of the first pavilion. It was controversial at the time, despite innovations like the ceiling box for a track lighting and large open interior; the pavilion houses nearly 900 decorative design objects. Most objects come from were donated by Liliane and David M. Stewart, hence the name of the pavilion; the collection includes furniture, silverware, textiles and works of industrial design.
These objects were made of a variety materials, reflecting their origins in different countries and time periods. The appointment of Bernard Lamarre in 1982 as president of the board of directors, revitalized the museum after several difficult years. In the
Peter Greenaway, is a British film director and artist. His films are noted for the distinct influence of Renaissance and Baroque painting, Flemish painting in particular. Common traits in his film are the scenic composition and illumination and the contrasts of costume and nudity and architecture, furniture and people, sexual pleasure and painful death. Greenaway was born in Newport, Wales, to a teacher mother and a builder's merchant father. Greenaway's family left South Wales when he was three years old and settled in Essex, he attended Forest School in northeast London. At an early age Greenaway decided on becoming a painter, he became interested in European cinema, focusing first on the films of Ingmar Bergman, on the French nouvelle vague filmmakers such as Jean-Luc Godard and, most Alain Resnais. He now lives in Amsterdam. In 1962, Greenaway began studies at Walthamstow College of Art, where a fellow student was musician Ian Dury. Greenaway trained as a muralist for three years. In 1965, he joined the Central Office of Information, working there fifteen years as a film editor and director.
In that time he created a filmography of experimental films, starting with Train, footage of the last steam trains at Waterloo station, edited to a musique concrète composition. Tree, is a homage to the embattled tree growing in concrete outside the Royal Festival Hall on the South Bank in London. By the 1970s he was confident and ambitious and made Vertical Features Remake and A Walk Through H; the former is an examination of various arithmetical editing structures, the latter is a journey through the maps of a fictitious country. In 1980, Greenaway delivered The Falls – a mammoth, absurdist encyclopaedia of flight-associated material all relating to ninety-two victims of what is referred to as the Violent Unknown Event. In the 1980s, Greenaway's cinema flowered in his best-known films, The Draughtsman's Contract, A Zed & Two Noughts, The Belly of an Architect, Drowning by Numbers, his most successful film, The Cook, the Thief, His Wife & Her Lover. Greenaway's most familiar musical collaborator during this period is composer Michael Nyman, who has scored several films.
In 1989, he collaborated with artist Tom Phillips on a television serial A TV Dante, dramatising the first few cantos of Dante's Inferno. In the 1990s, he presented Prospero's Books, the controversial The Baby of Mâcon, The Pillow Book, 8½ Women. In the early 1990s, Greenaway wrote ten opera libretti known as the Death of a Composer series, dealing with the commonalities of the deaths of ten composers from Anton Webern to John Lennon, the other composers are fictitious, one is a character from The Falls. In 1995, Louis Andriessen completed Rosa -- A Horse Drama, he is professor of cinema studies at the European Graduate School in Saas-Fee, Switzerland. Greenaway presented the ambitious The Tulse Luper Suitcases, a multimedia project that resulted in three films, a website, two books, a touring exhibition, a shorter feature which reworked the material of the first three films, he contributed to Visions of Europe, a short film collection by different European Union directors. Nightwatching and Rembrandt's J'Accuse two films on Rembrandt which were released in 2007 and 2008 respectively.
Nightwatching is the first feature in the series "Dutch Masters", with the next project titled as Goltzius and the Pelican Company. On 17 June 2005, Greenaway appeared for his first VJ performance during an art club evening in Amsterdam, with music by DJ Serge Dodwell, as a backdrop,'VJ' Greenaway used for his set a special system consisting of a large plasma screen with laser controlled touchscreen to project the ninety-two Tulse Luper stories on the twelve screens of "Club 11", mixing the images live; this was reprised at the Optronica festival, London. On 12 October 2007, he created the multimedia installation Peopling the Palaces at Venaria Reale at the Royal Palace of Venaria that animates the Palace with 100 videoprojectors. Greenaway was interviewed for Clive Meyer's Critical Cinema: Beyond the Theory of Practice, voiced strong criticisms of film theory as distinct from discussions of other media: "Are you sufficiently happy with cinema as a thinking medium if you are only talking to one person?"On 3 May 2016, he received a Honoris Causa doctorate from the University of San Martín, Argentina.
In 2006, Greenaway began a series of digital video installations, Nine Classical Paintings Revisited, with his exploration of Rembrandt's Night Watch in the Rijksmuseum in Amsterdam. On 30 June 2008, after much negotiation, Greenaway staged a one-night performance'remixing' da Vinci's The Last Supper in the refectory of Santa Maria delle Grazie in Milan to a select audience of dignitaries; the performance consisted of superimposing digital imagery and projections onto the painting with music from the composer Marco Robino. Greenaway exhibited his digital exploration of The Wedding at Cana by Paolo Veronese as part of the 2009 Venice Biennial. An arts writer for The New York Times called it "possibly the best unmanned art history lecture you'll experience," while acknowledging that some viewers might respond to it as "mediocre art, Disneyfied kitsch o
Fantasia International Film Festival
Fantasia International Film Festival is a genre film festival, based in Montreal since its founding in 1996. Held in July of each year, it is valued by both hardcore genre film fans, distributors, who take advantage of the eclectic line up to select foreign and domestic films for release across North America. By virtue of the reputation developed over the last 15 years, this festival has been described as the "most outstanding and largest genre film festival in North America"; the history of the Fantasia Festival has roots in the Asian Film scene in Montreal. Beginning in 1996 where it screened Asian films from Hong Kong and Anime from Japan, the festival expanded its international repertoire and screened genre films from all across the world. Since this time many world and international premieres have featured at Fantasia fest, including Shaun of the Dead, Perfect Blue, Millennium Actress, Midnight Meat Train, The Sorcerer’s Apprentice and Uzumaki. Among the many North American premieres have included Ringu, Inglourious Basterds, Thirst, We Are What We Are, Visitor Q and Night Watch.
The Creeping Garden was one of the featured films in the 2014 Festival. Fantasia 2012 featured the screenings of the films Toad Road, Doomsday Book, the horror anthology film V/H/S, Hidden in the Woods, Seediq Bale, Quentin Dupieux's Wrong. Fantasia 2011 opened the 2011 edition of the festival with the Canadian Premiere of Red State; the festival featured the presentation to John Landis of a lifetime Achievement award. The Canadian premiere of the director's new film and Hare took place. Notable was the world premiere of the Swedish horror film Marianne, which some had hailed as one of the great discoveries in genre cinema of 2011; the world premiere of Final Destination 5 was part of Fantasia 15. Burke and Hare Red State The Wicker Tree Absentia Morituris Aversion Brawler Deadball Exit Final Destination 5 Love Marianne Rabies Retreat The Devil's Rock The Theatre Bizarre The Whisperer in Darkness If a Tree Falls Zombie Hunter Curse of Chucky Fantasia 2010The films for Fantasia 2010 were announced on Tuesday, June 29, 2010.
Tickets went on sale on July 2010 at 1 pm. The Festival started on July 8, 2010 running until July 28, 2010 with 6 indoor screening venues and one outdoor location. For 2010 a permanent blog was introduced to communicate with fans year-round. Fantasia 2009The films screened at Fantasia 2009 were, among others, Love Exposure, Embodiment of Evil, Vampire Girl vs. Frankenstein Girl, Smash Cut, Trick'r Treat, Must Love Death and Dread; the festival started on July 9 with Takashi Miike Yatterman and ended on July 29, 2009 with the North American premiere of Quentin Tarantino's film Inglourious Basterds. Fantasia 2008The lineup will be announced on Thursday, June 26, 2008. FanTasia 2007The edition was held from July 5 to July 2007 at the Concordia University. In addition to the Hall hall and DeSeve hall, a third screening room has been added at the D. B. Clarke Theatre. There were, no outdoor shows this year. Montreal film Flutter received the award for best Quebec short feature. FanTasia 2006 Fantsasia's 10th anniversary and 10th edition, the 2006 edition, is the first to feature free outdoor shows.
The outdoors shows are free. Outdoor projections included films from the previous editions: Kamikaze Girls, the last four episodes of Goldorak, Night of the Living Dorks and Attack the Gas Station; the indoor shows use the same Concordia University facilities as since the move to Concordia. The outdoor shows are several kilometres away from the indoor shows. With the 10th anniversary, Fantasia is helping to launch an associated but separate Toronto festival Toronto After Dark Film Festival. Fantasia 2005Fantasia is now 10 years old. However, this is the 9th edition of the festival, due to a missed year in 2002; the festival is again held at Concordia University. This year, a trailer-filled DVD is provided as part of the festival guide book and not a separate purchase. Fantasia 2004The 2004 Fantasia was held at Concordia University using the Hall Auditorium and deSeve Cinema. Unlike the 2003 event, no DVD filled with trailers was available. FanTasia 2003 Fantasia 2003 was held for the first time on the Concordia University campus, using the DeSeve Cinema and Henry F. Hall Alumni Auditorium.
The venue change was instigated by the lack of consideration that the Imperial Theatre gave in informing the festival organizers on the status of Imperial. This was the first year that a DVD filled with movie trailers of movies shown at the festival was available for purchase with the festival guide book. FanTasia 2002 Fantasia 2002 was cancelled due to problems with the Imperial Cinema; the air conditioning system was broken, it could not be fixed in time for Fantasia. Indeed, the theatre was not repaired until 2004. Due to the lack of assurance that the theater would be available, the fact that it broke four months before the festival, meant that alternate bookings were not available; the lack of assurance for the 2003 festival meant a change in venue. FanTasia 2001The 2001 edition was the last held in the Imperial Cinema, it was the last time the festival was jointly held with Comedia. FanTasia 2000The 2000 edition of Fantasia featured the debut of the Just For Laughs film festival, Comedia, as a selection of comedy films were shown with the regular Fantasia fare.
This was the final year that a Toronto edition of the festival was presented. Fantasia International Film Festival 1999The 1999 edition of Fantasia was the only one that used the ex-Centris facilities; this year featured the second Toro
Montreal Science Centre
The Montreal Science Centre is a science museum in Montreal, Canada. It is located on the King Edward Pier in the Old Port of Montreal. Established in 2000 and known as the iSci Centre, the museum changed its name to the Montreal Science Centre in 2002; the museum is managed by the Old Port of Montreal Corporation. The museum is home to interactive exhibitions on technology as well as an IMAX theatre. Space for Life, a related museum district situated in and adjacent to Montreal's former Olympic Park Montreal Science Centre
Montreal is the most populous municipality in the Canadian province of Quebec and the second-most populous municipality in Canada. Called Ville-Marie, or "City of Mary", it is named after Mount Royal, the triple-peaked hill in the heart of the city; the city is centred on the Island of Montreal, which took its name from the same source as the city, a few much smaller peripheral islands, the largest of, Île Bizard. It has a distinct four-season continental climate with cold, snowy winters. In 2016, the city had a population of 1,704,694, with a population of 1,942,044 in the urban agglomeration, including all of the other municipalities on the Island of Montreal; the broader metropolitan area had a population of 4,098,927. French is the city's official language and is the language spoken at home by 49.8% of the population of the city, followed by English at 22.8% and 18.3% other languages. In the larger Montreal Census Metropolitan Area, 65.8% of the population speaks French at home, compared to 15.3% who speak English.
The agglomeration Montreal is one of the most bilingual cities in Quebec and Canada, with over 59% of the population able to speak both English and French. Montreal is the second-largest French-speaking city in the world, after Paris, it is situated 258 kilometres south-west of Quebec City. The commercial capital of Canada, Montreal was surpassed in population and in economic strength by Toronto in the 1970s, it remains an important centre of commerce, transport, pharmaceuticals, design, art, tourism, fashion, gaming and world affairs. Montreal has the second-highest number of consulates in North America, serves as the location of the headquarters of the International Civil Aviation Organization, was named a UNESCO City of Design in 2006. In 2017, Montreal was ranked the 12th most liveable city in the world by the Economist Intelligence Unit in its annual Global Liveability Ranking, the best city in the world to be a university student in the QS World University Rankings. Montreal has hosted multiple international conferences and events, including the 1967 International and Universal Exposition and the 1976 Summer Olympics.
It is the only Canadian city to have held the Summer Olympics. In 2018, Montreal was ranked as an Alpha− world city; as of 2016 the city hosts the Canadian Grand Prix of Formula One, the Montreal International Jazz Festival and the Just for Laughs festival. In the Mohawk language, the island is called Tiohtià:ke Tsi, it is a name referring to the Lachine Rapids to the island's Ka-wé-no-te. It means "a place where nations and rivers unite and divide". In the Ojibwe language, the land is called Mooniyaang which means "the first stopping place" and is part of the seven fires prophecy; the city was first named Ville Marie by European settlers from La Flèche, or "City of Mary", named for the Virgin Mary. Its current name comes from the triple-peaked hill in the heart of the city. According to one theory, the name derives from mont Réal,. A possibility by the Government of Canada on its web site concerning Canadian place names, is that the name was adopted as it is written nowadays because an early map of 1556 used the Italian name of the mountain, Monte Real.
Archaeological evidence demonstrates that First Nations native people occupied the island of Montreal as early as 4,000 years ago. By the year AD 1000, they had started to cultivate maize. Within a few hundred years, they had built fortified villages; the Saint Lawrence Iroquoians, an ethnically and culturally distinct group from the Iroquois nations of the Haudenosaunee based in present-day New York, established the village of Hochelaga at the foot of Mount Royal two centuries before the French arrived. Archeologists have found evidence of their habitation there and at other locations in the valley since at least the 14th century; the French explorer Jacques Cartier visited Hochelaga on October 2, 1535, estimated the population of the native people at Hochelaga to be "over a thousand people". Evidence of earlier occupation of the island, such as those uncovered in 1642 during the construction of Fort Ville-Marie, have been removed. Seventy years the French explorer Samuel de Champlain reported that the St Lawrence Iroquoians and their settlements had disappeared altogether from the St Lawrence valley.
This is believed to be due to epidemics of European diseases, or intertribal wars. In 1611 Champlain established a fur trading post on the Island of Montreal, on a site named La Place Royale. At the confluence of Petite Riviere and St. Lawrence River, it is where present-day Pointe-à-Callière stands. On his 1616 map, Samuel de Champlain named the island Lille de Villemenon, in honour of the sieur de Villemenon, a French dignitary, seeking the viceroyship of New France. In 1639 Jérôme Le Royer de La Dauversière obtained the Seigneurial title to the Island of Montreal in the name of the Notre Dame Society of Montreal to establish a Roman Catholic mission to evangelize natives. Dauversiere hired Paul Chomedey de Maisonneuve 30, to lead a group of colonists to build a mission on his new seigneury; the colonists left France in 1641 for Quebec, arrived on the island the following year. On May 17, 1642, Ville-Marie was founded on the southern shore of Montreal is
The McCord Museum is a public research and teaching museum dedicated to the preservation, study and appreciation of Canadian history. The museum, whose full name is McCord Museum of Canadian History, is located next to McGill University, in downtown Montreal, Canada. On October 13, 1921, the McCord National Museum, as it was called, moved to the former McGill Union building, designed by Percy Erskine Nobbs in the Arts and Crafts tradition; the collection was based on the McCord family collection. Since 1878, David Ross McCord had been adding to the considerable collection assembled by his family since their arrival in Canada. Over the years, he developed the plan of founding a national history museum in Montreal, at that time Canada's metropolis; the building that now houses the museum was administered by McGill University for over sixty years, when it was the seat of the student government. After riots targeted at SSMU led to the building's storming and several executives being taken hostage, McGill University set out to build a more secure building, University Center, the current seat of SSMU.
Leading members of the community lent their support to the museum over the years. Today, the McCord Museum is supported by the governments of Canada and Montreal, by a large network of members and sponsors; the museum was founded in 1921 based on his own family collection of objects. Since the museum's holdings have increased substantially; this collection of 15,800 objects documents many aspects of the ways of life, arts and traditions of the Aboriginal people of Canada. It includes a number of objects from communities living in Alaska and the northern United States. In this collection, there are more than 7,300 historical aboriginal objects, dating from the early 1800s to 1945 and more than 8,500 archaeological objects dating from about 10,000 years ago to the 16th century; this collection of 18,845 objects consists of women’s dresses, hats and footwear, many created by some of Montreal’s greatest 20th century designers. The menswear in the collection includes suits and accessories. There is an important selection of embroidered samplers and other textiles, including North America's oldest known patchwork quilt.
This collection includes 1,300,000 photographs and various items of early photographic equipment and accessories. It provides a visual history of Montreal and Canada from the 1840s to the present; the collection contains the William Notman & Son Photographic Studio fond constituting more than 600,000 photographic images dating from 1840 to 1935. The collection includes 700,000 images taken by other photographers; this collection of 69,000 iconographical pieces illustrates the personalities and events that made the history of Montreal and Canada, from the 18th to the 21st centuries. It includes paintings, silhouettes and caricatures from the 19th, 20th and 21st centuries; the 38,900 objects included in this collection documents the material environment within which Montrealers and Canadians lived in past centuries. This collection consists of furniture, ceramics, sculpture, hunting equipment, sports equipment, items of folk art and a major collection of 19th century toys; this collection, which total 262 running meters, includes manuscripts, personal journals and other documents showing the history of Canada from the 18th century to the present.
The documents come from families. The museum's exterior features the sculpture Totem urbain / histoire en dentelle, an allegorical representation of Montreal history, by Pierre Granche; the Museum is affiliated with: CMA, CHIN, Virtual Museum of Canada. Exhibition Catalogue. Wrapped in the Colours of the Earth. Cultural Heritage of the First Nations. McCord Museum. ISBN 1-895615-07-0. Exhibition Catalogue. Form and Fashion. Nineteenth-Century Montreal Dress. McCord Museum. ISBN 1-895615-00-3. Exhibition Catalogue; the McCord Family. A Passionate Vision. McCord Museum. ISBN 978-0-7735-6373-5. Exhibition Catalogue. Eclectic Tastes. Fine and Decorative Arts from the McCord. McCord Museum. ISBN 1-895615-02-X. McCord Museum
Quebec is one of the thirteen provinces and territories of Canada. It is bordered to the west by the province of Ontario and the bodies of water James Bay and Hudson Bay. S. states of Maine, New Hampshire and New York. It shares maritime borders with Nunavut, Prince Edward Island, Nova Scotia. Quebec is Canada's largest province by its second-largest administrative division, it is and politically considered to be part of Central Canada. Quebec is the second-most populous province of Canada, after Ontario, it is the only one to have a predominantly French-speaking population, with French as the sole provincial official language. Most inhabitants live in urban areas near the Saint Lawrence River between Montreal and Quebec City, the capital. Half of Quebec residents live in the Greater Montreal Area, including the Island of Montreal. English-speaking communities and English-language institutions are concentrated in the west of the island of Montreal but are significantly present in the Outaouais, Eastern Townships, Gaspé regions.
The Nord-du-Québec region, occupying the northern half of the province, is sparsely populated and inhabited by Aboriginal peoples. The climate around the major cities is four-seasons continental with cold and snowy winters combined with warm to hot humid summers, but farther north long winter seasons dominate and as a result the northern areas of the province are marked by tundra conditions. In central Quebec, at comparatively southerly latitudes, winters are severe in inland areas. Quebec independence debates have played a large role in the politics of the province. Parti Québécois governments held referendums on sovereignty in 1980 and 1995. Although neither passed, the 1995 referendum saw the highest voter turnout in Quebec history, at over 93%, only failed by less than 1%. In 2006, the House of Commons of Canada passed a symbolic motion recognizing the "Québécois as a nation within a united Canada". While the province's substantial natural resources have long been the mainstay of its economy, sectors of the knowledge economy such as aerospace and communication technologies and the pharmaceutical industry play leading roles.
These many industries have all contributed to helping Quebec become an economically influential province within Canada, second only to Ontario in economic output. The name "Québec", which comes from the Algonquin word kébec meaning "where the river narrows" referred to the area around Quebec City where the Saint Lawrence River narrows to a cliff-lined gap. Early variations in the spelling of the name included Kébec. French explorer Samuel de Champlain chose the name Québec in 1608 for the colonial outpost he would use as the administrative seat for the French colony of New France; the province is sometimes referred to as "La belle province". The Province of Quebec was founded in the Royal Proclamation of 1763 after the Treaty of Paris formally transferred the French colony of Canada to Britain after the Seven Years' War; the proclamation restricted the province to an area along the banks of the Saint Lawrence River. The Quebec Act of 1774 expanded the territory of the province to include the Great Lakes and the Ohio River Valley and south of Rupert's Land, more or less restoring the borders existing under French rule before the Conquest of 1760.
The Treaty of Paris ceded territories south of the Great Lakes to the United States. After the Constitutional Act of 1791, the territory was divided between Lower Canada and Upper Canada, with each being granted an elected legislative assembly. In 1840, these become Canada East and Canada West after the British Parliament unified Upper and Lower Canada into the Province of Canada; this territory was redivided into the Provinces of Quebec and Ontario at Confederation in 1867. Each became one of the first four provinces. In 1870, Canada purchased Rupert's Land from the Hudson's Bay Company and over the next few decades the Parliament of Canada transferred to Quebec portions of this territory that would more than triple the size of the province. In 1898, the Canadian Parliament passed the first Quebec Boundary Extension Act that expanded the provincial boundaries northward to include the lands of the local aboriginal peoples; this was followed by the addition of the District of Ungava through the Quebec Boundaries Extension Act of 1912 that added the northernmost lands of the Inuit to create the modern Province of Quebec.
In 1927, the border between Quebec and Newfoundland and Labrador was established by the British Judicial Committee of the Privy Council. Quebec disputes this boundary. Located in the eastern part of Canada, part of Central Canada, Quebec occupies a territory nearly three times the size of France or Texas, most of, sparsely populated, its topography is different from one region to another due to the varying composition of the ground, the climate, the proximity to water. The Saint Lawrence Lowland and the Appalachians are the two main topographic regions in southern Quebec, while the Canadian Shield occupies most of central and northern Quebec. Quebec has one of the world's largest reserves of fresh water, occupying 12% of its surface, it has 3 % of the world's renewable fresh water. Mor